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Title 10

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Title 10

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Editorial codification of the general and permanent rules published in the Federal Register.

PART 431 - ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT
Authority:

42 U.S.C. 6291-6317; 28 U.S.C. 2461 note.

Source:

64 FR 54141, Oct. 5, 1999, unless otherwise noted.

Subpart A - General Provisions
§ 431.1 Purpose and scope.

This part establishes the regulations for the implementation of provisions relating to commercial and industrial equipment in Part B of Title III of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (42 U.S.C. 6291-6309) and in Part C of Title III of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (42 U.S.C. 6311-6317), which establishes an energy conservation program for certain commercial and industrial equipment.

[70 FR 60414, Oct. 18, 2005]

§ 431.2 Definitions.

The following definitions apply for purposes of this part. Any words or terms not defined in this Section or elsewhere in this part shall be defined as provided in Section 340 of the Act.

Act means the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975, as amended, 42 U.S.C. 6291-6316.

Alternate efficiency determination method or AEDM means a method of calculating the efficiency of a commercial HVAC and WH product, in terms of the descriptor used in or under section 342(a) of the Act to state the energy conservation standard for that product.

Btu means British thermal unit, which is the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water by one degree Fahrenheit.

Commercial HVAC & WH product means any small, large, or very large commercial package air-conditioning and heating equipment, packaged terminal air conditioner, packaged terminal heat pump, single package vertical air conditioner, single package vertical heat pump, computer room air conditioner, variable refrigerant flow multi-split air conditioner, variable refrigerant flow multi-split heat pump, commercial packaged boiler, hot water supply boiler, commercial warm air furnace, instantaneous water heater, storage water heater, or unfired hot water storage tank.

Covered equipment means any electric motor, as defined in § 431.12; commercial heating, ventilating, and air conditioning, and water heating product (HVAC & WH product), as defined in § 431.172; commercial refrigerator, freezer, or refrigerator-freezer, as defined in § 431.62; automatic commercial ice maker, as defined in § 431.132; commercial clothes washer, as defined in § 431.152; distribution transformer, as defined in § 431.192; illuminated exit sign, as defined in § 431.202; traffic signal module or pedestrian module, as defined in § 431.222; unit heater, as defined in § 431.242; commercial prerinse spray valve, as defined in § 431.262; mercury vapor lamp ballast, as defined in § 431.282; refrigerated bottled or canned beverage vending machine, as defined in § 431.292; walk-in cooler and walk-in freezer, as defined in § 431.302; metal halide ballast and metal halide lamp fixture, as defined in § 431.322.

DOE or the Department means the U.S. Department of Energy.

Energy conservation standard means any standards meeting the definitions of that term in 42 U.S.C. 6291(6) and 42 U.S.C. 6311(18) as well as any other water conservation standards and design requirements found in this part or parts 430 or 431.

EPCA means the Energy Policy and Conservation Act, as amended, 42 U.S.C. 6291-6316.

Flue loss means the sum of the sensible heat and latent heat above room temperature of the flue gases leaving the appliance.

Gas means propane or natural gas as defined by the Federal Power Commission.

Import means to import into the customs territory of the United States.

Independent laboratory means a laboratory or test facility not controlled by, affiliated with, having financial ties with, or under common control with the manufacturer or distributor of the covered equipment being evaluated.

Industrial equipment means an article of equipment, regardless of whether it is in fact distributed in commerce for industrial or commercial use, of a type which:

(1) In operation consumes, or is designed to consume energy;

(2) To any significant extent, is distributed in commerce for industrial or commercial use; and

(3) Is not a “covered product” as defined in Section 321(2) of EPCA, 42 U.S.C. 6291(2), other than a component of a covered product with respect to which there is in effect a determination under Section 341(c) of EPCA, 42 U.S.C. 6312(c).

ISO means International Organization for Standardization.

Manufacture means to manufacture, produce, assemble, or import.

Manufacturer means any person who manufactures industrial equipment, including any manufacturer of a commercial packaged boiler.

Manufacturer's model number means the identifier used by a manufacturer to uniquely identify the group of identical or essentially identical commercial equipment to which a particular unit belongs. The manufacturer's model number typically appears on equipment nameplates, in equipment catalogs and in other product advertising literature.

Private labeler means, with respect to any product covered under this part, an owner of a brand or trademark on the label of a covered product which bears a private label. A covered product bears a private label if:

(1) Such product (or its container) is labeled with the brand or trademark of a person other than a manufacturer of such product;

(2) The person with whose brand or trademark such product (or container) is labeled has authorized or caused such product to be so labeled; and

(3) The brand or trademark of a manufacturer of such product does not appear on such label.

Secretary means the Secretary of Energy.

State means a State, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, or any territory or possession of the United States.

State regulation means a law or regulation of a State or political subdivision thereof.

[69 FR 61923, Oct. 21, 2004, as amended at 71 FR 71369, Dec. 8, 2006; 74 FR 12071, Mar. 23, 2009; 75 FR 666, Jan. 5, 2010; 76 FR 12503, Mar. 7, 2011; 77 FR 28987, May 16, 2012; 79 FR 26601, May 9, 2014]

§ 431.3 Error Correction procedure for energy conservation standards rules.

Requests for error corrections pertaining to an energy conservation standard rule for commercial or industrial equipment shall follow those procedures and provisions detailed in 10 CFR 430.5 of this chapter.

[81 FR 57758, Aug. 24, 2016]

§ 431.4 Procedures, interpretations, and policies for consideration of new or revised energy conservation standards and test procedures for commercial/industrial equipment.

The procedures, interpretations, and policies for consideration of new or revised energy conservation standards and test procedures set forth in appendix A to subpart C of part 430 of this chapter shall apply to the consideration of new or revised energy conservation standards and test procedures considered for adoption under this part.

[85 FR 8711, Feb. 14, 2020]

Subpart B - Electric Motors
Source:

69 FR 61923, Oct. 21, 2004, unless otherwise noted.

§ 431.11 Purpose and scope.

This subpart contains energy conservation requirements for electric motors. It contains test procedures that EPCA requires DOE to prescribe, related requirements, energy conservation standards prescribed by EPCA, labeling rules, and compliance procedures. It also identifies materials incorporated by reference in this part. This subpart does not cover “small electric motors,” which are addressed in subpart X of this part.

[77 FR 26633, May 4, 2012]

§ 431.12 Definitions.

The following definitions apply for purposes of this subpart, and of subparts U and V of this part. Any words or terms not defined in this Section or elsewhere in this part shall be defined as provided in Section 340 of the Act.

Accreditation means recognition by an accreditation body that a laboratory is competent to test the efficiency of electric motors according to the scope and procedures given in IEEE 112-2017 Test Method B, CSA C390-10, or IEC 60034-2-1:2014 Method 2-1-1B (incorporated by reference, see § 431.15).

Accreditation body means an organization or entity that conducts and administers an accreditation system and grants accreditation.

Accreditation system means a set of requirements to be fulfilled by a testing laboratory, as well as rules of procedure and management, that are used to accredit laboratories.

Accredited laboratory means a testing laboratory to which accreditation has been granted.

Air-over electric motor means an electric motor rated to operate in and be cooled by the airstream of a fan or blower that is not supplied with the motor and whose primary purpose is providing airflow to an application other than the motor driving it.

Alternative efficiency determination method or AEDM means, with respect to an electric motor, a method of calculating the total power loss and average full load efficiency.

Average full load efficiency means the arithmetic mean of the full load efficiencies of a population of electric motors of duplicate design, where the full load efficiency of each motor in the population is the ratio (expressed as a percentage) of the motor's useful power output to its total power input when the motor is operated at its full rated load, rated voltage, and rated frequency.

Basic model means, with respect to an electric motor, all units of a given type of electric motor (or class thereof) manufactured by a single manufacturer, and which have the same rating, have electrical characteristics that are essentially identical, and do not have any differing physical or functional characteristics which affect energy consumption or efficiency. For the purpose of this definition, “rating” means one of the 113 combinations of an electric motor's horsepower (or standard kilowatt equivalent), number of poles, and open or enclosed construction, with respect to which § 431.25 prescribes nominal full load efficiency standards.

Brake electric motor means a motor that contains a dedicated mechanism for speed reduction, such as a brake, either within or external to the motor enclosure

Certificate of conformity means a document that is issued by a certification program, and that gives written assurance that an electric motor complies with the energy efficiency standard applicable to that motor, as specified in § 431.25.

Certification program means a certification system that determines conformity by electric motors with the energy efficiency standards prescribed by and pursuant to the Act.

Certification system means a system, that has its own rules of procedure and management, for giving written assurance that a product, process, or service conforms to a specific standard or other specified requirements, and that is operated by an entity independent of both the party seeking the written assurance and the party providing the product, process or service.

Component set means a combination of motor parts that require the addition of more than two endshields (and their associated bearings) to create an operable motor. These parts may consist of any combination of a stator frame, wound stator, rotor, shaft, or endshields. For the purpose of this definition, the term “operable motor” means an electric motor engineered for performing in accordance with nameplate ratings.

CSA means Canadian Standards Association.

Definite purpose motor means any motor that cannot be used in most general purpose applications and is designed either:

(1) To standard ratings with standard operating characteristics or standard mechanical construction for use under service conditions other than usual, such as those specified in NEMA MG1-2009, paragraph 14.3, “Unusual Service Conditions,” (incorporated by reference, see § 431.15); or

(2) For use on a particular type of application.

Definite purpose electric motor means any electric motor that cannot be used in most general purpose applications and is designed either:

(1) To standard ratings with standard operating characteristics or standard mechanical construction for use under service conditions other than usual, such as those specified in NEMA MG1-2009, paragraph 14.3, “Unusual Service Conditions,” (incorporated by reference, see § 431.15); or

(2) For use on a particular type of application.

Electric motor means a machine that converts electrical power into rotational mechanical power.

Electric motor with encapsulated windings means an electric motor capable of passing the conformance test for water resistance described in NEMA MG 1-2009, paragraph 12.62 (incorporated by reference, see § 431.15).

Electric motor with moisture resistant windings means an electric motor that is capable of passing the conformance test for moisture resistance generally described in NEMA MG 1-2009, paragraph 12.63 (incorporated by reference, see § 431.15).

Electric motor with sealed windings means an electric motor capable of passing the conformance test for water resistance described in NEMA MG 1-2009, paragraph 12.62 (incorporated by reference, see § 431.15).

Enclosed motor means an electric motor so constructed as to prevent the free exchange of air between the inside and outside of the case but not sufficiently enclosed to be termed airtight.

Fire pump electric motor means an electric motor, including any IEC-equivalent, that meets the requirements of section 9.5 of NFPA 20 (incorporated by reference, see § 431.15).

General purpose electric motor means any electric motor that is designed in standard ratings with either:

(1) Standard operating characteristics and mechanical construction for use under usual service conditions, such as those specified in NEMA MG1-2009, paragraph 14.2, “Usual Service Conditions,” (incorporated by reference, see § 431.15) and without restriction to a particular application or type of application; or

(2) Standard operating characteristics or standard mechanical construction for use under unusual service conditions, such as those specified in NEMA MG1-2009, paragraph 14.3, “Unusual Service Conditions,” (incorporated by reference, see § 431.15) or for a particular type of application, and which can be used in most general purpose applications.

General purpose electric motor (subtype I) means a general purpose electric motor that:

(1) Is a single-speed, induction motor;

(2) Is rated for continuous duty (MG1) operation or for duty type S1 (IEC);

(3) Contains a squirrel-cage (MG1) or cage (IEC) rotor;

(4) Has foot-mounting that may include foot-mounting with flanges or detachable feet;

(5) Is built in accordance with NEMA T-frame dimensions or their IEC metric equivalents, including a frame size that is between two consecutive NEMA frame sizes or their IEC metric equivalents;

(6) Has performance in accordance with NEMA Design A (MG1) or B (MG1) characteristics or equivalent designs such as IEC Design N (IEC);

(7) Operates on polyphase alternating current 60-hertz sinusoidal power, and:

(i) Is rated at 230 or 460 volts (or both) including motors rated at multiple voltages that include 230 or 460 volts (or both), or

(ii) Can be operated on 230 or 460 volts (or both); and

(8) Includes, but is not limited to, explosion-proof construction.

Note to definition of General purpose electric motor (subtype I):

References to “MG1” above refer to NEMA Standards Publication MG1-2009 (incorporated by reference in § 431.15). References to “IEC” above refer to IEC 60034-1, 60034-12, 60050-411, and 60072-1 (incorporated by reference in § 431.15), as applicable.

General purpose electric motor (subtype II) means any general purpose electric motor that incorporates design elements of a general purpose electric motor (subtype I) but, unlike a general purpose electric motor (subtype I), is configured in one or more of the following ways:

(1) Is built in accordance with NEMA U-frame dimensions as described in NEMA MG1-1967 (incorporated by reference, see § 431.15) or in accordance with the IEC metric equivalents, including a frame size that is between two consecutive NEMA frame sizes or their IEC metric equivalents;

(2) Has performance in accordance with NEMA Design C characteristics as described in MG1 or an equivalent IEC design(s) such as IEC Design H;

(3) Is a close-coupled pump motor;

(4) Is a footless motor;

(5) Is a vertical solid shaft normal thrust motor (as tested in a horizontal configuration) built and designed in a manner consistent with MG1;

(6) Is an eight-pole motor (900 rpm); or

(7) Is a polyphase motor with a voltage rating of not more than 600 volts, is not rated at 230 or 460 volts (or both), and cannot be operated on 230 or 460 volts (or both).

Note to definition of General purpose electric motor (subtype II):

With the exception of the NEMA Motor Standards MG1-1967 (incorporated by reference in § 431.15), references to “MG1” above refer to the 2009 NEMA MG1-2009 (incorporated by reference in § 431.15). References to “IEC” above refer to IEC 60034-1, 60034-12, 60050-411, and 60072-1 (incorporated by reference in § 431.15), as applicable.

IEC means the International Electrotechnical Commission.

IEC Design H motor means an electric motor that

(1) Is an induction motor designed for use with three-phase power;

(2) Contains a cage rotor;

(3) Is capable of direct-on-line starting

(4) Has 4, 6, or 8 poles;

(5) Is rated from 0.4 kW to 1600 kW at a frequency of 60 Hz; and

(6) Conforms to sections 8.1, 8.2, and 8.3 of the IEC 60034-12 edition 2.1 (incorporated by reference, see § 431.15) requirements for starting torque, locked rotor apparent power, and starting.

IEC Design N motor means an electric motor that:

(1) Is an induction motor designed for use with three-phase power;

(2) Contains a cage rotor;

(3) Is capable of direct-on-line starting;

(4) Has 2, 4, 6, or 8 poles;

(5) Is rated from 0.4 kW to 1600 kW at a frequency of 60 Hz; and

(6) Conforms to sections 6.1, 6.2, and 6.3 of the IEC 60034-12 edition 2.1 (incorporated by reference, see § 431.15) requirements for torque characteristics, locked rotor apparent power, and starting.

IEEE means the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.

Immersible electric motor means an electric motor primarily designed to operate continuously in free-air, but is also capable of temporarily withstanding complete immersion in liquid for a continuous period of no less than 30 minutes.

Inverter-capable electric motor means an electric motor designed to be directly connected to polyphase, sinusoidal line power, but that is also capable of continuous operation on an inverter drive over a limited speed range and associated load.

Inverter-only electric motor means an electric motor that is capable of rated operation solely with an inverter, and is not intended for operation when directly connected to polyphase, sinusoidal line power.

Liquid-cooled electric motor means a motor that is cooled by liquid circulated using a designated cooling apparatus such that the liquid or liquid-filled conductors come into direct contact with the parts of the motor.

NEMA means the National Electrical Manufacturers Association.

NEMA Design A motor means a squirrel-cage motor that:

(1) Is designed to withstand full-voltage starting and developing locked-rotor torque as shown in NEMA MG 1-2009, paragraph 12.38.1 (incorporated by reference, see § 431.15);

(2) Has pull-up torque not less than the values shown in NEMA MG 1-2009, paragraph 12.40.1;

(3) Has breakdown torque not less than the values shown in NEMA MG 1-2009, paragraph 12.39.1;

(4) Has a locked-rotor current higher than the values shown in NEMA MG 1-2009, paragraph 12.35.1 for 60 hertz and NEMA MG 1-2009, paragraph 12.35.2 for 50 hertz; and

(5) Has a slip at rated load of less than 5 percent for motors with fewer than 10 poles.

NEMA Design B motor means a squirrel-cage motor that is:

(1) Designed to withstand full-voltage starting;

(2) Develops locked-rotor, breakdown, and pull-up torques adequate for general application as specified in sections 12.38, 12.39 and 12.40 of NEMA MG1-2009 (incorporated by reference, see § 431.15);

(3) Draws locked-rotor current not to exceed the values shown in section 12.35.1 for 60 hertz and 12.35.2 for 50 hertz of NEMA MG1-2009; and

(4) Has a slip at rated load of less than 5 percent for motors with fewer than 10 poles.

NEMA Design C motor means a squirrel-cage motor that:

(1) Is Designed to withstand full-voltage starting and developing locked-rotor torque for high-torque applications up to the values shown in NEMA MG1-2009, paragraph 12.38.2 (incorporated by reference, see § 431.15);

(2) Has pull-up torque not less than the values shown in NEMA MG1-2009, paragraph 12.40.2;

(3) Has breakdown torque not less than the values shown in NEMA MG1-2009, paragraph 12.39.2;

(4) Has a locked-rotor current not to exceed the values shown in NEMA MG1-2009, paragraphs 12.35.1 for 60 hertz and 12.35.2 for 50 hertz; and

(5) Has a slip at rated load of less than 5 percent.

Nominal full-load efficiency means, with respect to an electric motor, a representative value of efficiency selected from the “nominal efficiency” column of Table 12-10, NEMA MG1-2009, (incorporated by reference, see § 431.15), that is not greater than the average full-load efficiency of a population of motors of the same design.

Open motor means an electric motor having ventilating openings which permit passage of external cooling air over and around the windings of the machine.

Partial electric motor means an assembly of motor components necessitating the addition of no more than two endshields, including bearings, to create an electric motor capable of operation in accordance with the applicable nameplate ratings.

Special purpose motor means any motor, other than a general purpose motor or definite purpose motor, which has special operating characteristics or special mechanical construction, or both, designed for a particular application.

Special purpose electric motor means any electric motor, other than a general purpose motor or definite electric purpose motor, which has special operating characteristics or special mechanical construction, or both, designed for a particular application.

Submersible electric motor means an electric motor that:

(1) Is intended to operate continuously only while submerged in liquid;

(2) Is capable of operation while submerged in liquid for an indefinite period of time; and

(3) Has been sealed to prevent ingress of liquid from contacting the motor's internal parts.

Total power loss means that portion of the energy used by an electric motor not converted to rotational mechanical power, expressed in percent.

Totally enclosed non-ventilated (TENV) electric motor means an electric motor that is built in a frame-surface cooled, totally enclosed configuration that is designed and equipped to be cooled only by free convection.

[69 FR 61923, Oct. 21, 2004, as amended at 74 FR 12071, Mar. 23, 2009; 77 FR 26633, May 4, 2012; 78 FR 75993, Dec. 13, 2013; 79 FR 31009, May 29, 2014; 86 FR 21, Jan. 4, 2021]

Test Procedures, Materials Incorporated and Methods of Determining Efficiency
§ 431.14 Sources for information and guidance.

(a) General. The standards listed in this paragraph are referred to in the DOE procedures for testing laboratories, and recognition of accreditation bodies and certification programs but are not incorporated by reference. These sources are given here for information and guidance.

(b) NVLAP. National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program, National Institute of Standards and Technology, 100 Bureau Drive, M/S 2140, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-2140, 301-975-4016, or go to http://www.nist.gov/nvlap/. Also see http://www.nist.gov/nvlap/nvlap-handbooks.cfm.

(1) NVLAP Handbook 150, Procedures and General Requirements, February 2006.

(2) NVLAP Handbook 150-10, Efficiency of Electric Motors, February 2007.

(3) NIST Handbook 150-10 Checklist, Efficiency of Electric Motors Program, (2007-05-04).

(4) NVLAP Lab Bulletin Number: LB-42-2009, Changes to NVLAP Efficiency of Electric Motors Program, March 19, 2009.

(c) ISO/IEC. International Organization for Standardization (ISO), 1, ch. de la Voie-Creuse, CP 56, CH- 1211 Geneva 20, Switzerland/International Electrotechnical Commission, 3, rue de Varembé, P.O. Box 131, CH-1211 Geneva 20, Switzerland.

(1) ISO/IEC Guide 25, General requirements for the competence of calibration and testing laboratories, 1990.

(2) ISO Guide 27, Guidelines for corrective action to be taken by a certification body in the event of either misapplication of its mark of conformity to a product, or products which bear the mark of the certification body being found to subject persons or property to risk, 1983.

(3) ISO/IEC Guide 28, General rules for a model third-party certification system for products, 2004.

(4) ISO/IEC Guide 58, Calibration and testing laboratory accreditation systems - General requirements for operation and recognition, 1993.

(5) ISO/IEC Guide 65, General requirements for bodies operating product certification systems, 1996.

[77 FR 26634, May 4, 2012]

§ 431.15 Materials incorporated by reference.

(a) General. Certain material is incorporated by reference into this subpart with the approval of the Director of the Federal Register under 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. To enforce any edition other than that specified in this section, the Department of Energy must publish a document in the Federal Register and the material must be available to the public. Standards can be obtained from the sources below. All approved material is available for inspection at U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, Sixth Floor, 950 L'Enfant Plaza SW, Washington, DC 20024, (202) 586-2945, or go to http://www1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/appliance_standards/. It is also available at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of this material at NARA, email: , or go to: www.archives.gov/federal-register/cfr/ibr-locations.html.

(b) CSA. Canadian Standards Association, Sales Department, 5060 Spectrum Way, Suite 100, Mississauga, Ontario, L4W 5N6, Canada, 1-800-463-6727, or go to http://www.shopcsa.ca/onlinestore/welcome.asp.

(1) CSA C390-10, Test methods, marking requirements, and energy efficiency levels for three-phase induction motors, March 2010, IBR approved for §§ 431.12; 431.19; 431.20; appendix B to this subpart.

(2) [Reserved]

(c) IEC. International Electrotechnical Commission Central Office, 3, rue de Varembé, P.O. Box 131, CH-1211 GENEVA 20, Switzerland, + 41 22 919 02 11, or go to http://webstore.iec.ch.

(1) IEC 60034-1 Edition 12.0 2010-02, (“IEC 60034-1”), Rotating Electrical Machines, Part 1: Rating and Performance, February 2010, IBR approved as follows: section 4: Duty, clause 4.2.1 and Figure 1, IBR approved for § 431.12.

(2) IEC 60034-1, Edition 12.0 2010-02, (“IEC 60034-1:2010”), Rotating Electrical Machines - Part 1: Rating and Performance, IBR approved for appendix B to this subpart.

(3) IEC 60034-2-1:2014, Edition 2.0 2014-06, (“IEC 60034-2-1:2014”), Rotating electrical machines - Part 2-1: Standard methods for determining losses and efficiency from tests (excluding machines for traction vehicles), IBR approved for §§ 431.12; 431.19; 431.20; appendix B to this subpart.

(4) IEC 60034-12 Edition 2.1 2007-09, (“IEC 60034-12”), Rotating Electrical Machines, Part 12: Starting Performance of Single-Speed Three-Phase Cage Induction Motors, September 2007, IBR approved as follows: clauses 5.2, 5.4, 6, and 8, and Tables 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7, IBR approved for § 431.12.

(5) IEC 60050-411, International Electrotechnical Vocabulary Chapter 411: Rotating machines, 1996, IBR approved as follows: sections 411-33-07 and 411-37-26, IBR approved for § 431.12.

(6) IEC 60051-1:2016, Edition 6.0 2016-02, (“IEC 60051-1:2016”), Direct acting indicating analogue electrical measuring instruments and their accessories - Part 1: Definitions and general requirements common to all parts, IBR approved for appendix B to this subpart.

(7) IEC 60072-1, Dimensions and Output Series for Rotating Electrical Machines - Part 1: Frame numbers 56 to 400 and flange numbers 55 to 1080, 1991, IBR approved as follows: clauses 2, 3, 4.1, 6.1, 7, and 10, and Tables 1, 2 and 4, IBR approved for § 431.12.

(d) IEEE. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., 445 Hoes Lane, P.O. Box 1331, Piscataway, NJ 08855-1331, 1-800-678-IEEE (4333), or http://www.ieee.org/web/publications/home/index.html.

(1) IEEE 112TM-2017 (“IEEE 112-2017”), IEEE Standard Test Procedure for Polyphase Induction Motors and Generators, approved December 6, 2017, IBR approved for §§ 431.12; 431.19; 431.20; appendix B to this subpart.

(2) [Reserved]

(e) NEMA. National Electrical Manufacturers Association, 1300 North 17th Street, Suite 1752, Rosslyn, Virginia 22209, 703-841-3200, or go to http://www.nema.org/.

(1) NEMA Standards Publication MG1-2009 (“NEMA MG1-2009”), Motors and Generators, copyright 2009, IBR approved as follows:

(i) Section I, General Standards Applying to All Machines, Part 1, Referenced Standards and Definitions, paragraphs 1.18.1, 1.18.1.1, 1.19.1.1, 1.19.1.2, 1.19.1.3, and 1.40.1, IBR approved for § 431.12;

(ii) Section I, General Standards Applying to All Machines, Part 4, Dimensions, Tolerances, and Mounting, paragraphs 4.1, 4.2.1, 4.2.2, 4.4.1, 4.4.2, 4.4.4, 4.4.5, and 4.4.6, Figures 4-1, 4-2, 4-3, 4-4, and 4-5, and Table 4-2, IBR approved for § 431.12;

(iii) Section II, Small (Fractional) and Medium (Integral) Machines, Part 12, Tests and Performance - AC and DC Motors:

(A) Paragraphs 12.35.1, 12.35.2, 12.38.1, 12.38.2, 12.39.1, 12.39.2, and 12.40.1, 12.40.2, and Tables 12-2, 12-3, and 12-10, IBR approved for § 431.12;

(B) Paragraph 12.58.1, IBR approved for § 431.12 and appendix B to this subpart;

(C) Paragraph 12.58.2, IBR approved for § 431.31.

(D) Paragraphs 12.62 and 12.63, IBR approved for § 431.12.

(iv) Section II, Small (Fractional) and Medium (Integral) Machines, Part 14, Application Data - AC and DC Small and Medium Machines, paragraphs 14.2 and 14.3, IBR approved for § 431.12.

(2) NEMA Standards Publication MG1-1967, (“NEMA MG1-1967”), Motors and Generators, January 1968, IBR approved as follows:

(i) Part 11, Dimensions, IBR approved for § 431.12;

(ii) Part 13, Frame Assignments - A-C Integral-Horsepower Motors, IBR approved for § 431.12.

(f) NFPA. National Fire Protection Association, 1 Batterymarch Park, Quincy, MA 02169-7471, 617-770-3000, or go to http://nfpa.org/.

(1) NFPA 20, 2010 Edition, Standard for the Installation of Stationary Pumps for Fire Protection, section 9.5, IBR approved for § 431.12.

(2) (Reserved)

[77 FR 26634, May 4, 2012, as amended at 78 FR 75994, Dec. 13, 2013; 86 FR 21, Jan. 4, 2021]

§ 431.16 Test procedures for the measurement of energy efficiency.

For purposes of 10 CFR part 431 and EPCA, the test procedures for measuring the energy efficiency of an electric motor shall be the test procedures specified in appendix B to this subpart B.

§ 431.17 Determination of efficiency.

When a party determines the energy efficiency of an electric motor in order to comply with an obligation imposed on it by or pursuant to Part C of Title III of EPCA, 42 U.S.C. 6311-6316, this Section applies. This section does not apply to enforcement testing conducted pursuant to § 431.192.

(a) Provisions applicable to all electric motors -

(1) General requirements. The average full load efficiency of each basic model of electric motor must be determined either by testing in accordance with § 431.16 of this subpart, or by application of an alternative efficiency determination method (AEDM) that meets the requirements of paragraphs (a)(2) and (3) of this section, provided, however, that an AEDM may be used to determine the average full load efficiency of one or more of a manufacturer's basic models only if the average full load efficiency of at least five of its other basic models is determined through testing.

(2) Alternative efficiency determination method. An AEDM applied to a basic model must be:

(i) Derived from a mathematical model that represents the mechanical and electrical characteristics of that basic model, and

(ii) Based on engineering or statistical analysis, computer simulation or modeling, or other analytic evaluation of performance data.

(3) Substantiation of an alternative efficiency determination method. Before an AEDM is used, its accuracy and reliability must be substantiated as follows:

(i) The AEDM must be applied to at least five basic models that have been tested in accordance with § 431.16, and

(ii) The predicted total power loss for each such basic model, calculated by applying the AEDM, must be within plus or minus ten percent of the mean total power loss determined from the testing of that basic model.

(4) Subsequent verification of an AEDM.

(i) Each manufacturer shall periodically select basic models representative of those to which it has applied an AEDM, and for each basic model selected shall either:

(A) Subject a sample of units to testing in accordance with §§ 431.16 and 431.17(b)(2) by an accredited laboratory that meets the requirements of § 431.18;

(B) Have a certification body recognized under § 431.20 certify its nominal full load efficiency; or

(C) Have an independent state-registered professional engineer, who is qualified to perform an evaluation of electric motor efficiency in a highly competent manner and who is not an employee of the manufacturer, review the manufacturer's representations and certify that the results of the AEDM accurately represent the total power loss and nominal full load efficiency of the basic model.

(ii) Each manufacturer that has used an AEDM under this section shall have available for inspection by the Department of Energy records showing: the method or methods used; the mathematical model, the engineering or statistical analysis, computer simulation or modeling, and other analytic evaluation of performance data on which the AEDM is based; complete test data, product information, and related information that the manufacturer has generated or acquired pursuant to paragraphs (a)(3) and (a)(4)(i) of this section; and the calculations used to determine the average full load efficiency and total power losses of each basic model to which the AEDM was applied.

(iii) If requested by the Department, the manufacturer shall conduct simulations to predict the performance of particular basic models of electric motors specified by the Department, analyses of previous simulations conducted by the manufacturer, sample testing of basic models selected by the Department, or a combination of the foregoing.

(5) Use of a certification program or accredited laboratory.

(i) A manufacturer may have a certification program, that DOE has classified as nationally recognized under § 431.20, certify the nominal full load efficiency of a basic model of electric motor, and issue a certificate of conformity for the motor.

(ii) For each basic model for which a certification program is not used as described in paragraph (a)(5)(i) of this section, any testing of the motor pursuant to paragraphs (a)(1) through (3) of this section to determine its energy efficiency must be carried out in accordance with paragraph (b) of this section, in an accredited laboratory that meets the requirements of § 431.18. (This includes testing of the basic model, pursuant to paragraph (a)(3)(i) of this section, to substantiate an AEDM.)

(b) Additional testing requirements applicable when a certification program is not used -

(1) Selection of basic models for testing.

(i) Basic models must be selected for testing in accordance with the following criteria:

(A) Two of the basic models must be among the five basic models with the highest unit volumes of production by the manufacturer in the prior year, or during the prior 12 calendar month period beginning in 1997,[1] whichever is later;

(B) The basic models should be of different horsepowers without duplication;

(C) The basic models should be of different frame number series without duplication; and

(D) Each basic model should be expected to have the lowest nominal full load efficiency among the basic models with the same rating (“rating” as used here has the same meaning as it has in the definition of “basic model”).

(ii) In any instance where it is impossible for a manufacturer to select basic models for testing in accordance with all of these criteria, the criteria shall be given priority in the order in which they are listed. Within the limits imposed by the criteria, basic models shall be selected randomly.

(2) Selection of units for testing. For each basic model selected for testing,[2] a sample of units shall be selected at random and tested. The sample shall be comprised of production units of the basic model, or units that are representative of such production units. The sample size shall be not fewer than five units, except that when fewer than five units of a basic model would be produced over a reasonable period of time (approximately 180 days), then each unit shall be tested. In a test of compliance with a represented average or nominal efficiency:

(i) The average full-load efficiency of the sample X which is defined by

where Xi is the measured full-load efficiency of unit i and n is the number of units tested, shall satisfy the condition:

where RE is the represented nominal full-load efficiency, and

(ii) The lowest full-load efficiency in the sample Xmin, which is defined by

shall satisfy the condition

(3) Substantiation of an alternative efficiency determination method. The basic models tested under § 431.17(a)(3)(i) must be selected for testing in accordance with paragraph (b)(1) of this section, and units of each such basic model must be tested in accordance with paragraph (b)(2) of this section by an accredited laboratory that meets the requirements of § 431.18.

§ 431.18 Testing laboratories.

(a) Testing pursuant to § 431.17(a)(5)(ii) must be conducted in an accredited laboratory for which the accreditation body was:

(1) The National Institute of Standards and Technology/National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program (NIST/NVLAP); or

(2) A laboratory accreditation body having a mutual recognition arrangement with NIST/NVLAP; or

(3) An organization classified by the Department, pursuant to § 431.19, as an accreditation body.

(b) NIST/NVLAP is under the auspices of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)/National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program (NVLAP), which is part of the U.S. Department of Commerce. NIST/NVLAP accreditation is granted on the basis of conformance with criteria published in 15 CFR Part 285. The National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program, “Procedures and General Requirements,” NIST Handbook 150-10, February 2007, and Lab Bulletin LB-42-2009, Efficiency of Electric Motors Program, (referenced for guidance only, see § 431.14) present the technical requirements of NVLAP for the Efficiency of Electric Motors field of accreditation. This handbook supplements NIST Handbook 150, National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program “Procedures and General Requirements,” which contains 15 CFR part 285 plus all general NIST/NVLAP procedures, criteria, and policies. Information regarding NIST/NVLAP and its Efficiency of Electric Motors Program (EEM) can be obtained from NIST/NVLAP, 100 Bureau Drive, Mail Stop 2140, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-2140, (301) 975-4016 (telephone), or (301) 926-2884 (fax).

[69 FR 61923, Oct. 21, 2004, as amended at 77 FR 26635, May 4, 2012]

§ 431.19 Department of Energy recognition of accreditation bodies.

(a) Petition. To be classified by the Department of Energy as an accreditation body, an organization must submit a petition to the Department requesting such classification, in accordance with paragraph (c) of this section and § 431.21. The petition must demonstrate that the organization meets the criteria in paragraph (b) of this section.

(b) Evaluation criteria. To be classified as an accreditation body by the Department, the organization must meet the following criteria:

(1) It must have satisfactory standards and procedures for conducting and administering an accreditation system and for granting accreditation. This must include provisions for periodic audits to verify that the laboratories receiving its accreditation continue to conform to the criteria by which they were initially accredited, and for withdrawal of accreditation where such conformance does not occur, including failure to provide accurate test results.

(2) It must be independent of electric motor manufacturers, importers, distributors, private labelers or vendors. It cannot be affiliated with, have financial ties with, be controlled by, or be under common control with any such entity.

(3) It must be qualified to perform the accrediting function in a highly competent manner.

(4) It must be expert in the content and application of the test procedures and methodologies in IEEE 112-2017 Test Method B, CSA C390-10, or IEC 60034-2-1:2014 Method 2-1-1B, (incorporated by reference, see § 431.15).

(c) Petition format. Each petition requesting classification as an accreditation body must contain a narrative statement as to why the organization meets the criteria set forth in paragraph (b) of this section, must be signed on behalf of the organization by an authorized representative, and must be accompanied by documentation that supports the narrative statement. The following provides additional guidance:

(1) Standards and procedures. A copy of the organization's standards and procedures for operating an accreditation system and for granting accreditation should accompany the petition.

(2) Independent status. The petitioning organization should identify and describe any relationship, direct or indirect, that it has with an electric motor manufacturer, importer, distributor, private labeler, vendor, trade association or other such entity, as well as any other relationship it believes might appear to create a conflict of interest for it in performing as an accreditation body for electric motor testing laboratories. It should explain why it believes such relationship(s) would not compromise its independence as an accreditation body.

(3) Qualifications to do accrediting. Experience in accrediting should be discussed and substantiated by supporting documents. Of particular relevance would be documentary evidence that establishes experience in the application of guidelines contained in the ISO/IEC Guide 58, Calibration and testing laboratory accreditation systems - General requirements for operation and recognition, as well as experience in overseeing compliance with the guidelines contained in the ISO/IEC Guide 25, General Requirements for the Competence of Calibration and Testing Laboratories (referenced for guidance only, see § 431.14).

(4) Expertise in electric motor test procedures. The petition should set forth the organization's experience with the test procedures and methodologies in IEEE 112-2017 Test Method B, CSA C390-10, or IEC 60034-2-1:2014 Method 2-1-1B, (incorporated by reference, see § 431.15). This part of the petition should include items such as, but not limited to, a description of prior projects and qualifications of staff members. Of particular relevance would be documentary evidence that establishes experience in applying the guidelines contained in the ISO/IEC Guide 25, General Requirements for the Competence of Calibration and Testing Laboratories, (referenced for guidance only, see § 431.14) to energy efficiency testing for electric motors.

(d) Disposition. The Department will evaluate the petition in accordance with § 431.21, and will determine whether the applicant meets the criteria in paragraph (b) of this section to be classified as an accrediting body.

[69 FR 61923, Oct. 21, 2004, as amended at 77 FR 26635, May 4, 2012; 86 FR 21, Jan. 4, 2021]

§ 431.20 Department of Energy recognition of nationally recognized certification programs.

(a) Petition. For a certification program to be classified by the Department of Energy as being nationally recognized in the United States for the purposes of Section 345(c) of EPCA (“nationally recognized”), the organization operating the program must submit a petition to the Department requesting such classification, in accordance with paragraph (c) of this Section and § 431.21. The petition must demonstrate that the program meets the criteria in paragraph (b) of this section.

(b) Evaluation criteria. For a certification program to be classified by the Department as nationally recognized, it must meet the following criteria:

(1) It must have satisfactory standards and procedures for conducting and administering a certification system, including periodic follow up activities to assure that basic models of electric motor continue to conform to the efficiency levels for which they were certified, and for granting a certificate of conformity.

(2) It must be independent of electric motor manufacturers, importers, distributors, private labelers or vendors. It cannot be affiliated with, have financial ties with, be controlled by, or be under common control with any such entity.

(3) It must be qualified to operate a certification system in a highly competent manner.

(4) It must be expert in the content and application of the test procedures and methodologies in IEEE 112-2017 Test Method B, CSA C390-10, or IEC 60034-2-1:2014 Method 2-1-1B, (incorporated by reference, see § 431.15). It must have satisfactory criteria and procedures for the selection and sampling of electric motors tested for energy efficiency.

(c) Petition format. Each petition requesting classification as a nationally recognized certification program must contain a narrative statement as to why the program meets the criteria listed in paragraph (b) of this section, must be signed on behalf of the organization operating the program by an authorized representative, and must be accompanied by documentation that supports the narrative statement. The following provides additional guidance as to the specific criteria:

(1) Standards and procedures. A copy of the standards and procedures for operating a certification system and for granting a certificate of conformity should accompany the petition.

(2) Independent status. The petitioning organization should identify and describe any relationship, direct or indirect, that it or the certification program has with an electric motor manufacturer, importer, distributor, private labeler, vendor, trade association or other such entity, as well as any other relationship it believes might appear to create a conflict of interest for the certification program in operating a certification system for compliance by electric motors with energy efficiency standards. It should explain why it believes such relationship would not compromise its independence in operating a certification program.

(3) Qualifications to operate a certification system. Experience in operating a certification system should be discussed and substantiated by supporting documents. Of particular relevance would be documentary evidence that establishes experience in the application of guidelines contained in the ISO/IEC Guide 65, General requirements for bodies operating product certification systems, ISO/IEC Guide 27, Guidelines for corrective action to be taken by a certification body in the event of either misapplication of its mark of conformity to a product, or products which bear the mark of the certification body being found to subject persons or property to risk, and ISO/IEC Guide 28, General rules for a model third-party certification system for products, as well as experience in overseeing compliance with the guidelines contained in the ISO/IEC Guide 25, General requirements for the competence of calibration and testing laboratories (referenced for guidance only, see § 431.14).

(4) Expertise in electric motor test procedures. The petition should set forth the program's experience with the test procedures and methodologies in IEEE 112-2017 Test Method B, CSA C390-10, or IEC 60034-2-1:2014 Method 2-1-1B, (incorporated by reference, see § 431.15). This part of the petition should include items such as, but not limited to, a description of prior projects and qualifications of staff members. Of particular relevance would be documentary evidence that establishes experience in applying guidelines contained in the ISO/IEC Guide 25, General Requirements for the Competence of Calibration and Testing Laboratories (referenced for guidance only, see 431.14) to energy efficiency testing for electric motors.

(d) Disposition. The Department will evaluate the petition in accordance with § 431.21, and will determine whether the applicant meets the criteria in paragraph (b) of this section for classification as a nationally recognized certification program.

[69 FR 61923, Oct. 21, 2004, as amended at 77 FR 26635, May 4, 2012; 86 FR 22, Jan. 4, 2021]

§ 431.21 Procedures for recognition and withdrawal of recognition of accreditation bodies and certification programs.

(a) Filing of petition. Any petition submitted to the Department pursuant to §§ 431.19(a) or 431.20(a), shall be entitled “Petition for Recognition” (“Petition”) and must be submitted, in triplicate to the Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, U.S. Department of Energy, Forrestal Building, 1000 Independence Avenue, SW., Washington, DC 20585-0121. In accordance with the provisions set forth in 10 CFR 1004.11, any request for confidential treatment of any information contained in such a Petition or in supporting documentation must be accompanied by a copy of the Petition or supporting documentation from which the information claimed to be confidential has been deleted.

(b) Public notice and solicitation of comments. DOE shall publish in the Federal Register the Petition from which confidential information, as determined by DOE, has been deleted in accordance with 10 CFR 1004.11 and shall solicit comments, data and information on whether the Petition should be granted. The Department shall also make available for inspection and copying the Petition's supporting documentation from which confidential information, as determined by DOE, has been deleted in accordance with 10 CFR 1004.11. Any person submitting written comments to DOE with respect to a Petition shall also send a copy of such comments to the petitioner.

(c) Responsive statement by the petitioner. A petitioner may, within 10 working days of receipt of a copy of any comments submitted in accordance with paragraph (b) of this section, respond to such comments in a written statement submitted to the Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. A petitioner may address more than one set of comments in a single responsive statement.

(d) Public announcement of interim determination and solicitation of comments. The Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy shall issue an interim determination on the Petition as soon as is practicable following receipt and review of the Petition and other applicable documents, including, but not limited to, comments and responses to comments. The petitioner shall be notified in writing of the interim determination. DOE shall also publish in the Federal Register the interim determination and shall solicit comments, data and information with respect to that interim determination. Written comments and responsive statements may be submitted as provided in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section.

(e) Public announcement of final determination. The Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy shall as soon as practicable, following receipt and review of comments and responsive statements on the interim determination, publish in the Federal Register a notice of final determination on the Petition.

(f) Additional information. The Department may, at any time during the recognition process, request additional relevant information or conduct an investigation concerning the Petition. The Department's determination on a Petition may be based solely on the Petition and supporting documents, or may also be based on such additional information as the Department deems appropriate.

(g) Withdrawal of recognition -

(1) Withdrawal by the Department. If the Department believes that an accreditation body or certification program that has been recognized under §§ 431.19 or 431.20, respectively, is failing to meet the criteria of paragraph (b) of the section under which it is recognized, the Department will so advise such entity and request that it take appropriate corrective action. The Department will give the entity an opportunity to respond. If after receiving such response, or no response, the Department believes satisfactory correction has not been made, the Department will withdraw its recognition from that entity.

(2) Voluntary withdrawal. An accreditation body or certification program may withdraw itself from recognition by the Department by advising the Department in writing of such withdrawal. It must also advise those that use it (for an accreditation body, the testing laboratories, and for a certification organization, the manufacturers) of such withdrawal.

(3) Notice of withdrawal of recognition. The Department will publish in the Federal Register a notice of any withdrawal of recognition that occurs pursuant to this paragraph.

Energy Conservation Standards
§ 431.25 Energy conservation standards and effective dates.

(a) Except as provided for fire pump electric motors in paragraph (b) of this section, each general purpose electric motor (subtype I) with a power rating of 1 horsepower or greater, but not greater than 200 horsepower, including a NEMA Design B or an equivalent IEC Design N motor that is a general purpose electric motor (subtype I), manufactured (alone or as a component of another piece of equipment) on or after December 19, 2010, but before June 1, 2016, shall have a nominal full-load efficiency that is not less than the following:

Table 1 - Nominal Full-Load Efficiencies of General Purpose Electric Motors (Subtype I), Except Fire Pump Electric Motors

Motor horsepower/Standard kilowatt equivalent Nominal full-load efficiency
Open motors
(number of poles)
Enclosed motors
(number of poles)
6 4 2 6 4 2
1/.75 82.5 85.5 77.0 82.5 85.5 77.0
1.5/1.1 86.5 86.5 84.0 87.5 86.5 84.0
2/1.5 87.5 86.5 85.5 88.5 86.5 85.5
3/2.2 88.5 89.5 85.5 89.5 89.5 86.5
5/3.7 89.5 89.5 86.5 89.5 89.5 88.5
7.5/5.5 90.2 91.0 88.5 91.0 91.7 89.5
10/7.5 91.7 91.7 89.5 91.0 91.7 90.2
15/11 91.7 93.0 90.2 91.7 92.4 91.0
20/15 92.4 93.0 91.0 91.7 93.0 91.0
25/18.5 93.0 93.6 91.7 93.0 93.6 91.7
30/22 93.6 94.1 91.7 93.0 93.6 91.7
40/30 94.1 94.1 92.4 94.1 94.1 92.4
50/37 94.1 94.5 93.0 94.1 94.5 93.0
60/45 94.5 95.0 93.6 94.5 95.0 93.6
75/55 94.5 95.0 93.6 94.5 95.4 93.6
100/75 95.0 95.4 93.6 95.0 95.4 94.1
125/90 95.0 95.4 94.1 95.0 95.4 95.0
150/110 95.4 95.8 94.1 95.8 95.8 95.0
200/150 95.4 95.8 95.0 95.8 96.2 95.4

(b) Each fire pump electric motor that is a general purpose electric motor (subtype I) or general purpose electric motor (subtype II) manufactured (alone or as a component of another piece of equipment) on or after December 19, 2010, but before June 1, 2016, shall have a nominal full-load efficiency that is not less than the following:

Table 2 - Nominal Full-Load Efficiencies of Fire Pump Electric Motors

Motor horsepower/standard kilowatt equivalent Nominal full-load efficiency
Open motors
(number of poles)
Enclosed motors
(number of poles)
8 6 4 2 8 6 4 2
1/.75 74.0 80.0 82.5 74.0 80.0 82.5 75.5
1.5/1.1 75.5 84.0 84.0 82.5 77.0 85.5 84.0 82.5
2/1.5 85.5 85.5 84.0 84.0 82.5 86.5 84.0 84.0
3/2.2 86.5 86.5 86.5 84.0 84.0 87.5 87.5 85.5
5/3.7 87.5 87.5 87.5 85.5 85.5 87.5 87.5 87.5
7.5/5.5 88.5 88.5 88.5 87.5 85.5 89.5 89.5 88.5
10/7.5 89.5 90.2 89.5 88.5 88.5 89.5 89.5 89.5
15/11 89.5 90.2 91.0 89.5 88.5 90.2 91.0 90.2
20/15 90.2 91.0 91.0 90.2 89.5 90.2 91.0 90.2
25/18.5 90.2 91.7 91.7 91.0 89.5 91.7 92.4 91.0
30/22 91.0 92.4 92.4 91.0 91.0 91.7 92.4 91.0
40/30 91.0 93.0 93.0 91.7 91.0 93.0 93.0 91.7
50/37 91.7 93.0 93.0 92.4 91.7 93.0 93.0 92.4
60/45 92.4 93.6 93.6 93.0 91.7 93.6 93.6 93.0
75/55 93.6 93.6 94.1 93.0 93.0 93.6 94.1 93.0
100/75 93.6 94.1 94.1 93.0 93.0 94.1 94.5 93.6
125/90 93.6 94.1 94.5 93.6 93.6 94.1 94.5 94.5
150/110 93.6 94.5 95.0 93.6 93.6 95.0 95.0 94.5
200/150 93.6 94.5 95.0 94.5 94.1 95.0 95.0 95.0
250/186 94.5 95.4 95.4 94.5 94.5 95.0 95.0 95.4
300/224 95.4 95.4 95.0 95.0 95.4 95.4
350/261 95.4 95.4 95.0 95.0 95.4 95.4
400/298 95.4 95.4 95.4 95.4
450/336 95.8 95.8 95.4 95.4
500/373 95.8 95.8 95.8 95.4

(c) Except as provided for fire pump electric motors in paragraph (b) of this section, each general purpose electric motor (subtype II) with a power rating of 1 horsepower or greater, but not greater than 200 horsepower, including a NEMA Design B or an equivalent IEC Design N motor that is a general purpose electric motor (subtype II), manufactured (alone or as a component of another piece of equipment) on or after December 19, 2010, but before June 1, 2016, shall have a nominal full-load efficiency that is not less than the following:

Table 3 - Nominal Full-Load Efficiencies of General Purpose Electric Motors (Subtype II), Except Fire Pump Electric Motors

Motor horsepower/
Standard kilowatt equivalent
Nominal full-load efficiency
Open motors
(number of poles)
Enclosed motors
(number of poles)
8 6 4 2 8 6 4 2
1/.75 74.0 80.0 82.5 74.0 80.0 82.5 75.5
1.5/1.1 75.5 84.0 84.0 82.5 77.0 85.5 84.0 82.5
2/1.5 85.5 85.5 84.0 84.0 82.5 86.5 84.0 84.0
3/2.2 86.5 86.5 86.5 84.0 84.0 87.5 87.5 85.5
5/3.7 87.5 87.5 87.5 85.5 85.5 87.5 87.5 87.5
7.5/5.5 88.5 88.5 88.5 87.5 85.5 89.5 89.5 88.5
10/7.5 89.5 90.2 89.5 88.5 88.5 89.5 89.5 89.5
15/11 89.5 90.2 91.0 89.5 88.5 90.2 91.0 90.2
20/15 90.2 91.0 91.0 90.2 89.5 90.2 91.0 90.2
25/18.5 90.2 91.7 91.7 91.0 89.5 91.7 92.4 91.0
30/22 91.0 92.4 92.4 91.0 91.0 91.7 92.4 91.0
40/30 91.0 93.0 93.0 91.7 91.0 93.0 93.0 91.7
50/37 91.7 93.0 93.0 92.4 91.7 93.0 93.0 92.4
60/45 92.4 93.6 93.6 93.0 91.7 93.6 93.6 93.0
75/55 93.6 93.6 94.1 93.0 93.0 93.6 94.1 93.0
100/75 93.6 94.1 94.1 93.0 93.0 94.1 94.5 93.6
125/90 93.6 94.1 94.5 93.6 93.6 94.1 94.5 94.5
150/110 93.6 94.5 95.0 93.6 93.6 95.0 95.0 94.5
200/150 93.6 94.5 95.0 94.5 94.1 95.0 95.0 95.0

(d) Each NEMA Design B or an equivalent IEC Design N motor that is a general purpose electric motor (subtype I) or general purpose electric motor (subtype II), excluding fire pump electric motors, with a power rating of more than 200 horsepower, but not greater than 500 horsepower, manufactured (alone or as a component of another piece of equipment) on or after December 19, 2010, but before June 1, 2016 shall have a nominal full-load efficiency that is not less than the following:

Table 4 - Nominal Full-Load Efficiencies of NEMA Design B General Purpose Electric Motors (Subtype I and II), Except Fire Pump Electric Motors

Motor horsepower/
standard kilowatt equivalent
Nominal full-load efficiency
Open motors
(number of poles)
Enclosed motors
(number of poles)
8 6 4 2 8 6 4 2
250/186 94.5 95.4 95.4 94.5 94.5 95.0 95.0 95.4
300/224 95.4 95.4 95.0 95.0 95.4 95.4
350/261 95.4 95.4 95.0 95.0 95.4 95.4
400/298 95.4 95.4 95.4 95.4
450/336 95.8 95.8 95.4 95.4
500/373 95.8 95.8 95.8 95.4

(e) For purposes of determining the required minimum nominal full-load efficiency of an electric motor that has a horsepower or kilowatt rating between two horsepower or two kilowatt ratings listed in any table of energy conservation standards in paragraphs (a) through (d) of this section, each such motor shall be deemed to have a listed horsepower or kilowatt rating, determined as follows:

(1) A horsepower at or above the midpoint between the two consecutive horsepowers shall be rounded up to the higher of the two horsepowers;

(2) A horsepower below the midpoint between the two consecutive horsepowers shall be rounded down to the lower of the two horsepowers; or

(3) A kilowatt rating shall be directly converted from kilowatts to horsepower using the formula 1 kilowatt = (1/0.746) horsepower. The conversion should be calculated to three significant decimal places, and the resulting horsepower shall be rounded in accordance with paragraph (e)(1) or (e)(2) of this section, whichever applies.

(f) The standards in Table 1 through Table 4 of this section do not apply to definite purpose electric motors, special purpose electric motors, or those motors exempted by the Secretary.

(g) The standards in Table 5 through Table 7 of this section apply only to electric motors, including partial electric motors, that satisfy the following criteria:

(1) Are single-speed, induction motors;

(2) Are rated for continuous duty (MG 1) operation or for duty type S1 (IEC);

(3) Contain a squirrel-cage (MG 1) or cage (IEC) rotor;

(4) Operate on polyphase alternating current 60-hertz sinusoidal line power;

(5) Are rated 600 volts or less;

(6) Have a 2-, 4-, 6-, or 8-pole configuration,

(7) Are built in a three-digit or four-digit NEMA frame size (or IEC metric equivalent), including those designs between two consecutive NEMA frame sizes (or IEC metric equivalent), or an enclosed 56 NEMA frame size (or IEC metric equivalent),

(8) Produce at least one horsepower (0.746 kW) but not greater than 500 horsepower (373 kW), and

(9) Meet all of the performance requirements of one of the following motor types: A NEMA Design A, B, or C motor or an IEC Design N or H motor.

(h) Starting on June 1, 2016, each NEMA Design A motor, NEMA Design B motor, and IEC Design N motor that is an electric motor meeting the criteria in paragraph (g) of this section and with a power rating from 1 horsepower through 500 horsepower, but excluding fire pump electric motors, manufactured (alone or as a component of another piece of equipment) shall have a nominal full-load efficiency of not less than the following:

Table 5 - Nominal Full-Load Efficiencies of NEMA Design A, NEMA Design B and IEC Design N Motors (Excluding Fire Pump Electric Motors) at 60 Hz

Motor horsepower/
standard kilowatt equivalent
Nominal full-load efficiency (%)
2 Pole 4 Pole 6 Pole 8 Pole
Enclosed Open Enclosed Open Enclosed Open Enclosed Open
1/.75 77.0 77.0 85.5 85.5 82.5 82.5 75.5 75.5
1.5/1.1 84.0 84.0 86.5 86.5 87.5 86.5 78.5 77.0
2/1.5 85.5 85.5 86.5 86.5 88.5 87.5 84.0 86.5
3/2.2 86.5 85.5 89.5 89.5 89.5 88.5 85.5 87.5
5/3.7 88.5 86.5 89.5 89.5 89.5 89.5 86.5 88.5
7.5/5.5 89.5 88.5 91.7 91.0 91.0 90.2 86.5 89.5
10/7.5 90.2 89.5 91.7 91.7 91.0 91.7 89.5 90.2
15/11 91.0 90.2 92.4 93.0 91.7 91.7 89.5 90.2
20/15 91.0 91.0 93.0 93.0 91.7 92.4 90.2 91.0
25/18.5 91.7 91.7 93.6 93.6 93.0 93.0 90.2 91.0
30/22 91.7 91.7 93.6 94.1 93.0 93.6 91.7 91.7
40/30 92.4 92.4 94.1 94.1 94.1 94.1 91.7 91.7
50/37 93.0 93.0 94.5 94.5 94.1 94.1 92.4 92.4
60/45 93.6 93.6 95.0 95.0 94.5 94.5 92.4 93.0
75/55 93.6 93.6 95.4 95.0 94.5 94.5 93.6 94.1
100/75 94.1 93.6 95.4 95.4 95.0 95.0 93.6 94.1
125/90 95.0 94.1 95.4 95.4 95.0 95.0 94.1 94.1
150/110 95.0 94.1 95.8 95.8 95.8 95.4 94.1 94.1
200/150 95.4 95.0 96.2 95.8 95.8 95.4 94.5 94.1
250/186 95.8 95.0 96.2 95.8 95.8 95.8 95.0 95.0
300/224 95.8 95.4 96.2 95.8 95.8 95.8
350/261 95.8 95.4 96.2 95.8 95.8 95.8
400/298 95.8 95.8 96.2 95.8
450/336 95.8 96.2 96.2 96.2
500/373 95.8 96.2 96.2 96.2

(i) Starting on June 1, 2016, each NEMA Design C motor and IEC Design H motor that is an electric motor meeting the criteria in paragraph (g) of this section and with a power rating from 1 horsepower through 200 horsepower manufactured (alone or as a component of another piece of equipment) shall have a nominal full-load efficiency that is not less than the following:

Table 6 - Nominal Full-Load Efficiencies of NEMA Design C and IEC Design H Motors at 60 Hz

Motor horsepower/standard kilowatt equivalent Nominal full-load efficiency (%)
4 Pole 6 Pole 8 Pole
Enclosed Open Enclosed Open Enclosed Open
1/.75 85.5 85.5 82.5 82.5 75.5 75.5
1.5/1.1 86.5 86.5 87.5 86.5 78.5 77.0
2/1.5 86.5 86.5 88.5 87.5 84.0 86.5
3/2.2 89.5 89.5 89.5 88.5 85.5 87.5
5/3.7 89.5 89.5 89.5 89.5 86.5 88.5
7.5/5.5 91.7 91.0 91.0 90.2 86.5 89.5
10/7.5 91.7 91.7 91.0 91.7 89.5 90.2
15/11 92.4 93.0 91.7 91.7 89.5 90.2
20/15 93.0 93.0 91.7 92.4 90.2 91.0
25/18.5 93.6 93.6 93.0 93.0 90.2 91.0
30/22 93.6 94.1 93.0 93.6 91.7 91.7
40/30 94.1 94.1 94.1 94.1 91.7 91.7
50/37 94.5 94.5 94.1 94.1 92.4 92.4
60/45 95.0 95.0 94.5 94.5 92.4 93.0
75/55 95.4 95.0 94.5 94.5 93.6 94.1
100/75 95.4 95.4 95.0 95.0 93.6 94.1
125/90 95.4 95.4 95.0 95.0 94.1 94.1
150/110 95.8 95.8 95.8 95.4 94.1 94.1
200/150 96.2 95.8 95.8 95.4 94.5 94.1

(j) Starting on June 1, 2016, each fire pump electric motor meeting the criteria in paragraph (g) of this section and with a power rating of 1 horsepower through 500 horsepower, manufactured (alone or as a component of another piece of equipment) shall have a nominal full-load efficiency that is not less than the following:

Table 7 - Nominal Full-Load Efficiencies of Fire Pump Electric Motors at 60 Hz

Motor horsepower/
standard kilowatt
equivalent
Nominal full-load efficiency (%)
2 Pole 4 Pole 6 Pole 8 Pole
Enclosed Open Enclosed Open Enclosed Open Enclosed Open
1/.75 75.5 82.5 82.5 80.0 80.0 74.0 74.0
1.5/1.1 82.5 82.5 84.0 84.0 85.5 84.0 77.0 75.5
2/1.5 84.0 84.0 84.0 84.0 86.5 85.5 82.5 85.5
3/2.2 85.5 84.0 87.5 86.5 87.5 86.5 84.0 86.5
5/3.7 87.5 85.5 87.5 87.5 87.5 87.5 85.5 87.5
7.5/5.5 88.5 87.5 89.5 88.5 89.5 88.5 85.5 88.5
10/7.5 89.5 88.5 89.5 89.5 89.5 90.2 88.5 89.5
15/11 90.2 89.5 91.0 91.0 90.2 90.2 88.5 89.5
20/15 90.2 90.2 91.0 91.0 90.2 91.0 89.5 90.2
25/18.5 91.0 91.0 92.4 91.7 91.7 91.7 89.5 90.2
30/22 91.0 91.0 92.4 92.4 91.7 92.4 91.0 91.0
40/30 91.7 91.7 93.0 93.0 93.0 93.0 91.0 91.0
50/37 92.4 92.4 93.0 93.0 93.0 93.0 91.7 91.7
60/45 93.0 93.0 93.6 93.6 93.6 93.6 91.7 92.4
75/55 93.0 93.0 94.1 94.1 93.6 93.6 93.0 93.6
100/75 93.6 93.0 94.5 94.1 94.1 94.1 93.0 93.6
125/90 94.5 93.6 94.5 94.5 94.1 94.1 93.6 93.6
150/110 94.5 93.6 95.0 95.0 95.0 94.5 93.6 93.6
200/150 95.0 94.5 95.0 95.0 95.0 94.5 94.1 93.6
250/186 95.4 94.5 95.0 95.4 95.0 95.4 94.5 94.5
300/224 95.4 95.0 95.4 95.4 95.0 95.4
350/261 95.4 95.0 95.4 95.4 95.0 95.4
400/298 95.4 95.4 95.4 95.4
450/336 95.4 95.8 95.4 95.8
500/373 95.4 95.8 95.8 95.8

(k) For purposes of determining the required minimum nominal full-load efficiency of an electric motor that has a horsepower or kilowatt rating between two horsepower or two kilowatt ratings listed in any table of energy conservation standards in paragraphs (h) through (l) of this section, each such motor shall be deemed to have a listed horsepower or kilowatt rating, determined as follows:

(1) A horsepower at or above the midpoint between the two consecutive horsepowers shall be rounded up to the higher of the two horsepowers;

(2) A horsepower below the midpoint between the two consecutive horsepowers shall be rounded down to the lower of the two horsepowers; or

(3) A kilowatt rating shall be directly converted from kilowatts to horsepower using the formula 1 kilowatt = (1/0.746) horsepower. The conversion should be calculated to three significant decimal places, and the resulting horsepower shall be rounded in accordance with paragraph (k)(1) or (k)(2) of this section, whichever applies.

(l) The standards in Table 5 through Table 7 of this section do not apply to the following electric motors exempted by the Secretary, or any additional electric motors that the Secretary may exempt:

(1) Air-over electric motors;

(2) Component sets of an electric motor;

(3) Liquid-cooled electric motors;

(4) Submersible electric motors; and

(5) Inverter-only electric motors.

[79 FR 31010, May 29, 2014]

§ 431.26 Preemption of State regulations.

Any State regulation providing for any energy conservation standard, or other requirement with respect to the energy efficiency or energy use, of an electric motor that is not identical to a Federal standard in effect under this subpart is preempted by that standard, except as provided for in Section 345(a) and 327(b) and (c) of the Act.

Labeling
§ 431.31 Labeling requirements.

(a) Electric motor nameplate -

(1) Required information. The permanent nameplate of an electric motor for which standards are prescribed in § 431.25 must be marked clearly with the following information:

(i) The motor's nominal full load efficiency (as of the date of manufacture), derived from the motor's average full load efficiency as determined pursuant to this subpart; and

(ii) A Compliance Certification number (“CC number”) supplied by DOE to the manufacturer or private labeler, pursuant to § 431.36(f), and applicable to that motor. Such CC number must be on the nameplate of a motor beginning 90 days after either:

(A) The manufacturer or private labeler has received the number upon submitting a Compliance Certification covering that motor, or

(B) The expiration of 21 days from DOE's receipt of a Compliance Certification covering that motor, if the manufacturer or private labeler has not been advised by DOE that the Compliance Certification fails to satisfy § 431.36.

(2) Display of required information. All orientation, spacing, type sizes, type faces, and line widths to display this required information shall be the same as or similar to the display of the other performance data on the motor's permanent nameplate. The nominal full-load efficiency shall be identified either by the term “Nominal Efficiency” or “Nom. Eff.” or by the terms specified in paragraph 12.58.2 of NEMA MG1-2009, (incorporated by reference, see § 431.15) as for example “NEMA Nom. Eff. __.” The Compliance Certification number issued pursuant to § 431.36 shall be in the form “CC __.”

(3) Optional display. The permanent nameplate of an electric motor, a separate plate, or decalcomania, may be marked with the encircled lower case letters “ee”, for example,

or with some comparable designation or logo, if the motor meets the applicable standard prescribed in § 431.25, as determined pursuant to this subpart, and is covered by a Compliance Certification that satisfies § 431.36.

(b) Disclosure of efficiency information in marketing materials.

(1) The same information that must appear on an electric motor's permanent nameplate pursuant to paragraph (a)(1) of this section, shall be prominently displayed:

(i) On each page of a catalog that lists the motor; and

(ii) In other materials used to market the motor.

(2) The “ee” logo, or other similar logo or designations, may also be used in catalogs and other materials to the same extent they may be used on labels under paragraph (a)(3) of this section.

[69 FR 61923, Oct. 21, 2004, as amended at 77 FR 26637, May 4, 2012]

§ 431.32 Preemption of State regulations.

The provisions of § 431.31 supersede any State regulation to the extent required by Section 327 of the Act. Pursuant to the Act, all State regulations that require the disclosure for any electric motor of information with respect to energy consumption, other than the information required to be disclosed in accordance with this part, are superseded.

Certification
§ 431.35 Applicability of certification requirements.

Section 431.36 sets forth the procedures for manufacturers to certify that electric motors comply with the applicable energy efficiency standards set forth in this subpart.

§ 431.36 Compliance Certification.

(a) General. A manufacturer or private labeler shall not distribute in commerce any basic model of an electric motor which is subject to an energy efficiency standard set forth in this subpart unless it has submitted to the Department a Compliance Certification certifying, in accordance with the provisions of this section, that the basic model meets the requirements of the applicable standard. The representations in the Compliance Certification must be based upon the basic model's energy efficiency as determined in accordance with the applicable requirements of this subpart. This means, in part, that either:

(1) The representations as to the basic model must be based on use of a certification organization; or

(2) Any testing of the basic model on which the representations are based must be conducted at an accredited laboratory.

(b) Required contents -

(1) General representations. Each Compliance Certification must certify that:

(i) The nominal full load efficiency for each basic model of electric motor distributed is not less than the minimum nominal full load efficiency required for that motor by § 431.25;

(ii) All required determinations on which the Compliance Certification is based were made in compliance with the applicable requirements prescribed in this subpart;

(iii) All information reported in the Compliance Certification is true, accurate, and complete; and

(iv) The manufacturer or private labeler is aware of the penalties associated with violations of the Act and the regulations thereunder, and of 18 U.S.C. 1001 which prohibits knowingly making false statements to the Federal Government.

(2) Specific data.

(i) For each rating of electric motor (as the term “rating” is defined in the definition of basic model) which a manufacturer or private labeler distributes, the Compliance Certification must report the nominal full load efficiency, determined pursuant to §§ 431.16 and 431.17, of the least efficient basic model within that rating.

(ii) The Compliance Certification must identify the basic models on which actual testing has been performed to meet the requirements of § 431.17.

(iii) The format for a Compliance Certification is set forth in appendix C of this subpart.

(c) Optional contents. In any Compliance Certification, a manufacturer or private labeler may at its option request that DOE provide it with a unique Compliance Certification number (“CC number”) for any brand name, trademark or other label name under which the manufacturer or private labeler distributes electric motors covered by the Certification. Such a Compliance Certification must also identify all other names, if any, under which the manufacturer or private labeler distributes electric motors, and to which the request does not apply.

(d) Signature and submission. A manufacturer or private labeler must submit the Compliance Certification either on its own behalf, signed by a corporate official of the company, or through a third party (for example, a trade association or other authorized representative) acting on its behalf. Where a third party is used, the Compliance Certification must identify the official of the manufacturer or private labeler who authorized the third party to make representations on the company's behalf, and must be signed by a corporate official of the third party. The Compliance Certification must be submitted to the Department electronically at https://www.regulations.doe.gov/ccms. Alternatively, the Compliance Certification may be submitted by certified mail to: Certification and Compliance Reports, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, EE-2J, Forrestal Building, 1000 Independence Avenue, SW., Washington, DC 20585-0121.

(e) New basic models. For electric motors, a Compliance Certification must be submitted for a new basic model only if the manufacturer or private labeler has not previously submitted to DOE a Compliance Certification, that meets the requirements of this section, for a basic model that has the same rating as the new basic model, and that has a lower nominal full load efficiency than the new basic model.

(f) Response to Compliance Certification; Compliance Certification Number (CC number) -

(1) DOE processing of Certification. Promptly upon receipt of a Compliance Certification, the Department will determine whether the document contains all of the elements required by this section, and may, in its discretion, determine whether all or part of the information provided in the document is accurate. The Department will then advise the submitting party in writing either that the Compliance Certification does not satisfy the requirements of this section, in which case the document will be returned, or that the Compliance Certification satisfies this section. The Department will also advise the submitting party of the basis for its determination.

(2) Issuance of CC number(s).

(i) Initial Compliance Certification. When DOE advises that the initial Compliance Certification submitted by or on behalf of a manufacturer or private labeler is acceptable, either:

(A) DOE will provide a single unique CC number, “CC____,” to the manufacturer or private labeler, and such CC number shall be applicable to all electric motors distributed by the manufacturer or private labeler, or

(B) When required by paragraph (f)(3) of this section, DOE will provide more than one CC number to the manufacturer or private labeler.

(ii) Subsequent Compliance Certification. When DOE advises that any other Compliance Certification is acceptable, it will provide a unique CC number for any brand name, trademark or other name when required by paragraph (f)(3) of this section.

(iii) When DOE declines to provide a CC number as requested by a manufacturer or private labeler in accordance with § 431.36(c), DOE will advise the requester of the reasons for such refusal.

(3) Issuance of two or more CC numbers.

(i) DOE will provide a unique CC number for each brand name, trademark or other label name for which a manufacturer or private labeler requests such a number in accordance with § 431.36(c), except as follows. DOE will not provide a CC number for any brand name, trademark or other label name

(A) For which DOE has previously provided a CC number, or

(B) That duplicates or overlaps with other names under which the manufacturer or private labeler sells electric motors.

(ii) Once DOE has provided a CC number for a particular name, that shall be the only CC number applicable to all electric motors distributed by the manufacturer or private labeler under that name.

(iii) If the Compliance Certification in which a manufacturer or private labeler requests a CC number is the initial Compliance Certification submitted by it or on its behalf, and it distributes electric motors not covered by the CC number(s) DOE provides in response to the request(s), DOE will also provide a unique CC number that shall be applicable to all of these other motors.

[69 FR 61923, Oct. 21, 2004, as amended at 76 FR 59006, Sept. 23, 2011; 77 FR 26638, May 4, 2012]

Appendix A to Subpart B of Part 431 [Reserved]
Appendix B to Subpart B of Part 431 - Uniform Test Method for Measuring Nominal Full Load Efficiency of Electric Motors

0. Incorporation by Reference

(a) In § 431.15, DOE incorporated by reference the entire standard for CSA C390-10, IEC 60034-1:2010, IEC 60034-2-1:2014, IEC 60051-1:2016, and IEEE 112-2017; however, only enumerated provisions of those documents are applicable as follows:

(i) CSA C390-10:

(1) Section 1.3 “Scope,” as specified in section 2(1) of this appendix;

(2) Section 3.1 “Definitions,” as specified in section 2(1) of this appendix;

(3) Section 5 “General test requirements - Measurements,” as specified in section 2(1) of this appendix;

(4) Section 7 “Test method,” as specified in section 2(1) of this appendix;

(5) Table 1 “Resistance measurement time delay,” as specified in section 2(1) of this appendix;

(6) Annex B “Linear regression analysis,” as specified in section 2(1) of this appendix; and

(7) Annex C “Procedure for correction of dynamometer torque readings” as specified in section 2(1) of this appendix.

(ii) IEC 60034-1:2010:

(1) Section 7.2 as specified in section 2(2) of this appendix;

(2) Section 8.6.2.3.3 as specified in section 2(2) of this appendix; and

(3) Table 5 as specified in section 2(2) of this appendix.

(iii) IEC 60034-2-1:2014:

(1) Method 2-1-1B as specified in section 2(2) and section 3, of this appendix;

(2) Section 3 “Terms and definitions” as specified in section 2(2) of this appendix;

(3) Section 4 “Symbols and abbreviations” as specified in section 2(2) of this appendix;

(4) Section 5 “Basic requirements” as specified in section 2(2) of this appendix; and

(5) Section 6.1.3 “Method 2-1-1B - Summation of losses, additional load losses according to the method of residual losses” as specified in section 2(2) of this appendix.

(iv) IEEE 112-2017:

(1) Test Method B, Input-Output With Loss Segregation as specified in section 2(3), section 3, and section 3.8 of this appendix;

(2) Section 3 “General” as specified in section 2(3) of this appendix;

(3) Section 4 “Measurements” as specified in section 2(3) of this appendix;

(4) Section 5 “Machine losses and tests for losses” as specified in section 2(3) of this appendix;

(5) Section 6.1 “General” as specified in section 2(3) of this appendix;

(6) Section 6.4 “Efficiency test method B - Input-output with loss segregation” as specified in section 2(3) of this appendix; and

(7) Section 9.4 “Form B - Method B”, and Section 9.5 “Form B2 - Method B calculations” as specified in section 2(3) of this appendix.

(b) In § 431.15, DOE incorporated by reference the following enumerated provisions of NEMA MG 1-2009:

(i) Paragraph 12.58.1, “Determination of Motor Efficiency and Losses” as specified in the introductory paragraph to section 2 of this appendix, and

(ii) [Reserved]

(c) In cases where there is a conflict, the language of this appendix takes precedence over those documents. Any subsequent amendment to a referenced document by the standard-setting organization will not affect the test procedure in this appendix, unless and until the test procedure is amended by DOE. Material is incorporated as it exists on the date of the approval, and a notice of any change in the material will be published in the Federal Register.

1. Definitions.

Definitions contained in §§ 431.2 and 431.12 are applicable to this appendix.

2. Test Procedures

Efficiency and losses must be determined in accordance with NEMA MG 1-2009 (incorporated by reference, see § 431.15), paragraph 12.58.1, “Determination of Motor Efficiency and Losses,” and one of the following testing methods:

(1) CSA C390-10 (incorporated by reference, see § 431.15), Section 1.3 “Scope”, Section 3.1 “Definitions”, Section 5 “General test requirements - Measurements”, Section 7 “Test method”, Table 1 “Resistance measurement time delay”, Annex B “Linear regression analysis” and Annex C “Procedure for correction of dynamometer torque readings.”

(2) IEC 60034-2-1:2014 (incorporated by reference, see § 431.15), Method 2-1-1B, Section 3 “Terms and definitions”, Section 4 “Symbols and abbreviations”, Section 5 “Basic requirements”, Section 6.1.3 “Method 2-1-1B - Summation of losses, additional load losses according to the method of residual losses.” The supply voltage shall be in accordance with section 7.2 of IEC 60034-1:2010 (incorporated by reference, see § 431.15). The measured resistance at the end of the thermal test shall be determined in a similar way to the extrapolation procedure described in section 8.6.2.3.3 of IEC 60034-1:2010, using the shortest possible time instead of the time interval specified in Table 5 therein, and extrapolating to zero. The measuring instruments for electrical quantities shall have the equivalent of an accuracy class of 0,2 in case of a direct test and 0,5 in case of an indirect test in accordance with IEC 60051-1:2016 (incorporated by reference, see § 431.15), or

(3) IEEE 112-2017, (incorporated by reference, see § 431.15), Test Method B, Input-Output With Loss Segregation, Section 3 “General”, Section 4 “Measurements”, Section 5 “Machine losses and tests for losses”, Section 6.1 “General”, Section 6.4 “Efficiency test method B - Input-output with loss segregation”, Section 9.4 “Form B - Method B”, and Section 9.5 “Form B2 - Method B calculations.”

3. Procedures for the Testing of Certain Electric Motor Types

Prior to testing according to CSA C390-10, IEC 60034-2-1:2014 Method 2-1-1B, or IEEE 112-2017 Test Method B, each basic model of the electric motor types listed below must be set up in accordance with the instructions of this section to ensure consistent test results. These steps are designed to enable a motor to be attached to a dynamometer and run continuously for testing purposes. For the purposes of this appendix, a “standard bearing” is a 6000 series, either open or grease-lubricated double-shielded, single-row, deep groove, radial ball bearing.

3.1 Brake Electric Motors:

Brake electric motors shall be tested with the brake component powered separately from the motor such that it does not activate during testing. Additionally, for any 10-minute period during the test and while the brake is being powered such that it remains disengaged from the motor shaft, record the power consumed (i.e., watts). Only power used to drive the motor is to be included in the efficiency calculation; power supplied to prevent the brake from engaging is not included in this calculation. In lieu of powering the brake separately, the brake may be disengaged mechanically, if such a mechanism exists and if the use of this mechanism does not yield a different efficiency value than separately powering the brake electrically.

3.2 Close-Coupled Pump Electric Motors and Electric Motors with Single or Double Shaft Extensions of Non-Standard Dimensions or Design:

To attach the unit under test to a dynamometer, close-coupled pump electric motors and electric motors with single or double shaft extensions of non-standard dimensions or design must be tested using a special coupling adapter.

3.3 Electric Motors with Non-Standard Endshields or Flanges:

If it is not possible to connect the electric motor to a dynamometer with the non-standard endshield or flange in place, the testing laboratory shall replace the non-standard endshield or flange with an endshield or flange meeting NEMA or IEC specifications. The replacement component should be obtained from the manufacturer or, if the manufacturer chooses, machined by the testing laboratory after consulting with the manufacturer regarding the critical characteristics of the endshield.

3.4 Electric Motors with Non-Standard Bases, Feet or Mounting Configurations

An electric motor with a non-standard base, feet, or mounting configuration may be mounted on the test equipment using adaptive fixtures for testing as long as the mounting or use of adaptive mounting fixtures does not have an adverse impact on the performance of the electric motor, particularly on the cooling of the motor.

3.5 Electric Motors with a Separately-powered Blower:

For electric motors furnished with a separately-powered blower, the losses from the blower's motor should not be included in any efficiency calculation. This can be done either by powering the blower's motor by a source separate from the source powering the electric motor under test or by connecting leads such that they only measure the power of the motor under test.

3.6 Immersible Electric Motors

Immersible electric motors shall be tested with all contact seals removed but be otherwise unmodified.

3.7 Partial Electric Motors:

Partial electric motors shall be disconnected from their mated piece of equipment. After disconnection from the equipment, standard bearings and/or endshields shall be added to the motor, such that it is capable of operation. If an endshield is necessary, an endshield meeting NEMA or IEC specifications should be obtained from the manufacturer or, if the manufacturer chooses, machined by the testing laboratory after consulting with the manufacturer regarding the critical characteristics of the endshield.

3.8 Vertical Electric Motors and Electric Motors with Bearings Incapable of Horizontal Operation:

Vertical electric motors and electric motors with thrust bearings shall be tested in a horizontal or vertical configuration in accordance with IEEE 112-2017 Test Method B, depending on the testing facility's capabilities and construction of the motor, except if the motor is a vertical solid shaft normal thrust general purpose electric motor (subtype II), in which case it shall be tested in a horizontal configuration in accordance with IEEE 112-2017 Test Method B. Preference shall be given to testing a motor in its native orientation. If the unit under test cannot be reoriented horizontally due to its bearing construction, the electric motor's bearing(s) shall be removed and replaced with standard bearings. If the unit under test contains oil-lubricated bearings, its bearings shall be removed and replaced with standard bearings. Finally, if the unit under test contains a hollow shaft, a solid shaft shall be inserted, bolted to the non-drive end of the motor and welded on the drive end. Enough clearance shall be maintained such that attachment to a dynamometer is possible.

[77 FR 26638, May 4, 2012, as amended at 78 FR 75994, Dec. 13, 2013; 86 FR 22, Jan. 4, 2021; 86 FR 3747, Jan. 15, 2021]

Appendix C to Subpart B of Part 431 - Compliance Certification

Certification of Compliance With Energy Efficiency Standards for Electric Motors (Office of Management and Budget Control Number: 1910-1400. Expires February 13, 2014)

An electronic form is available at https://www.regulations.doe.gov/ccms/.

1. Name and Address of Company (the “company”):

2. Name(s) to be Marked on Electric Motors to Which this Compliance Certification Applies:

3. If manufacturer or private labeler wishes to receive a unique Compliance Certification number for use with any particular brand name, trademark, or other label name, fill out the following two items:

A. List each brand name, trademark, or other label name for which the company requests a Compliance Certification number:

B. List other name(s), if any, under which the company sells electric motors (if not listed in item 2 above):

Submit electronically at https://www.regulations.doe.gov/ccms.

Submit paper form by Certified Mail to: U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies (EE-2J), Forrestal Building, 1000 Independence Avenue, SW., Washington, DC 20585-0121.

This Compliance Certification reports on and certifies compliance with requirements contained in 10 CFR Part 431 (Energy Conservation Program for Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment) and Part C of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (Pub. L. 94-163), and amendments thereto. It is signed by a responsible official of the above named company. Attached and incorporated as part of this Compliance Certification is a Listing of Electric Motor Efficiencies. For each rating of electric motor* for which the Listing specifies the nominal full load efficiency of a basic model, the company distributes no less efficient basic model with that rating and all basic models with that rating comply with the applicable energy efficiency standard.

* For this purpose, the term “rating” means one of the combinations of an electric motor's horsepower (or standard kilowatt equivalent), number of poles, motor type, and open or enclosed construction, with respect to which § 431.25 of 10 CFR Part 431 prescribes nominal full load efficiency standards.

Person to Contact for Further Information:

Name:

Address:

Telephone Number:

Facsimile Number:

If any part of this Compliance Certification, including the Attachment, was prepared by a third party organization under the provisions of 10 CFR 431.36, the company official authorizing third party representations:

Name:

Address:

Telephone Number:

Facsimile Number:

Third Party Organization Officially Acting as Representative:

Third Party Organization:

Responsible Person at the Organization:

Address:

Telephone Number:

Facsimile Number:

All required determinations on which this Compliance Certification is based were made in conformance with the applicable requirements in 10 CFR Part 431, subpart B. All information reported in this Compliance Certification is true, accurate, and complete. The company is aware of the penalties associated with violations of the Act and the regulations thereunder, and is also aware of the provisions contained in 18 U.S.C. 1001, which prohibits knowingly making false statements to the Federal Government.

Signature:

Date:

Name:

Title:

Firm or Organization:

Attachment of Certification of Compliance With Energy Efficiency Standards for Electric Motor Efficiencies

Date:

Name of Company:

Motor Type (i.e., general purpose electric motor (subtype I), fire pump electric motor, general purpose electric motor (subtype II), NEMA Design B general purpose electric motor)

Motor horsepower/standard kilowatt equivalent Least efficient basic model - (model numbers(s))
Nominal full-load efficiency
Open motors
(number of poles)
Enclosed motors
(number of poles)
8 6 4 2 8 6 4 2
1/.75 ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___
___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___
1.5/1.1 ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___
___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___
2/1.5 ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___
___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___
3/2.2 ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___
___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___
5/3.7 ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___
___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___
___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___
___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___
Etc ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___
___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___

Basic Model means all units of a given type of electric motor (or class thereof) manufactured by a single manufacturer, and which (i) have the same rating, (ii) have electrical design characteristics that are essentially identical, and (iii) do not have any differing physical or functional characteristics that affect energy consumption or efficiency.

Rating means one of the combinations of an electric motor's horsepower (or standard kilowatt equivalent), number of poles, motor type, and open or enclosed construction, with respect to which § 431.25 of 10 CFR Part 431 prescribes nominal full load efficiency standards.

Models Actually Tested and Not Previously Identified

Motor horsepower/standard kilowatt equivalent Least efficient basic model - (model numbers(s))
Nominal full-load efficiency
Open motors
(number of poles)
Enclosed motors
(number of poles)
8 6 4 2 8 6 4 2
___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___
___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___
___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___
___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___
___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___
___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___
___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___
___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___
___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___
___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___
___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___
___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___
Etc ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___
___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___

[69 FR 61923, Oct. 21, 2004, as amended at 76 FR 59006, Sept. 23, 2011]

Subpart C - Commercial Refrigerators, Freezers and Refrigerator-Freezers
Source:

70 FR 60414, Oct. 18, 2005, unless otherwise noted.

§ 431.61 Purpose and scope.

This subpart contains energy conservation requirements for commercial refrigerators, freezers and refrigerator-freezers, pursuant to Part C of Title III of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act, as amended, 42 U.S.C. 6311-6317.

§ 431.62 Definitions concerning commercial refrigerators, freezers and refrigerator-freezers.

Air-curtain angle means:

(1) For equipment without doors and without a discharge air grille or discharge air honeycomb, the angle between a vertical line extended down from the highest point on the manufacturer's recommended load limit line and the load limit line itself, when the equipment is viewed in cross-section; and

(2) For all other equipment without doors, the angle formed between a vertical line and the straight line drawn by connecting the point at the inside edge of the discharge air opening with the point at the inside edge of the return air opening, when the equipment is viewed in cross-section.

Basic model means all commercial refrigeration equipment manufactured by one manufacturer within a single equipment class, having the same primary energy source, and that have essentially identical electrical, physical, and functional characteristics that affect energy consumption.

Chef base or griddle stand means commercial refrigeration equipment that is designed and marketed for the express purpose of having a griddle or other cooking appliance placed on top of it that is capable of reaching temperatures hot enough to cook food.

Closed solid means equipment with doors, and in which more than 75 percent of the outer surface area of all doors on a unit are not transparent.

Closed transparent means equipment with doors, and in which 25 percent or more of the outer surface area of all doors on the unit are transparent.

Commercial freezer means a unit of commercial refrigeration equipment in which all refrigerated compartments in the unit are capable of operating below 32 °F (±2 °F).

Commercial hybrid means a unit of commercial refrigeration equipment:

(1) That consists of two or more thermally separated refrigerated compartments that are in two or more different equipment families, and

(2) That is sold as a single unit.

Commercial refrigerator means a unit of commercial refrigeration equipment in which all refrigerated compartments in the unit are capable of operating at or above 32 °F (±2 °F).

Commercial refrigerator-freezer means a unit of commercial refrigeration equipment consisting of two or more refrigerated compartments where at least one refrigerated compartment is capable of operating at or above 32 °F (±2 °F) and at least one refrigerated compartment is capable of operating below 32 °F (±2 °F).

Commercial refrigerator, freezer, and refrigerator-freezer means refrigeration equipment that -

(1) Is not a consumer product (as defined in § 430.2 of part 430);

(2) Is not designed and marketed exclusively for medical, scientific, or research purposes;

(3) Operates at a chilled, frozen, combination chilled and frozen, or variable temperature;

(4) Displays or stores merchandise and other perishable materials horizontally, semi-vertically, or vertically;

(5) Has transparent or solid doors, sliding or hinged doors, a combination of hinged, sliding, transparent, or solid doors, or no doors;

(6) Is designed for pull-down temperature applications or holding temperature applications; and

(7) Is connected to a self-contained condensing unit or to a remote condensing unit.

Door means a movable panel that separates the interior volume of a unit of commercial refrigeration equipment from the ambient environment and is designed to facilitate access to the refrigerated space for the purpose of loading and unloading product. This includes hinged doors, sliding doors, and drawers. This does not include night curtains.

Door angle means:

(1) For equipment with flat doors, the angle between a vertical line and the line formed by the plane of the door, when the equipment is viewed in cross-section; and

(2) For equipment with curved doors, the angle formed between a vertical line and the straight line drawn by connecting the top and bottom points where the display area glass joins the cabinet, when the equipment is viewed in cross-section.

Holding temperature application means a use of commercial refrigeration equipment other than a pull-down temperature application, except a blast chiller or freezer.

Horizontal Closed means equipment with hinged or sliding doors and a door angle greater than or equal to 45°.

Horizontal Open means equipment without doors and an air-curtain angle greater than or equal to 80° from the vertical.

Ice-cream freezer means a commercial freezer that is designed to operate at or below −5 °F (±2 °F) (−21 °C ±1.1 °C) and that the manufacturer designs, markets, or intends for the storing, displaying, or dispensing of ice cream.

Integrated average temperature means the average temperature of all test package measurements taken during the test.

Lighting occupancy sensor means a device which uses passive infrared, ultrasonic, or other motion-sensing technology to automatically turn off or dim lights within the equipment when no motion is detected in the sensor's coverage area for a certain preset period of time.

Lowest application product temperature means the lowest integrated average temperature at which a given basic model is capable of consistently operating (i.e., maintaining so as to comply with the steady-state stabilization requirements specified in ASHRAE 72-2005 (incorporated by reference, see § 431.63) for the purposes of testing under the DOE test procedure).

Night curtain means a device which is temporarily deployed to decrease air exchange and heat transfer between the refrigerated case and the surrounding environment.

Operating temperature means the range of integrated average temperatures at which a self-contained commercial refrigeration unit or remote-condensing commercial refrigeration unit with a thermostat is capable of operating or, in the case of a remote-condensing commercial refrigeration unit without a thermostat, the range of integrated average temperatures at which the unit is marketed, designed, or intended to operate.

Pull-down temperature application means a commercial refrigerator with doors that, when fully loaded with 12 ounce beverage cans at 90 degrees F, can cool those beverages to an average stable temperature of 38 degrees F in 12 hours or less.

Rating temperature means the integrated average temperature a unit must maintain during testing (i.e., either as listed in the table at § 431.66(d)(1) or the lowest application product temperature).

Remote condensing unit means a factory-made assembly of refrigerating components designed to compress and liquefy a specific refrigerant that is remotely located from the refrigerated equipment and consists of 1 or more refrigerant compressors, refrigerant condensers, condenser fans and motors, and factory supplied accessories.

Scheduled lighting control means a device which automatically shuts off or dims the lighting in a display case at scheduled times throughout the day.

Self-contained condensing unit means a factory-made assembly of refrigerating components designed to compress and liquefy a specific refrigerant that is an integral part of the refrigerated equipment and consists of 1 or more refrigerant compressors, refrigerant condensers, condenser fans and motors, and factory supplied accessories.

Semivertical Open means equipment without doors and an air-curtain angle greater than or equal to 10° and less than 80° from the vertical.

Service over counter means equipment that has sliding or hinged doors in the back intended for use by sales personnel, with glass or other transparent material in the front for displaying merchandise, and that has a height not greater than 66 inches and is intended to serve as a counter for transactions between sales personnel and customers. “Service over the counter, self-contained, medium temperature commercial refrigerator”, also defined in this section, is one specific equipment class within the service over counter equipment family.

Service over the counter, self-contained, medium temperature commercial refrigerator or SOC-SC-M means a commercial refrigerator -

(1) That operates at temperatures at or above 32 °F;

(2) With a self-contained condensing unit;

(3) Equipped with sliding or hinged doors in the back intended for use by sales personnel, and with glass or other transparent material in the front for displaying merchandise; and

(4) That has a height not greater than 66 inches and is intended to serve as a counter for transactions between sales personnel and customers.

Test package means a packaged material that is used as a standard product temperature-measuring device.

Transparent means greater than or equal to 45 percent light transmittance, as determined in accordance with the ASTM Standard E 1084-86 (Reapproved 2009), (incorporated by reference, see § 431.63) at normal incidence and in the intended direction of viewing.

Vertical Closed means equipment with hinged or sliding doors and a door angle less than 45°.

Vertical Open means equipment without doors and an air-curtain angle greater than or equal to 0° and less than 10° from the vertical.

Wedge case means a commercial refrigerator, freezer, or refrigerator-freezer that forms the transition between two regularly shaped display cases.

[70 FR 60414, Oct. 18, 2005, as amended at 71 FR 71369, Dec. 8, 2006; 74 FR 1139, Jan. 9, 2009; 76 FR 12503, Mar. 7, 2011; 77 FR 10318, Feb. 21, 2012; 78 FR 62993, Oct. 23, 2013; 78 FR 79598, Dec. 31, 2013; 79 FR 22307, Apr. 21, 2014; 79 FR 17816, Mar. 28, 2014]

Test Procedures
§ 431.63 Materials incorporated by reference.

(a) General. We incorporate by reference the following standards into subpart C of part 431. The material listed has been approved for incorporation by reference by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR 51. Any subsequent amendment to a standard by the standard-setting organization will not affect the DOE regulations unless and until amended by DOE. Material is incorporated as it exists on the date of the approval and a notice of any change in the material will be published in the Federal Register. All approved material is available for inspection at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of this material at NARA, call 202-741-6030 or go to http://www.archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. Also, this material is available for inspection at U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, 6th Floor, 950 L'Enfant Plaza, SW., Washington, DC 20024, 202-586-2945, or go to: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/appliance_standards/. Standards can be obtained from the sources listed below.

(b) ANSI. American National Standards Institute, 25 W. 43rd Street, 4th Floor, New York, NY 10036, 212-642-4900, or go to http://www.ansi.org:

(1) ANSI /AHAM HRF-1-2004, Energy, Performance and Capacity of Household Refrigerators, Refrigerator-Freezers and Freezers, approved July 7, 2004, IBR approved for § 431.64 and appendices A and B to subpart C to part 431.

(2) AHAM HRF-1-2008 (“HRF-1-2008”), Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers, Energy and Internal Volume of Refrigerating Appliances (2008) including Errata to Energy and Internal Volume of Refrigerating Appliances, Correction Sheet issued November 17, 2009, IBR approved for § 431.64 and appendices A and B to subpart C to part 431.

(c) AHRI. Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute, 2111 Wilson Blvd., Suite 500, Arlington, VA 22201, (703) 524-8800, , or http://www.ahrinet.org/Content/StandardsProgram_20.aspx.

(1) ARI Standard 1200-2006, Performance Rating of Commercial Refrigerated Display Merchandisers and Storage Cabinets, 2006, IBR approved for §§ 431.64 and 431.66, and appendices A and B to subpart C of part 431.

(2) AHRI Standard 1200 (I-P)-2010 (“AHRI Standard 1200 (I-P)-2010”), 2010 Standard for Performance Rating of Commercial Refrigerated Display Merchandisers and Storage Cabinets, 2010, IBR approved for §§ 431.64 and 431.66, and appendices A and B to subpart C of part 431.

(d) ASHRAE. The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc., 1971 Tullie Circle NE., Atlanta, GA 30329, or http://www.ashrae.org/.

(1) ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 72-2005, (ASHRAE 72-2005), “Method of Testing Commercial Refrigerators and Freezers,” Copyright 2005, IBR approved for § 431.62, and appendices A and B to subpart C of part 431.

(2) [Reserved]

(e) ASTM. ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, P.O. Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428, (877) 909-2786, or go to http://www.astm.org/.

(1) ASTM E 1084 (Reapproved 2009), “Standard Test Method for Solar Transmittance (Terrestrial) of Sheet Materials Using Sunlight,” approved April 1, 2009, IBR approved for § 431.62.

(2) [Reserved]

[74 FR 1139, Jan. 9, 2009, as amended at 77 FR 10318, Feb. 21, 2012; 78 FR 62993, Oct. 23, 2013; 79 FR 22308, Apr. 21, 2014]

§ 431.64 Uniform test method for the measurement of energy consumption of commercial refrigerators, freezers, and refrigerator-freezers.

(a) Scope. This section provides the test procedures for measuring, pursuant to EPCA, the daily energy consumption in kilowatt hours per day (kWh/day) for a given product category and volume or total display area of commercial refrigerators, freezers, and refrigerator-freezers.

(b) Testing and calculations. Determine the daily energy consumption of each covered commercial refrigerator, freezer, or refrigerator-freezer by conducting the appropriate test procedure set forth below, in appendix A or B to this subpart. The daily energy consumption of commercial refrigeration equipment shall be calculated using raw measured values and the final test results shall be reported in increments of 0.01 kWh/day.

[70 FR 60414, Oct. 18, 2005, as amended at 77 FR 10318, Feb. 21, 2012; 79 FR 22308, Apr. 21, 2014]

Energy Conservation Standards
§ 431.66 Energy conservation standards and their effective dates.

(a) In this section -

(1) The term “AV” means the adjusted volume (ft3) (defined as 1.63 × frozen temperature compartment volume (ft3) + chilled temperature compartment volume (ft3)) with compartment volumes measured in accordance with the Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers Standard HRF1-1979.

(2) The term “V” means the chilled or frozen compartment volume (ft3) (as defined in the Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers Standard HRF1-1979).

(3) For the purpose of paragraph (d) of this section, the term “TDA” means the total display area (ft2) of the case, as defined in ARI Standard 1200-2006, appendix D (incorporated by reference, see § 431.63). For the purpose of paragraph (e) of this section, the term “TDA” means the total display area (ft2) of the case, as defined in AHRI Standard 1200 (I-P)-2010, appendix D (incorporated by reference, see § 431.63).

(b)

(1) Each commercial refrigerator, freezer, and refrigerator-freezer with a self-contained condensing unit designed for holding temperature applications manufactured on or after January 1, 2010 and before March 27, 2017 shall have a daily energy consumption (in kilowatt-hours per day) that does not exceed the following:

Category Maximum daily energy consumption
(kilowatt hours per day)
Refrigerators with solid doors 0.10V + 2.04.
Refrigerators with transparent doors 0.12V + 3.34.
Freezers with solid doors 0.40V + 1.38.
Freezers with transparent doors 0.75V + 4.10.
Refrigerator/freezers with solid doors the greater of 0.27AV-0.71 or 0.70.

(2) Each service over the counter, self-contained, medium temperature commercial refrigerator (SOC-SC-M) manufactured on or after January 1, 2012, shall have a total daily energy consumption (in kilowatt hours per day) of not more than 0.6 × TDA + 1.0. As used in the preceding sentence, “TDA” means the total display area (ft2) of the case, as defined in the AHRI Standard 1200 (I-P)-2010, appendix D (incorporated by reference, see § 431.63).

(c) Each commercial refrigerator with a self-contained condensing unit designed for pull-down temperature applications and transparent doors manufactured on or after January 1, 2010 and before March 27, 2017 shall have a daily energy consumption (in kilowatt-hours per day) of not more than 0.126V + 3.51.

(d) Each commercial refrigerator, freezer, and refrigerator-freezer with a self-contained condensing unit and without doors; commercial refrigerator, freezer, and refrigerator-freezer with a remote condensing unit; and commercial ice-cream freezer manufactured on or after January 1, 2012 and before March 27, 2017 shall have a daily energy consumption (in kilowatt-hours per day) that does not exceed the levels specified:

(1) For equipment other than hybrid equipment, refrigerator-freezers or wedge cases:

Equipment category Condensing unit
configuration
Equipment
family
Rating
temp.
(°F)
Operating
temp.
(°F)
Equipment class
designation *
Maximum daily energy consumption
(kWh/day)
Remote Condensing Commercial Refrigerators and Commercial Freezers Remote (RC) Vertical Open (VOP) 38 (M)
0 (L)
≥32±2
<32±2
VOP.RC.M
VOP.RC.L
0.82 × TDA + 4.07
2.27 × TDA + 6.85
Semivertical Open (SVO) 38 (M)
0 (L)
≥32±2
<32±2
SVO.RC.M
SVO.RC.L
0.83 × TDA + 3.18
2.27 × TDA + 6.85
Horizontal Open (HZO) 38 (M)
0 (L)
≥32±2
<32±2
HZO.RC.M
HZO.RC.L
0.35 × TDA + 2.88
0.57 × TDA + 6.88
Vertical Closed Transparent (VCT) 38 (M)
0 (L)
≥32±2
<32±2
VCT.RC.M
VCT.RC.L
0.22 × TDA + 1.95
0.56 × TDA + 2.61
Horizontal Closed Transparent (HCT) 38 (M)
0 (L)
≥32±2
<32±2
HCT.RC.M
HCT.RC.L
0.16 × TDA + 0.13
0.34 × TDA + 0.26
Vertical Closed Solid (VCS) 38 (M)
0 (L)
≥32±2
<32±2
VCS.RC.M
VCS.RC.L
0.11 × V + 0.26
0.23 × V + 0.54
Horizontal Closed Solid (HCS) 38 (M)
0 (L)
≥32±2
<32±2
HCS.RC.M
HCS.RC.L
0.11 × V + 0.26
0.23 × V + 0.54
Service Over Counter (SOC) 38 (M)
0 (L)
≥32±2
<32±2
SOC.RC.M
SOC.RC.L
0.51 × TDA + 0.11
1.08 × TDA + 0.22
Self-Contained Commercial Refrigerators and Commercial Freezers without Doors Self-Contained (SC) Vertical Open (VOP) 38 (M)
0 (L)
≥32±2
<32±2
VOP.SC.M
VOP.SC.L
1.74 × TDA + 4.71
4.37 × TDA + 11.82
Semivertical Open (SVO) 38 (M)
0 (L)
≥32±2
<32±2
SVO.SC.M
SVO.SC.L
1.73 × TDA + 4.59
4.34 × TDA + 11.51
Horizontal Open 38 (M)
0 (L)
≥32±2
<32±2
HZO.SC.M
HZO.SC.L
0.77 × TDA + 5.55
1.92 × TDA + 7.08
Commercial Ice-Cream Freezers Remote (RC) Vertical Open (VOP) −15 (I) ≤−5±2** ** VOP.RC.I 2.89 × TDA + 8.7
Semivertical Open (SVO) SVO.RC.I 2.89 × TDA + 8.7
Horizontal Open (HZO) HZO.RC.I 0.72 × TDA + 8.74
Vertical Closed Transparent (VCT) VCT.RC.I 0.66 × TDA + 3.05
Horizontal Closed Transparent (HCT) HCT.RC.I 0.4 × TDA + 0.31
Vertical Closed Solid (VCS) VCS.RC.I 0.27 × V + 0.63
Horizontal Closed Solid (HCS) HCS.RC.I 0.27 × V + 0.63
Service Over Counter (SVO) SOC.RC.I 1.26 × TDA + 0.26
Self-Contained (SC) Vertical Open (VOP) VOP.SC.I 5.55 × TDA + 15.02
Semivertical Open (SVO) SVO.SC.I 5.52 × TDA + 14.63
Horizontal Open (HZO) HZO.SC.I 2.44 × TDA + 9
Vertical Closed Transparent (VCT) VCT.SC.I 0.67 × TDA + 3.29
Horizontal Closed Transparent (HCT) HCT.SC.I 0.56 × TDA + 0.43
Vertical Closed Solid (VCS) VCS.SC.I 0.38 × V + 0.88
Horizontal Closed Solid (HCS) HCS.SC.I 0.38 × V + 0.88
Service Over Counter (SVO) SOC.SC.I 1.76 × TDA + 0.36

(2) For commercial refrigeration equipment with two or more compartments (i.e., hybrid refrigerators, hybrid freezers, hybrid refrigerator-freezers, and non-hybrid refrigerator-freezers), the maximum daily energy consumption (MDEC) for each model shall be the sum of the MDEC values for all of its compartments. For each compartment, measure the TDA or volume of that compartment, and determine the appropriate equipment class based on that compartment's equipment family, condensing unit configuration, and designed operating temperature. The MDEC limit for each compartment shall be the calculated value obtained by entering that compartment's TDA or volume into the standard equation in paragraph (d)(1) of this section for that compartment's equipment class. Measure the calculated daily energy consumption (CDEC) or total daily energy consumption (TDEC) for the entire case:

(i) For remote condensing commercial hybrid refrigerators, hybrid freezers, hybrid refrigerator-freezers, and non-hybrid refrigerator-freezers, where two or more independent condensing units each separately cool only one compartment, measure the total refrigeration load of each compartment separately according to the ARI Standard 1200-2006 test procedure (incorporated by reference, see § 431.63). Calculate compressor energy consumption (CEC) for each compartment using Table 1 in ARI Standard 1200-2006 using the saturated evaporator temperature for that compartment. The CDEC for the entire case shall be the sum of the CEC for each compartment, fan energy consumption (FEC), lighting energy consumption (LEC), anti-condensate energy consumption (AEC), defrost energy consumption (DEC), and condensate evaporator pan energy consumption (PEC) (as measured in ARI Standard 1200-2006).

(ii) For remote condensing commercial hybrid refrigerators, hybrid freezers, hybrid refrigerator-freezers, and non-hybrid refrigerator-freezers, where two or more compartments are cooled collectively by one condensing unit, measure the total refrigeration load of the entire case according to the ARI Standard 1200-2006 test procedure (incorporated by reference, see § 431.63). Calculate a weighted saturated evaporator temperature for the entire case by:

(A) Multiplying the saturated evaporator temperature of each compartment by the volume of that compartment (as measured in ARI Standard 1200-2006),

(B) Summing the resulting values for all compartments, and

(C) Dividing the resulting total by the total volume of all compartments.

Calculate the CEC for the entire case using Table 1 in ARI Standard 1200-2006 (incorporated by reference, see § 431.63), using the total refrigeration load and the weighted average saturated evaporator temperature. The CDEC for the entire case shall be the sum of the CEC, FEC, LEC, AEC, DEC, and PEC.

(iii) For self-contained commercial hybrid refrigerators, hybrid freezers, hybrid refrigerator-freezers, and non-hybrid refrigerator-freezers, measure the TDEC for the entire case according to the ARI Standard 1200-2006 test procedure (incorporated by reference, see § 431.63).

(3) For remote-condensing and self-contained wedge cases, measure the CDEC or TDEC according to the ARI Standard 1200-2006 test procedure (incorporated by reference, see § 431.63). The MDEC for each model shall be the amount derived by incorporating into the standards equation in paragraph (d)(1) of this section for the appropriate equipment class a value for the TDA that is the product of:

(i) The vertical height of the air-curtain (or glass in a transparent door) and

(ii) The largest overall width of the case, when viewed from the front.

(e) Each commercial refrigerator, freezer, and refrigerator-freezer with a self-contained condensing unit designed for holding temperature applications and with solid or transparent doors; commercial refrigerator with a self-contained condensing unit designed for pull-down temperature applications and with transparent doors; commercial refrigerator, freezer, and refrigerator-freezer with a self-contained condensing unit and without doors; commercial refrigerator, freezer, and refrigerator-freezer with a remote condensing unit; and commercial ice-cream freezer manufactured on or after March 27, 2017, shall have a daily energy consumption (in kilowatt-hours per day) that does not exceed the levels specified:

(1) For equipment other than hybrid equipment, refrigerator/freezers, or wedge cases:

Equipment category Condensing
unit
configuration
Equipment
family
Rating
temp.
°F
Operating
temp.
°F
Equipment
class
designation *
Maximum
daily energy
consumption
kWh/day
Remote Condensing Commercial Refrigerators and Commercial Freezers Remote (RC) Vertical Open (VOP) 38 (M) ≥32 VOP.RC.M 0.64 × TDA + 4.07.
0 (L) <32 VOP.RC.L 2.2 × TDA + 6.85.
Semivertical Open (SVO) 38 (M) ≥32 SVO.RC.M 0.66 × TDA + 3.18.
0 (L) <32 SVO.RC.L 2.2 × TDA + 6.85.
Horizontal Open (HZO) 38 (M) ≥32 HZO.RC.M 0.35 × TDA + 2.88.
0 (L) <32 HZO.RC.L 0.55 × TDA + 6.88.
Vertical Closed Transparent (VCT) 38 (M) ≥32 VCT.RC.M 0.15 × TDA + 1.95.
0 (L) <32 VCT.RC.L 0.49 × TDA + 2.61.
Horizontal Closed Transparent (HCT) 38 (M) ≥32 HCT.RC.M 0.16 × TDA + 0.13.
0 (L) <32 HCT.RC.L 0.34 × TDA + 0.26.
Vertical Closed Solid (VCS) 38 (M) ≥32 VCS.RC.M 0.1 × V + 0.26.
0 (L) <32 VCS.RC.L 0.21 × V + 0.54.
Horizontal Closed Solid (HCS) 38 (M) ≥32 HCS.RC.M 0.1 × V + 0.26.
0 (L) <32 HCS.RC.L 0.21 × V + 0.54.
Service Over Counter (SOC) 38 (M) ≥32 SOC.RC.M 0.44 × TDA + 0.11.
0 (L) <32 SOC.RC.L 0.93 × TDA + 0.22.
Self-Contained Commercial Refrigerators and Commercial Freezers Without Doors Self-Contained (SC) Vertical Open (VOP) 38 (M) ≥32 VOP.SC.M 1.69 × TDA + 4.71.
0 (L) <32 VOP.SC.L 4.25 × TDA + 11.82.
Semivertical Open (SVO) 38 (M) ≥32 SVO.SC.M 1.7 × TDA + 4.59.
0 (L) <32 SVO.SC.L 4.26 × TDA + 11.51.
Horizontal Open (HZO) 38 (M) ≥32 HZO.SC.M 0.72 × TDA + 5.55.
0 (L) <32 HZO.SC.L 1.9 × TDA + 7.08.
Self-Contained Commercial Refrigerators and Commercial Freezers With Doors Self-Contained (SC) Vertical Closed Transparent (VCT) 38 (M) ≥32 VCT.SC.M 0.1 × V + 0.86.
0 (L) <32 VCT.SC.L 0.29 × V + 2.95.
Vertical Closed Solid (VCS) 38 (M) ≥32 VCS.SC.M 0.05 × V + 1.36.
<32 VCS.SC.L 0.22 × V + 1.38.
Horizontal Closed Transparent (HCT) 38 (M) ≥32 HCT.SC.M 0.06 × V + 0.37.
0 (L) <32 HCT.SC.L 0.08 × V + 1.23.
Horizontal Closed Solid (HCS) ≥32 HCS.SC.M 0.05 × V + 0.91.
0 (L) <32 HCS.SC.L 0.06 × V + 1.12.
Service Over Counter (SOC) ≥32 SOC.SC.M 0.52 × TDA + 1.
0 (L) <32 SOC.SC.L 1.1 × TDA + 2.1.
Self-Contained Commercial Refrigerators with Transparent Doors for Pull-Down Temperature Applications Self-Contained (SC) Pull-Down (PD) 38 (M) ≥32 PD.SC.M 0.11 × V + 0.81.
Commercial Ice-Cream Freezers Remote (RC) Vertical Open (VOP) −15 (I) ≤−5** VOP.RC.I 2.79 × TDA + 8.7.
Semivertical Open (SVO) SVO.RC.I 2.79 × TDA + 8.7.
Horizontal Open (HZO) HZO.RC.I 0.7 × TDA + 8.74.
Vertical Closed Transparent (VCT) VCT.RC.I 0.58 × TDA + 3.05.
Horizontal Closed Transparent (HCT) HCT.RC.I 0.4 × TDA + 0.31.
Vertical Closed Solid (VCS) VCS.RC.I 0.25 × V + 0.63.
Horizontal Closed Solid (HCS) HCS.RC.I 0.25 × V + 0.63.
Service Over Counter (SOC) SOC.RC.I 1.09 × TDA + 0.26.
Self-Contained (SC) Vertical Open (VOP) VOP.SC.I 5.4 × TDA + 15.02.
Semivertical Open (SVO) SVO.SC.I 5.41 × TDA + 14.63.
Horizontal Open (HZO) HZO.SC.I 2.42 × TDA + 9.
Vertical Closed Transparent (VCT) VCT.SC.I 0.62 × TDA + 3.29.
Horizontal Closed Transparent (HCT) HCT.SC.I 0.56 × TDA + 0.43.
Vertical Closed Solid (VCS) VCS.SC.I 0.34 × V + 0.88.
Horizontal Closed Solid (HCS) HCS.SC.I 0.34 × V + 0.88.
Service Over Counter (SOC) SOC.SC.I 1.53 × TDA + 0.36.

(2) For commercial refrigeration equipment with two or more compartments (i.e., hybrid refrigerators, hybrid freezers, hybrid refrigerator-freezers, and non-hybrid refrigerator-freezers), the maximum daily energy consumption for each model shall be the sum of the MDEC values for all of its compartments. For each compartment, measure the TDA or volume of that compartment, and determine the appropriate equipment class based on that compartment's equipment family, condensing unit configuration, and designed operating temperature. The MDEC limit for each compartment shall be the calculated value obtained by entering that compartment's TDA or volume into the standard equation in paragraph (e)(1) of this section for that compartment's equipment class. Measure the CDEC or TDEC for the entire case as described in § 431.66(d)(2)(i) through (iii), except that where measurements and calculations reference ARI Standard 1200-2006 (incorporated by reference, see § 431.63), AHRI Standard 1200 (I-P)-2010 (incorporated by reference, see § 431.63) shall be used.

(3) For remote condensing and self-contained wedge cases, measure the CDEC or TDEC according to the AHRI Standard 1200 (I-P)-2010 test procedure (incorporated by reference, see § 431.63). For wedge cases in equipment classes for which a volume metric is used, the MDEC shall be the amount derived from the appropriate standards equation in paragraph (e)(1) of this section. For wedge cases of equipment classes for which a TDA metric is used, the MDEC for each model shall be the amount derived by incorporating into the standards equation in paragraph (e)(1) of this section for the equipment class a value for the TDA that is the product of:

(i) The vertical height of the air curtain (or glass in a transparent door) and

(ii) The largest overall width of the case, when viewed from the front.

(f) Exclusions. The energy conservation standards in paragraphs (b) through (e) of this section do not apply to salad bars, buffet tables, and chef bases or griddle stands.

[70 FR 60414, Oct. 18, 2005, as amended at 74 FR 1140, Jan. 9, 2009; 78 FR 62993, Oct. 23, 2013; 79 FR 22308, Apr. 21, 2014; 79 FR 17816, Mar. 28, 2014]

Appendix A to Subpart C of Part 431 - Uniform Test Method for the Measurement of Energy Consumption of Commercial Refrigerators, Freezers, and Refrigerator-Freezers
Note:

After October 20, 2014 but before March 28, 2017, any representations made with respect to the energy use or efficiency of commercial refrigeration equipment must be made in accordance with the results of testing pursuant to this appendix.

Manufacturers conducting tests of commercial refrigeration equipment after May 21, 2014 and prior to October 20, 2014, must conduct such test in accordance with either this appendix or § 431.64 as it appeared at 10 CFR part 430, subpart B, in the 10 CFR parts 200 to 499 edition revised as of January 1, 2014. Any representations made with respect to the energy use or efficiency of such commercial refrigeration equipment must be in accordance with whichever version is selected. Given that after October 20, 2014 representations with respect to the energy use or efficiency of commercial refrigeration equipment must be made in accordance with tests conducted pursuant to this appendix, manufacturers may wish to begin using this test procedure as soon as possible.

1. Test Procedure

1.1. Determination of Daily Energy Consumption. Determine the daily energy consumption of each covered commercial refrigerator, freezer, refrigerator-freezer or ice-cream freezer by conducting the test procedure set forth in the Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute (ARI) Standard 1200-2006, “Performance Rating of Commercial Refrigerated Display Merchandisers and Storage Cabinets,” section 3, “Definitions,” section 4, “Test Requirements,” and section 7, “Symbols and Subscripts” (incorporated by reference, see § 431.63). For each commercial refrigerator, freezer, or refrigerator-freezer with a self-contained condensing unit, also use ARI Standard 1200-2006, section 6, “Rating Requirements for Self-contained Commercial Refrigerated Display Merchandisers and Storage Cabinets.” For each commercial refrigerator, freezer, or refrigerator-freezer with a remote condensing unit, also use ARI Standard 1200-2006, section 5, “Rating Requirements for Remote Commercial Refrigerated Display Merchandisers and Storage Cabinets.”

1.2. Methodology for Determining Applicability of Transparent Door Equipment Families. To determine if a door for a given model of commercial refrigeration equipment is transparent: (1) Calculate the outer door surface area including frames and mullions; (2) calculate the transparent surface area within the outer door surface area excluding frames and mullions; (3) calculate the ratio of (2) to (1) for each of the outer doors; and (4) the ratio for the transparent surface area of all outer doors must be greater than 0.25 to qualify as a transparent equipment family.

1.3. Additional Specifications for Testing of Components and Accessories. Subject to the provisions regarding specific components and accessories listed below, all standard components that would be used during normal operation of the basic model in the field shall be installed and in operation during testing as recommended by the manufacturer and representative of their typical operation in the field unless such installation and operation is inconsistent with any requirement of the test procedure. The specific components and accessories listed in the subsequent sections shall be operated as stated during the test.

1.3.1. Energy Management Systems. Applicable energy management systems may be activated during the test procedure provided they are permanently installed on the case, configured as sold and in such a manner so as to operate automatically without the intervention of the operator, and do not conflict with any of other requirements for a valid test as specified in this appendix.

1.3.2. Lighting. Energize all lighting, except customer display signs/lights as described in section 1.3.3 and UV lighting as described in section 1.3.6 of this appendix, to the maximum illumination level for the duration of testing. However, if a closed solid unit of commercial refrigeration equipment includes an automatic lighting control system that can turn off internal case lighting when the door is closed, and the manufacturer recommends the use of this system in writing in the product literature delivered with the unit, then the lighting control should be operated in the automatic setting, even if the model has a manual switch that disables the automatic lighting control.

1.3.3. Customer display signs/lights. Do not energize supplemental lighting that exists solely for the purposes of advertising or drawing attention to the case and is not integral to the operation of the case.

1.3.4. Condensate pan heaters and pumps. For self-contained equipment only, all electric resistance condensate heaters and condensate pumps must be installed and operational during the test. This includes the stabilization period (including pull-down), steady-state, and performance testing periods. Prior to the start of the stabilization period as defined by ASHRAE 72-2005 (incorporated by reference, see § 431.63), the condensate pan must be dry. Following the start of the stabilization period, allow any condensate moisture generated to accumulate in the pan. Do not manually add or remove water from the condensate pan at any time during the test.

1.3.5. Anti-sweat door heaters. Anti-sweat door heaters must be in operation during the entirety of the test procedure. Models with a user-selectable setting must have the heaters energized and set to the maximum usage position. Models featuring an automatic, non-user-adjustable controller that turns on or off based on environmental conditions must be operating in the automatic state. If a unit is not shipped with a controller from the point of manufacture and is intended to be used with an automatic, non-user-adjustable controller, test the unit with a manufacturer-recommended controller that turns on or off based on environmental conditions.

1.3.6. Ultraviolet lights. Do not energize ultraviolet lights during the test.

1.3.7. Illuminated temperature displays and alarms. All illuminated temperature displays and alarms shall be energized and operated during the test as they would be during normal field operation.

1.3.8. Condenser filters. Remove any nonpermanent filters that are provided to prevent particulates from blocking a model's condenser coil.

1.3.9. Refrigeration system security covers. Remove any devices used to secure the condensing unit against unwanted removal.

1.3.10. Night curtains and covers. Do not deploy night curtains or covers.

1.3.11. Grill options. Remove any optional, non-standard grills used to direct airflow.

1.3.12. Misting or humidification systems. Misting or humidification systems must be inactive during the test.

1.3.13. Air purifiers. Air purifiers must be inactive during the test.

1.3.14. General purpose outlets. During the test, do not connect any external load to any general purpose outlets contained within a unit.

1.3.15. Crankcase heaters. Crankcase heaters must be operational during the test. If a control system, such as a thermostat or electronic controller, is used to modulate the operation of the crankcase heater, it must be activated during the test.

1.3.16. Drawers. Drawers are to be treated as identical to doors when conducting the DOE test procedure. Commercial refrigeration equipment with drawers should be configured with the drawer pans that allow for the maximum packing of test simulators and filler packages without the filler packages and test simulators exceeding 90 percent of the refrigerated volume. Packing of test simulators and filler packages shall be in accordance with the requirements for commercial refrigerators without shelves, as specified in section 6.2.3 of ASHRAE 72-2005 (incorporated by reference, see § 431.63).

2. Test Conditions

2.1. Integrated Average Temperatures. Conduct the testing required in section 1 and 2 of this appendix A, and determine the daily energy consumption at the applicable integrated average temperature as found in the following table.

Category Test procedure Integrated average temperature
(i) Refrigerator with Solid Door(s) ARI Standard
1200-20061
38 °F (±2 °F).
(ii) Refrigerator with Transparent Door(s) ARI Standard
1200-20061
38 °F (±2 °F).
(iii) Freezer with Solid Door(s) ARI Standard
1200-20061
0 °F (±2 °F).
(iv) Freezer with Transparent Door(s) ARI Standard
1200-20061
0 °F (±2 °F).
(v) Refrigerator-Freezer with Solid Door(s) ARI Standard
1200-20061
38 °F (±2 °F) for refrigerator compartment. 0 °F (±2 °F) for freezer compartment.
(vi) Commercial Refrigerator with a Self-Contained Condensing Unit Designed for Pull-Down Temperature Applications and Transparent Doors ARI Standard
1200-20061
38 °F (±2 °F).
(vii) Ice-Cream Freezer ARI Standard
1200-20061
−15.0 °F (±2 °F).
(viii) Commercial Refrigerator, Freezer, and Refrigerator-Freezer with a Self-Contained Condensing Unit and without Doors ARI Standard
1200-20061
(A) 0 °F (±2 °F) for low temperature applications.
(B) 38 °F (±2 °F) for medium temperature applications.
(ix) Commercial Refrigerator, Freezer, and Refrigerator-Freezer with a Remote Condensing Unit ARI Standard
1200-20061
(A) 0 °F (±2 °F) for low temperature applications.
(B) 38 °F (±2 °F) for medium temperature applications.

2.2. Lowest Application Product Temperature. If a unit of commercial refrigeration equipment is not able to be operated at the integrated average temperature specified in the table in paragraph 2.1, test the unit at the lowest application product temperature (LAPT), as defined in § 431.62. For units equipped with a thermostat, LAPT is the lowest thermostat setting. For remote condensing equipment without a thermostat or other means of controlling temperature at the case, the lowest application product temperature is the temperature achieved with the dew point temperature (as defined in AHRI Standard 1200 (I-P)-2010 (incorporated by reference see § 431.63)) set to 5 degrees colder than that required to maintain the manufacturer's lowest specified operating temperature.

2.3. Testing at NSF Test Conditions. For commercial refrigeration equipment that is also tested in accordance with NSF test procedures (Type I and Type II), integrated average temperatures and ambient conditions used for NSF testing may be used in place of the DOE-prescribed integrated average temperatures and ambient conditions provided they result in a more stringent test. That is, the measured daily energy consumption of the same unit, when tested at the rating temperatures and/or ambient conditions specified in the DOE test procedure, must be lower than or equal to the measured daily energy consumption of the unit when tested with the rating temperatures or ambient conditions used for NSF testing. The integrated average temperature measured during the test may be lower than the range specified by the DOE applicable temperature specification provided in paragraph 2.1 of this appendix, but may not exceed the upper value of the specified range. Ambient temperatures and/or humidity values may be higher than those specified in the DOE test procedure.

3. Volume and Total Display Area

3.1. Determination of Volume. Determine the volume of a commercial refrigerator, freezer, refrigerator-freezer, or ice-cream freezer using the method set forth in the ANSI/AHAM HRF-1-2004, “Energy, Performance and Capacity of Household Refrigerators, Refrigerator-Freezers and Freezers” (incorporated by reference, see § 431.63), section 3.21, “Volume,” sections 4.1 through 4.3, “Method for Computing Total Refrigerated Volume and Total Shelf Area of Household Refrigerators and Household Wine Chillers,” and sections 5.1 through 5.3, “Method for Computing Total Refrigerated Volume and Total Shelf Area of Household Freezers.”

3.2. Determination of Total Display Area. Determine the total display area of a commercial refrigerator, freezer, refrigerator-freezer, or ice-cream freezer using the method set forth in ARI Standard 1200-2006 (incorporated by reference, see § 431.63), but disregarding the specification that “transparent material (≥65% light transmittance) in Appendix D. Specifically, total display area shall be the sum of the projected area(s) of visible product, expressed in ft2 (i.e., portions through which product can be viewed from an angle normal, or perpendicular, to the transparent area). Determine L as the interior length of the CRE model, provided no more than 10 percent of that length consists of non-transparent material. For those cases with greater than 10 percent of non-transparent area, L shall be determined as the projected linear dimension(s) of visible product plus 10 percent of non-transparent area.

See Figures A3.1, A3.2, A3.3, A3.4, and A3.5 as examples of how to calculate the dimensions associated with calculation of total display area. In the diagrams, Dh and L represent the dimensions of the projected visible product.

[79 FR 22308, Apr. 21, 2014]

Appendix B to Subpart C of Part 431 - Amended Uniform Test Method for the Measurement of Energy Consumption of Commercial Refrigerators, Freezers, and Refrigerator-Freezers
Note:

Any representations made on or after March 28, 2017, with respect to the energy use or efficiency of commercial refrigeration equipment must be made in accordance with the results of testing pursuant to this appendix.

1. Test Procedure

1.1. Determination of Daily Energy Consumption. Determine the daily energy consumption of each covered commercial refrigerator, freezer, refrigerator-freezer or ice-cream freezer by conducting the test procedure set forth in the AHRI Standard 1200 (I-P)-2010, section 3, “Definitions,” section 4, “Test Requirements,” and section 7, “Symbols and Subscripts” (incorporated by reference, see § 431.63). For each commercial refrigerator, freezer, or refrigerator-freezer with a self-contained condensing unit, also use AHRI Standard 1200 (I-P)-2010, section 6, “Rating Requirements for Self-contained Commercial Refrigerated Display Merchandisers and Storage Cabinets.” For each commercial refrigerator, freezer, or refrigerator-freezer with a remote condensing unit, also use AHRI Standard 1200 (I-P)-2010, section 5, “Rating Requirements for Remote Commercial Refrigerated Display Merchandisers and Storage Cabinets.”

1.2. Methodology for Determining Applicability of Transparent Door Equipment Families

To determine if a door for a given model of commercial refrigeration equipment is transparent: (1) Calculate the outer door surface area including frames and mullions; (2) calculate the transparent surface area within the outer door surface area excluding frames and mullions; (3) calculate the ratio of (2) to (1) for each of the outer doors; and (4) the ratio for the transparent surface area of all outer doors must be greater than 0.25 to qualify as a transparent equipment family.

1.3. Additional Specifications for Testing of Components and Accessories. All standard components that would be used during normal operation of the basic model in the field shall be installed and used during testing as recommended by the manufacturer and representative of their typical operation in the field unless such installation and operation is inconsistent with any requirement of the test procedure. The specific components and accessories listed in the subsequent sections shall be operated as stated during the test.

1.3.1. Energy Management Systems. Applicable energy management systems may be activated during the test procedure provided they are permanently installed on the case, configured and sold in such a manner so as to operate automatically without the intervention of the operator, and do not conflict with any of other requirements for a valid test as specified in this appendix.

1.3.2. Lighting. All lighting except for customer display signs/lights as described in section 1.3.3 and UV lighting as described in section 1.3.6 of this appendix shall be energized to the maximum illumination level for the duration of testing for commercial refrigeration equipment with lighting except when the unit is equipped with lighting occupancy sensors and controls. If the unit includes an automatic lighting control system, it should be enabled during test. If the unit is equipped with lighting occupancy sensors and controls in should be tested in accordance with section 1.3.2.1 of this appendix.

1.3.2.1. Lighting Occupancy Sensors and Controls. For units with lighting occupancy sensors and/or scheduled lighting controls installed on the unit, determine the effect of the controls/sensors on daily energy consumption by either a physical test or a calculation method and using the variables that are defined as:

CECA is the alternate compressor energy consumption (kilowatt-hours);

LECsc is the lighting energy consumption of internal case lights with lighting occupancy sensors and controls deployed (kilowatt-hours);

Pli is the rated power of lights when they are fully on (watts);

Pli(off) is the power of lights when they are off (watts);

Pli(dim) is the power of lights when they are dimmed (watts);

TDECo is the total daily energy consumption with lights fully on, as measured by AHRI Standard 1200 (I-P)-2010 (kilowatt-hours);

tdim is the time period during which the lights are dimmed due to the use of lighting occupancy sensors or scheduled lighting controls (hours);

tdim,controls is the time case lighting is dimmed due to the use of lighting controls (hours);

tdim,sensors is the time case lighting is dimmed due to the use of lighting occupancy sensors (hours);

tl is the time period when lights would be on without lighting occupancy sensors and/or scheduled lighting controls (24 hours);

toff is the time period during which the lights are off due to the use of lighting occupancy sensors and/or scheduled lighting controls (hours);

toff,controls is the time case lighting is off due to the use of scheduled lighting controls (hours);

toff,sensors is the time case lighting is off due to the use of lighting occupancy sensors (hours); and

tsc is the time period when lighting is fully on with lighting occupancy sensors and scheduled lighting controls enabled (hours).

1.3.2.1.i. For both a physical test and a calculation method, determine the estimated time off or dimmed, toff or tdim, as the sum of contributions from lighting occupancy sensors and scheduled lighting controls that dim or turn off lighting, respectively, as shown in the following equation:

The sum of tsc, toff, and tdim should equal 24 hours and the total time period during which the lights are off or dimmed shall not exceed 10.8 hours. For cases with scheduled lighting controls, the time the case lighting is off and/or dimmed due to scheduled lighting controls (toff,controls and/or tdim,controls, as applicable) shall not exceed 8 hours. For cases with lighting occupancy sensors installed, the time the case lighting is off and/or dimmed due to lighting occupancy sensors (toff,sensors and/or tdim,sensors, as applicable) shall not exceed 10.8 hours. For cases with lighting occupancy sensors and scheduled lighting controls installed, the time the case lighting is off and/or dimmed due to lighting occupancy sensors (toff,sensors and/or tdim,sensors, as applicable) shall not exceed 2.8 hours and the time the case lighting is off and/or dimmed due to scheduled lighting controls (toff,controls and/or tdim,controls, as applicable) shall not exceed 8 hours.

1.3.2.1.ii. If using a physical test to determine the daily energy consumption, turn off the lights for a time period equivalent to toff and dim the lights for a time period equal to tdim. If night curtains are also being tested on the case, the period of lights off and/or dimmed shall begin at the same time that the night curtain is being deployed and shall continue consecutively, in that order, for the appropriate number of hours.

1.3.2.1.iii. If using a calculation method to determine the daily energy consumption -

Where EER represents the energy efficiency ratio from Table 1 in AHRI Standard 1200 (I-P)-2010 (incorporated by reference, see § 431.63) for remote condensing equipment or the values shown in the following table for self-contained equipment:

EER for Self-Contained Commercial Refrigerated Display Merchandisers and Storage Cabinets

Operating temperature class EER
Btu/W
Medium 11
Low 7
Ice Cream 5

1.3.2.1.iii.C. For remote condensing units, calculate the revised compressor energy consumption (CECR) by adding the CECA to the compressor energy consumption (CEC) measured in AHRI Standard 1200 (I-P)-2010 (incorporated by reference, see § 431.63). The CDEC for the entire case is the sum of the CECR and LECsc (as calculated above) and the fan energy consumption (FEC), anti-condensate energy consumption (AEC), defrost energy consumption (DEC), and condensate evaporator pan energy consumption (PEC) (as measured in AHRI Standard 1200 (I-P)-2010).

1.3.2.1.iii.D. For self-contained units, the TDEC for the entire case is the sum of total daily energy consumption as measured by the AHRI Standard 1200 (I-P)-2010 (incorporated by reference, see § 431.63) test with the lights fully on (TDECo) and CECA, less the decrease in lighting energy use due to lighting occupancy sensors and scheduled lighting controls, as shown in following equation.

1.3.3. Customer display signs/lights. Do not energize supplemental lighting that exists solely for the purposes of advertising or drawing attention to the case and is not integral to the operation of the case.

1.3.4. Condensate pan heaters and pumps. For self-contained equipment only, all electric resistance condensate heaters and condensate pumps must be installed and in operation during the test. This includes the stabilization period (including pull-down), steady-state, and performance testing periods. Prior to the start of the stabilization period as defined by ASHRAE 72-2005 (incorporated by reference, see § 431.63), the condensate pan must be dry. Following the start of the stabilization period, allow any condensate moisture generated to accumulate in the pan. Do not manually add or remove water to or from the condensate pan at any time during the test.

1.3.5. Anti-sweat door heaters. Anti-sweat door heaters must be operational during the entirety of the test procedure. Models with a user-selectable setting must have the heaters energized and set to the maximum usage position. Models featuring an automatic, non-user-adjustable controller that turns on or off based on environmental conditions must be operating in the automatic state. If a unit is not shipped with a controller from the point of manufacture and is intended to be used with an automatic, non-user-adjustable controller, test the unit with a manufacturer-recommended controller that turns on or off based on environmental conditions.

1.3.6. Ultraviolet lights. Do not energize ultraviolet lights during the test.

1.3.7. Illuminated temperature displays and alarms. All illuminated temperature displays and alarms shall be energized and operated during the test as they would be during normal field operation.

1.3.8. Condenser filters. Remove any nonpermanent filters that are provided to prevent particulates from blocking a model's condenser coil.

1.3.9. Refrigeration system security covers. Remove any devices used to secure the condensing unit against unwanted removal.

1.3.10. Night curtains and covers. For display cases sold with night curtains installed, the night curtain shall be employed for 6 hours; beginning 3 hours after the start of the first defrost period. Upon the completion of the 6-hour period, the night curtain shall be raised until the completion of the 24-hour test period.

1.3.11. Grill options. Remove any optional non-standard grills used to direct airflow.

1.3.12. Misting or humidification systems. Misting or humidification systems must be inactive during the test.

1.3.13. Air purifiers. Air purifiers must be inactive during the test.

1.3.14. General purpose outlets. During the test, do not connect any external load to any general purpose outlets contained within a unit.

1.3.15. Crankcase heaters. Crankcase heaters must be operational during the test. If a control system, such as a thermostat or electronic controller, is used to modulate the operation of the crankcase heater, it must be utilized during the test.

1.3.16. Drawers. Drawers are to be treated as identical to doors when conducting the DOE test procedure. Commercial refrigeration equipment with drawers should be configured with the drawer pans that allow for the maximum packing of test simulators and filler packages without the filler packages and test simulators exceeding 90 percent of the refrigerated volume. Packing of test simulators and filler packages shall be in accordance with the requirements for commercial refrigerators without shelves, as specified in section 6.2.3 of ASHRAE 72-2005 (incorporated by reference, see § 431.63).

2. Test Conditions

2.1. Integrated Average Temperatures. Conduct the testing required in section 1 of this appendix B, and determine the daily energy consumption at the applicable integrated average temperature in the following table.

Category Test procedure Integrated average temperature
(i) Refrigerator with Solid Door(s) AHRI Standard 1200 (I-P)-20101 38 °F (±2 °F).
(ii) Refrigerator with Transparent Door(s) AHRI Standard 1200 (I-P)-20101 38 °F (±2 °F).
(iii) Freezer with Solid Door(s) AHRI Standard 1200 (I-P)-20101 0 °F (±2 °F).
(iv) Freezer with Transparent Door(s) AHRI Standard 1200 (I-P)-20101 0 °F (±2 °F).
(v) Refrigerator-Freezer with Solid Door(s) AHRI Standard 1200 (I-P)-20101 38 °F (±2 °F) for refrigerator compartment.
0 °F (±2 °F) for freezer compartment.
(vi) Commercial Refrigerator with a Self-Contained Condensing Unit Designed for Pull-Down Temperature Applications and Transparent Doors AHRI Standard 1200 (I-P)-20101 38 °F (±2 °F).
(vii) Ice-Cream Freezer AHRI Standard 1200 (I-P)-20101 −15.0 °F (±2 °F).
(viii) Commercial Refrigerator, Freezer, and Refrigerator-Freezer with a Self-Contained Condensing Unit and without Doors AHRI Standard 1200 (I-P)-20101 (A) 0 °F (±2 °F) for low temperature applications.
(B) 38.0 °F (±2 °F) for medium temperature applications.
(ix) Commercial Refrigerator, Freezer, and Refrigerator-Freezer with a Remote Condensing Unit AHRI Standard 1200 (I-P)-20101 (A) 0 °F (±2 °F) for low temperature applications.
(B) 38.0 °F (±2 °F) for medium temperature applications.

2.2. Lowest Application Product Temperature. If a unit of commercial refrigeration equipment is not able to be operated at the integrated average temperature specified in the table in paragraph 2.1 of this appendix, test the unit at the lowest application product temperature (LAPT), as defined in § 431.62. For units equipped with a thermostat, LAPT is the lowest thermostat setting. For remote condensing equipment without a thermostat or other means of controlling temperature at the case, the lowest application product temperature is the temperature achieved with the dew point temperature (as defined in AHRI Standard 1200 (I-P)-2010 (incorporated by reference, see § 431.63)) set to 5 degrees colder than that required to maintain the manufacturer's lowest specified application temperature.

2.3. Testing at NSF Test Conditions. For commercial refrigeration equipment that is also tested in accordance with NSF test procedures (Type I and Type II), integrated average temperatures and ambient conditions used for NSF testing may be used in place of the DOE-prescribed integrated average temperatures and ambient conditions provided they result in a more stringent test. That is, the measured daily energy consumption of the same unit, when tested at the rating temperatures and/or ambient conditions specified in the DOE test procedure, must be lower than or equal to the measured daily energy consumption of the unit when tested with the rating temperatures or ambient conditions used for NSF testing. The integrated average temperature measured during the test may be lower than the range specified by the DOE applicable temperature specification provided in paragraph 2.1 of this appendix, but may not exceed the upper value of the specified range. Ambient temperatures and/or humidity values may be higher than those specified in the DOE test procedure.

3. Volume and Total Display Area

3.1. Determination of Volume. Determine the volume of a commercial refrigerator, freezer, refrigerator-freezer, or ice-cream freezer using the method set forth in the HRF-1-2008 (incorporated by reference, see § 431.63), section 3.30, “Volume,” and sections 4.1 through 4.3, “Method for Computing Refrigerated Volume of Refrigerators, Refrigerator-Freezers, Wine Chillers and Freezers.”

3.2. Determination of Total Display Area. Determine the total display area of a commercial refrigerator, freezer, refrigerator-freezer, or ice-cream freezer using the method set forth in ARI Standard 1200-2006 (incorporated by reference, see § 431.63), but disregarding the specification that “transparent material (≥65% light transmittance) in Appendix D. Specifically, total display area shall be the sum of the projected area(s) of visible product, expressed in ft2 (i.e., portions through which product can be viewed from an angle normal, or perpendicular, to the transparent area). Determine L as the interior length of the CRE model, provided no more than 5 inches of that length consists of non-transparent material. For those cases with greater than 5 inches of non-transparent area, L shall be determined as the projected linear dimension(s) of visible product plus 5 inches of non-transparent area.

See Figures A3.1, A3.2, and A3.3 as examples of how to calculate the dimensions associated with calculation of total display area. In the diagrams, Dh and L represent the dimensions of the projected visible product.

[79 FR 22308, Apr. 21, 2014]

Subpart D - Commercial Warm Air Furnaces
Source:

69 FR 61939, Oct. 21, 2004, unless otherwise noted.

§ 431.71 Purpose and scope.

This subpart contains energy conservation requirements for commercial warm air furnaces, pursuant to Part C of Title III of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act, as amended, 42 U.S.C. 6311-6317.

[69 FR 61939, Oct. 21, 2004, as amended at 70 FR 60415, Oct. 18, 2005]

§ 431.72 Definitions concerning commercial warm air furnaces.

The following definitions apply for purposes of this subpart D, and of subparts J through M of this part. Any words or terms not defined in this Section or elsewhere in this part shall be defined as provided in Section 340 of the Act.

Basic model means all commercial warm air furnaces manufactured by one manufacturer within a single equipment class, that have the same nominal input rating and the same primary energy source (e.g. gas or oil) and that do not have any differing physical or functional characteristics that affect energy efficiency.

Commercial warm air furnace means a warm air furnace that is industrial equipment, and that has a capacity (rated maximum input) of 225,000 Btu per hour or more.

Thermal efficiency for a commercial warm air furnace equals 100 percent minus percent flue loss determined using test procedures prescribed under § 431.76.

Warm air furnace means a self-contained oil-fired or gas-fired furnace designed to supply heated air through ducts to spaces that require it and includes combination warm air furnace/electric air conditioning units but does not include unit heaters and duct furnaces.

[69 FR 61939, Oct. 21, 2004, as amended at 76 FR 12503, Mar. 7, 2011; 78 FR 79598, Dec. 31, 2013]

Test Procedures
§ 431.75 Materials incorporated by reference.

(a) General. DOE incorporates by reference the following test procedures into subpart D of part 431. The materials listed have been approved for incorporation by reference by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Any subsequent amendment to the listed materials by the standard-setting organization will not affect the DOE regulations unless and until such regulations are amended by DOE. Materials are incorporated as they exist on the date of the approval, and a notice of any changes in the materials will be published in the Federal Register. All approved materials are available for inspection at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of this material at NARA, call (202) 741-6030 or go to: http://www.archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. Also, these materials are available for inspection at U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, 6th Floor, 950 L'Enfant Plaza SW., Washington, DC 20024, (202) 586-2945, or go to: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/appliance_standards/. The referenced test procedure standards are listed below by relevant standard-setting organization, along with information on how to obtain copies from those sources.

(b) ANSI. American National Standards Institute. 25 W. 43rd Street, 4th Floor, New York, NY 10036. (212) 642-4900 or go to http://www.ansi.org.

(1) ANSI Z21.47-2012, (“ANSI Z21.47”) “Standard for Gas-fired Central Furnaces,” approved March 27, 2012, IBR approved for § 431.76.

(2) [Reserved]

(c) ASHRAE. American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers Inc., 1791 Tullie Circle NE., Atlanta, Georgia 30329, (404) 636-8400, or go to: http://www.ashrae.org.

(1) ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 103-2007, (“ASHRAE 103”), “Method of Testing for Annual Fuel Utilization Efficiency of Residential Central Furnaces and Boilers,” sections 7.2.2.4, 7.8, 9.2, and 11.3.7, approved June 27, 2007, IBR approved for § 431.76.

(2) [Reserved]

(d) HI. Hydronics Institute Division of AHRI, 35 Russo Place, P.O. Box 218, Berkeley Heights, NJ 07922, (703) 600-0350, or go to: http://www.ahrinet.org/hydronics + institute + section.aspx.

(1) HI BTS-2000, sections 8.2.2, 11.1.4, 11.1.5, and 11.1.6.2, “Method to Determine Efficiency of Commercial Space Heating Boilers,” published January 2001, IBR approved for § 431.76.

(2) [Reserved]

(e) UL. Underwriters Laboratories, Inc., 333 Pfingsten Road, Northbrook, IL 60062, (847) 272-8800, or go to: http://www.ul.com.

(1) UL 727 (UL 727-1994), “Standard for Safety Oil-Fired Central Furnaces,” published on August 1, 1994, IBR approved for § 431.76.

(2) UL 727 (UL 727-2006), “Standard for Safety Oil-Fired Central Furnaces,” approved April 7, 2006, IBR approved for § 431.76.

(3) [Reserved]

[77 FR 28987, May 16, 2012, as amended at 80 FR 42663, July 17, 2015]

§ 431.76 Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial warm air furnaces.

(a) Scope. This section covers the test requirements used to measure the energy efficiency of commercial warm air furnaces with a rated maximum input of 225,000 Btu per hour or more. On and after July 11, 2016, any representations made with respect to the energy use or efficiency of commercial warm air furnaces must be made in accordance with the results of testing pursuant to this section. At that time, you must use the relevant procedures in ANSI Z21.47 or UL 727-2006 (incorporated by reference, see § 431.75). On and after August 17, 2015 and prior to July 11, 2016, manufacturers must test commercial warm air furnaces in accordance with this amended section or the section as it appeared at 10 CFR part 430, subpart B in the 10 CFR parts 200 to 499 edition revised January 1, 2014. DOE notes that, because testing under this section is required as of July 11, 2016, manufacturers may wish to begin using this amended test procedure immediately. Any representations made with respect to the energy use or efficiency of such commercial warm air furnaces must be made in accordance with whichever version is selected.

(b) Testing. Where this section prescribes use of ANSI Z21.47 or UL 727-2006 (incorporated by reference, see § 431.75), perform only the procedures pertinent to the measurement of the steady-state efficiency, as specified in paragraph (c) of this section.

(c) Test set-up.

(1) Test set-up for gas-fired commercial warm air furnaces. The test set-up, including flue requirement, instrumentation, test conditions, and measurements for determining thermal efficiency is as specified in sections 1.1 (Scope), 2.1 (General), 2.2 (Basic Test Arrangements), 2.3 (Test Ducts and Plenums), 2.4 (Test Gases), 2.5 (Test Pressures and Burner Adjustments), 2.6 (Static Pressure and Air Flow Adjustments), 2.39 (Thermal Efficiency), and 4.2.1 (Basic Test Arrangements for Direct Vent Central Furnaces) of ANSI Z21.47 (incorporated by reference, see § 431.75). The thermal efficiency test must be conducted only at the normal inlet test pressure, as specified in section 2.5.1 of ANSI Z21.47, and at the maximum hourly Btu input rating specified by the manufacturer for the product being tested.

(2) Test setup for oil-fired commercial warm air furnaces. The test setup, including flue requirement, instrumentation, test conditions, and measurement for measuring thermal efficiency is as specified in sections 1 (Scope), 2 (Units of Measurement), 3 (Glossary), 37 (General), 38 and 39 (Test Installation), 40 (Instrumentation, except 40.4 and 40.6.2 through 40.6.7, which are not required for the thermal efficiency test), 41 (Initial Test Conditions), 42 (Combustion Test - Burner and Furnace), 43.2 (Operation Tests), 44 (Limit Control Cutout Test), 45 (Continuity of Operation Test), and 46 (Air Flow, Downflow or Horizontal Furnace Test), of UL 727-2006 (incorporated by reference, see § 431.75). You must conduct a fuel oil analysis for heating value, hydrogen content, carbon content, pounds per gallon, and American Petroleum Institute (API) gravity as specified in section 8.2.2 of HI BTS-2000 (incorporated by reference, see § 431.75). The steady-state combustion conditions, specified in Section 42.1 of UL 727-2006, are attained when variations of not more than 5 °F in the measured flue gas temperature occur for three consecutive readings taken 15 minutes apart.

(d) Additional test measurements -

(1) Measurement of flue CO2 (carbon dioxide) for oil-fired commercial warm air furnaces. In addition to the flue temperature measurement specified in section 40.6.8 of UL 727-2006 (incorporated by reference, see § 431.75), you must locate one or two sampling tubes within six inches downstream from the flue temperature probe (as indicated on Figure 40.3 of UL 727-2006). If you use an open end tube, it must project into the flue one-third of the chimney connector diameter. If you use other methods of sampling CO2, you must place the sampling tube so as to obtain an average sample. There must be no air leak between the temperature probe and the sampling tube location. You must collect the flue gas sample at the same time the flue gas temperature is recorded. The CO2 concentration of the flue gas must be as specified by the manufacturer for the product being tested, with a tolerance of ±0.1 percent. You must determine the flue CO2 using an instrument with a reading error no greater than ±0.1 percent.

(2) Procedure for the measurement of condensate for a gas-fired condensing commercial warm air furnace. The test procedure for the measurement of the condensate from the flue gas under steady-state operation must be conducted as specified in sections 7.2.2.4, 7.8, and 9.2 of ASHRAE 103 (incorporated by reference, see § 431.75) under the maximum rated input conditions. You must conduct this condensate measurement for an additional 30 minutes of steady-state operation after completion of the steady-state thermal efficiency test specified in paragraph (c) of this section.

(e) Calculation of thermal efficiency -

(1) Gas-fired commercial warm air furnaces. You must use the calculation procedure specified in section 2.39, Thermal Efficiency, of ANSI Z21.47 (incorporated by reference, see § 431.75).

(2) Oil-fired commercial warm air furnaces. You must calculate the percent flue loss (in percent of heat input rate) by following the procedure specified in sections 11.1.4, 11.1.5, and 11.1.6.2 of the HI BTS-2000 (incorporated by reference, see § 431.75). The thermal efficiency must be calculated as: Thermal Efficiency (percent) = 100 percent − flue loss (in percent).

(f) Procedure for the calculation of the additional heat gain and heat loss, and adjustment to the thermal efficiency, for a condensing commercial warm air furnace.

(1) You must calculate the latent heat gain from the condensation of the water vapor in the flue gas, and calculate heat loss due to the flue condensate down the drain, as specified in sections 11.3.7.1 and 11.3.7.2 of ASHRAE 103 (incorporated by reference, see § 431.75), with the exception that in the equation for the heat loss due to hot condensate flowing down the drain in section 11.3.7.2, the assumed indoor temperature of 70 °F and the temperature term TOA must be replaced by the measured room temperature as specified in section 2.2.8 of ANSI Z21.47 (incorporated by reference, see § 431.75).

(2) Adjustment to the thermal efficiency for condensing furnaces. You must adjust the thermal efficiency as calculated in paragraph (e)(1) of this section by adding the latent gain, expressed in percent, from the condensation of the water vapor in the flue gas, and subtracting the heat loss (due to the flue condensate down the drain), also expressed in percent, both as calculated in paragraph (f)(1) of this section, to obtain the thermal efficiency of a condensing furnace.

[80 FR 42663, July 17, 2015]

Energy Conservation Standards
§ 431.77 Energy conservation standards and their effective dates.

(a) Gas-fired commercial warm air furnaces. Each gas-fired commercial warm air furnace must meet the following energy efficiency standard levels:

(1) For gas-fired commercial warm air furnaces manufactured starting on January 1, 1994, until January 1, 2023, the TE at the maximum rated capacity (rated maximum input) must be not less than 80 percent; and

(2) For gas-fired commercial warm air furnaces manufactured starting on January 1, 2023, the TE at the maximum rated capacity (rated maximum input) must be not less than 81 percent.

(b) Oil-fired commercial warm air furnaces. Each oil-fired commercial warm air furnace must meet the following energy efficiency standard levels:

(1) For oil-fired commercial warm air furnaces manufactured starting on January 1, 1994, until January 1, 2023, the TE at the maximum rated capacity (rated maximum input) must be not less than 81 percent; and

(2) For oil-fired commercial warm air furnaces manufactured starting on January 1, 2023, the TE at the maximum rated capacity (rated maximum input) must be not less than 82 percent.

[81 FR 2528, Jan. 15, 2016]

Subpart E - Commercial Packaged Boilers
Source:

69 FR 61960, Oct. 21, 2004, unless otherwise noted.

§ 431.81 Purpose and scope.

This subpart contains energy conservation requirements for certain commercial packaged boilers, pursuant to Part C of Title III of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act. (42 U.S.C. 6311-6317)

[69 FR 61960, Oct. 21, 2004, as amended at 70 FR 60415, Oct. 18, 2005]

§ 431.82 Definitions concerning commercial packaged boilers.

The following definitions apply for purposes of this subpart E, and of subparts A and J through M of this part. Any words or terms not defined in this section or elsewhere in this part shall be defined as provided in 42 U.S.C. 6311.

Basic model means all commercial packaged boilers manufactured by one manufacturer within a single equipment class having the same primary energy source (e.g., gas or oil) and that have essentially identical electrical, physical and functional characteristics that affect energy efficiency.

Btu/h or Btu/hr means British thermal units per hour.

Combustion efficiency for a commercial packaged boiler is a measurement of how much of the fuel input energy is converted to useful heat in combustion and is calculated as 100-percent minus percent losses due to dry flue gas, incomplete combustion, and moisture formed by combustion of hydrogen, as determined with the test procedures prescribed under § 431.86 of this chapter.

Commercial packaged boiler means a packaged boiler that meets all of the following criteria:

(1) Has rated input of 300,000 Btu/h or greater;

(2) Is, to any significant extent, distributed in commerce for space conditioning and/or service water heating in buildings but does not meet the definition of “hot water supply boiler” in this part;

(3) Does not meet the definition of “field-constructed” in this section; and

(4) Is designed to:

(i) Operate at a steam pressure at or below 15 psig;

(ii) Operate at or below a water pressure of 160 psig and water temperature of 250 °F; or

(iii) Operate at the conditions specified in both paragraphs (4)(i) and (ii) of this definition.

Condensing boiler means a commercial packaged boiler that condenses part of the water vapor in the flue gases, and that includes a means of collecting and draining this condensate from its heat exchanger section.

Field-constructed means custom-designed equipment that requires welding of structural components in the field during installation. For the purposes of this definition, welding does not include attachment using mechanical fasteners or brazing; any jackets, shrouds, venting, burner, or burner mounting hardware are not structural components.

Flue condensate means liquid formed by the condensation of moisture in the flue gases.

Fuel input rate for a commercial packaged boiler means the measured rate at which the commercial packaged boiler uses energy and is determined using test procedures prescribed under § 431.86 of this chapter.

Manufacturer of a commercial packaged boiler means any person who manufactures, produces, assembles or imports such a boiler, including any person who:

(1) Manufactures, produces, assembles or imports a commercial packaged boiler in its entirety;

(2) Manufactures, produces, assembles or imports a commercial packaged boiler in part, and specifies or approves the boiler's components, including burners or other components produced by others, as for example by specifying such components in a catalogue by make and model number or parts number; or

(3) Is any vendor or installer who sells a commercial packaged boiler that consists of a combination of components that is not specified or approved by a person described in paragraph (1) or (2) of this definition.

Packaged boiler means a boiler that is shipped complete with heating equipment, mechanical draft equipment, and automatic controls and is usually shipped in one or more sections. If the boiler is shipped in more than one section, the sections may be produced by more than one manufacturer, and may be originated or shipped at different times and from more than one location.

Rated input means the maximum rate at which the commercial packaged boiler has been rated to use energy as indicated by the nameplate and in the manual shipped with the commercial packaged boiler.

Thermal efficiency for a commercial packaged boiler is determined using test procedures prescribed under § 431.86 and is the ratio of the heat absorbed by the water or the water and steam to the higher heating value in the fuel burned.

[69 FR 61960, Oct. 21, 2004, as amended at 74 FR 36354, July 22, 2009; 76 FR 12503, Mar. 7, 2011; 78 FR 79598, Dec. 31, 2013; 81 FR 89304, Dec. 9, 2016]

Test Procedures
§ 431.85 Materials incorporated by reference.

(a) General. We incorporate by reference the following standards into subpart E of part 431. The material listed has been approved for incorporation by reference by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Any subsequent amendment to a standard by the standard-setting organization will not affect the DOE regulations unless and until amended by DOE. Material is incorporated as it exists on the date of the approval and a notice of any change in the material will be published in the Federal Register. All approved material is available for inspection at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of this material at NARA, call 202-741-6030 or go to http://www.archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. Also, this material is available for inspection at U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, 6th Floor, 950 L'Enfant Plaza, SW., Washington, DC 20024, 202-586-2945, or go to: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/appliance_standards/. Standards can be obtained from the sources listed below.

(b) AHRI. Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute, 2111 Wilson Blvd., Suite 500, Arlington, VA 22201, (703) 524-8800, or go to: http://www.ahrinet.org.

(1) AHRI Standard 1500-2015, (“ANSI/AHRI Standard 1500-2015”), “2015 Standard for Performance Rating of Commercial Space Heating Boilers,” ANSI approved November 28, 2014, IBR approved for appendix A to subpart E as follows:

(i) Section 3 - Definitions (excluding introductory text to section 3, introductory text to 3.2, 3.2.4, 3.2.7, 3.6, 3.12, 3.13, 3.20, 3.23, 3.24, 3.26, 3.27, and 3.31);

(ii) Section 5 - Rating Requirements, 5.3 Standard Rating Conditions: (excluding introductory text to section 5.3, 5.3.5, 5.3.8, and 5.3.9);

(iii) Appendix C - Methods of Testing for Rating Commercial Space Heating Boilers - Normative, excluding C2.1, C2.7.2.2.2, C3.1.3, C3.5-C3.7, C4.1.1.1.2, C4.1.1.2.3, C4.1.2.1.5, C4.1.2.2.2, C4.1.2.2.3, C4.2, C5, C7.1, C7.2.12, C7.2.20;

(iv) Appendix D. Properties of Saturated Steam - Normative.

(v) Appendix E. Correction Factors for Heating Values of Fuel Gases - Normative.

(2) [Reserved].

[74 FR 36354, July 22, 2009, as amended at 81 FR 89305, Dec. 9, 2016]

§ 431.86 Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial packaged boilers.

(a) Scope. This section provides test procedures, pursuant to the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA), as amended, which must be followed for measuring the combustion efficiency and/or thermal efficiency of a gas- or oil-fired commercial packaged boiler.

(b) Testing and Calculations. Determine the thermal efficiency or combustion efficiency of commercial packaged boilers by conducting the appropriate test procedure(s) indicated in Table 1 of this section.

Table 1 - Test Requirements for Commercial Packaged Boiler Equipment Classes

Equipment category Subcategory Certified rated input
Btu/h
Standards efficiency metric
(§ 431.87)
Test procedure
(corresponding to
standards efficiency
metric required
by § 431.87)
Hot Water Gas-fired ≥300,000 and ≤2,500,000 Thermal Efficiency Appendix A, Section 2.
Hot Water Gas-fired >2,500,000 Combustion Efficiency Appendix A, Section 3.
Hot Water Oil-fired ≥300,000 and ≤2,500,000 Thermal Efficiency Appendix A, Section 2.
Hot Water Oil-fired >2,500,000 Combustion Efficiency Appendix A, Section 3.
Steam Gas-fired (all*) ≥300,000 and ≤2,500,000 Thermal Efficiency Appendix A, Section 2.
Steam Gas-fired (all*) >2,500,000 and ≤5,000,000 Thermal Efficiency Appendix A, Section 2.
>5,000,000 Thermal Efficiency Appendix A, Section 2.
OR
Appendix A, Section 3 with Section 2.4.3.2.
Steam Oil-fired ≥300,000 and ≤2,500,000 Thermal Efficiency Appendix A, Section 2.
Steam Oil-fired >2,500,000 and ≤5,000,000 Thermal Efficiency Appendix A, Section 2.
>5,000,000 Thermal Efficiency Appendix A, Section 2.
OR
Appendix A, Section 3. with Section 2.4.3.2.

(c) Field Tests. The field test provisions of appendix A may be used only to test a unit of commercial packaged boiler with rated input greater than 5,000,000 Btu/h.

[81 FR 89305, Dec. 9, 2016]

Energy Efficiency Standards
§ 431.87 Energy and water conservation standards and their effective dates.

(a) Each commercial packaged boiler listed in Table 1 to § 431.87 and manufactured on or after March 2, 2012 and prior to January 10, 2023, must meet the applicable energy conservation standard levels as follows:

Table 1 to § 431.87 - Commercial Packaged Boiler Energy Conservations Standards

Equipment Subcategory Size category
(input)
Efficiency level -
effective date:
March 2, 2012 *
Hot Water Commercial Packaged Boilers Gas-fired ≥300,000 Btu/h and ≤2,500,000 Btu/h 80.0% ET.
Hot Water Commercial Packaged Boilers Gas-fired >2,500,000 Btu/h 82.0% EC.
Hot Water Commercial Packaged Boilers Oil-fired ≥300,000 Btu/h and ≤2,500,000 Btu/h 82.0% ET.
Hot Water Commercial Packaged Boilers Oil-fired >2,500,000 Btu/h 84.0% EC.
Steam Commercial Packaged Boilers Gas-fired - all, except natural draft ≥300,000 Btu/h and ≤2,500,000 Btu/h 79.0% ET.
Steam Commercial Packaged Boilers Gas-fired - all, except natural draft >2,500,000 Btu/h 79.0% ET.
Steam Commercial Packaged Boilers Gas-fired - natural draft ≥300,000 Btu/h and ≤2,500,000 Btu/h 77.0% ET.
Steam Commercial Packaged Boilers Gas-fired - natural draft >2,500,000 Btu/h 77.0% ET.
Steam Commercial Packaged Boilers Oil-fired ≥300,000 Btu/h and ≤2,500,000 Btu/h 81.0% ET.
Steam Commercial Packaged Boilers Oil-fired >2,500,000 Btu/h 81.0% ET.

(b) Each commercial packaged boiler listed in Table 2 to § 431.87 and manufactured on or after January 10, 2023, must meet the applicable energy conservation standard levels as follows:

Table 2 to § 431.87 - Commercial Packaged Boiler Energy Conservations Standards

Equipment Size category
(rated input)
Energy
conservation
standard
Small Gas-Fired Hot Water Commercial Packaged Boilers ≥300,000 Btu/h and ≤2,500,000 Btu/h 84.0% ET.
Large Gas-Fired Hot Water Commercial Packaged Boilers >2,500,000 Btu/h and ≤10,000,000 Btu/h 85.0% EC.
Very Large Gas-Fired Hot Water Commercial Packaged Boilers >10,000,000 Btu/h 82.0% EC.
Small Oil-Fired Hot Water Commercial Packaged Boilers ≥300,000 Btu/h and ≤2,500,000 Btu/h 87.0% ET.
Large Oil-Fired Hot Water Commercial Packaged Boilers >2,500,000 Btu/h and ≤10,000,000 Btu/h 88.0% EC.
Very Large Oil-Fired Hot Water Commercial Packaged Boilers >10,000,000 Btu/h 84.0% EC.
Small Gas-Fired Steam Commercial Packaged Boilers ≥300,000 Btu/h and ≤2,500,000 Btu/h 81.0% ET.
Large Gas-Fired Steam Commercial Packaged Boilers >2,500,000 Btu/h and ≤10,000,000 Btu/h 82.0% ET.
Very Large Gas-Fired Steam Commercial Packaged Boilers ** >10,000,000 Btu/h 79.0% ET.
Small Oil-Fired Steam Commercial Packaged Boilers ≥300,000 Btu/h and ≤2,500,000 Btu/h 84.0% ET.
Large Oil-Fired Steam Commercial Packaged Boilers >2,500,000 Btu/h and ≤10,000,000 Btu/h 85.0% ET.
Very Large Oil-Fired Steam Commercial Packaged Boilers >10,000,000 Btu/h 81.0% ET.

[85 FR 1681, Jan. 10, 2020]

Appendix A to Subpart E of Part 431 - Uniform Test Method for the Measurement of Thermal Efficiency and Combustion Efficiency of Commercial Packaged Boilers
Note:

Prior to December 4, 2017, manufacturers must make any representations with respect to the energy use or efficiency of commercial packaged boilers in accordance with the results of testing pursuant to this Appendix or the test procedures as they appeared in 10 CFR 431.86 revised as of January 1, 2016. On and after December 4, 2017, manufacturers must make any representations with respect to energy use or efficiency in accordance with the results of testing pursuant to this appendix.

1. Definitions.

For purposes of this appendix, the Department of Energy incorporates by reference the definitions established in section 3 of the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) Standard 1500, “2015 Standard for Performance Rating of Commercial Space Heating Boilers,” beginning with 3.1 and ending with 3.35 (incorporated by reference, see § 431.85; hereafter “ANSI/AHRI Standard 1500-2015”), excluding the introductory text to section 3, the introductory text to section 3.2, “Boiler”; 3.2.4, “Heating Boiler”; 3.2.7, “Packaged Boiler”; 3.6, “Combustion Efficiency”; 3.12, “Efficiency, Combustion”; 3.13, “Efficiency, Thermal”; 3.20, “Gross Output”; 3.23, “Input Rating”; 3.24, “Net Rating”; 3.26, “Published Rating”; 3.26.1, “Standard Rating”; 3.27, “Rating Conditions”; 3.27.1, “Standard Rating Conditions”; and 3.31, “Thermal Efficiency.” In cases where there is a conflict, the language of the test procedure in this appendix takes precedence over ANSI/AHRI Standard 1500-2015.

1.1. In all incorporated sections of ANSI/AHRI Standard 1500-2015, references to the manufacturer's “specifications,” “recommendations,” “directions,” or “requests” mean the manufacturer's instructions in the installation and operation manual shipped with the commercial packaged boiler being tested or in supplemental instructions provided by the manufacturer pursuant to § 429.60(b)(4) of this chapter. For parameters or considerations not specified in this appendix, refer to the manual shipped with the commercial packaged boiler. Should the manual shipped with the commercial packaged boiler not provide the necessary information, refer to the supplemental instructions for the basic model pursuant to § 429.60(b)(4) of this chapter. The supplemental instructions provided pursuant to § 429.60(b)(4) of this chapter do not replace or alter any requirements in this appendix nor do they override the manual shipped with the commercial packaged boiler. In cases where these supplemental instructions conflict with any instructions or provisions provided in the manual shipped with the commercial packaged boiler, use the manual shipped with the commercial packaged boiler.

1.2. Unless otherwise noted, in all incorporated sections of ANSI/AHRI Standard 1500-2015, the term “boiler” means a commercial packaged boiler as defined in § 431.82.

1.3. Unless otherwise noted, in all incorporated sections of ANSI/AHRI Standard 1500-2015, the term “input rating” means “rated input” as defined in § 431.82.

2. Thermal Efficiency Test.

2. 1. Test Setup.

2.1.1. Instrumentation. Use instrumentation meeting the minimum requirements found in Table C1 of Appendix C of ANSI/AHRI Standard 1500-2015 (incorporated by reference, see § 431.85).

2.1.2. Data collection and sampling. Record all test data in accordance with Table 2.1 and Table 2.2. Do not use Section C5 and Table C4 of Appendix C of ANSI/AHRI Standard 1500-2015.

Table 2.1 - Data To Be Recorded Before Testing

Item recorded Additional
instruction
Date of Test None.
Manufacturer None.
Commercial Packaged Boiler Model Number None.
Burner Model Number & Manufacturer None.
Nozzle description and oil pressure None.
Oil Analysis - H, C, API Gravity, lb/gal and Btu/lb None.
Gas Manifold Pressure Record at start and end of test.
Gas line pressure at meter Measurement may be made manually.
Gas temperature Measurement may be made manually.
Barometric Pressure (Steam and Natural Gas Only) Measurement may be made manually.
Gas Heating Value, Btu/ft3* Record at start and end of test.

2.1.3. Instrument Calibration. Instruments must be calibrated at least once per year and a calibration record, containing at least the date of calibration and the method of calibration, must be kept as part of the data underlying each basic model certification, pursuant to § 429.71 of this chapter.

2.1.4. Test Setup and Apparatus. Set up the commercial packaged boiler for thermal efficiency testing according to the provisions of Section C2 (except section C2.1) of Appendix C of ANSI/AHRI Standard 1500-2015 (incorporated by reference, see § 431.85).

2.1.4.1. For tests of oil-fired commercial packaged boilers, determine the weight of fuel consumed using one of the methods specified in the following sections 2.1.4.1.1. or 2.1.4.1.2. of this appendix:

2.1.4.1.1. If using a scale, determine the weight of fuel consumed as the difference between the weight of the oil vessel before and after each measurement period, as specified in sections 2.1.4.1.3.1. or 2.1.4.1.3.2. of this appendix, determined using a scale meeting the accuracy requirements of Table C1 of Appendix C of ANSI/AHRI Standard 1500-2015.

2.1.4.1.2. If using a flow meter, first determine the volume of fuel consumed as the total volume over the applicable measurement period as specified in 2.1.4.1.3.1. or 2.1.4.1.3.2. of this appendix and as measured by a flow meter meeting the accuracy requirements of Table C1 of Appendix C of ANSI/AHRI Standard 1500-2015 upstream of the oil inlet port of the commercial packaged boiler. Then determine the weight of fuel consumed by multiplying the total volume of fuel over the applicable measurement period by the density of oil as determined pursuant to C3.2.1.1.3. of Appendix C of ANSI/AHRI Standard 1500-2015.

2.1.4.1.3. The applicable measurement period for the purposes of determining fuel input rate must be as specified in section 2.1.4.1.3.1. of this appendix for the “Warm-Up Period” or section 2.1.4.1.3.2. of this appendix for the “Test Period.”

2.1.4.1.3.1. For the purposes of confirming steady-state operation during the “Warm-Up Period,” the measurement period must be 15 minutes and tT in Equation C2 in Section C7.2.3.1 of Appendix C of ANSI/AHRI Standard 1500-2015 must be 0.25 hours to determine fuel input rate.

2.1.4.1.3.2. For the purposes of determining thermal efficiency during the “Test Period,” the measurement period and tT are as specified in sections 2.3.4 and 2.3.5 of this appendix.

2.1.4.2 For tests of gas-fired commercial packaged boilers, install a volumetric gas meter meeting the accuracy requirements of Table C1 of Appendix C of ANSI/AHRI Standard 1500-2015 upstream of the gas inlet port of the commercial packaged boiler. Record the accumulated gas volume consumed for each applicable measurement period. Use Equation C7.2.3.2. of Appendix C of ANSI/AHRI Standard 1500-2015 to calculate fuel input rate.

2.1.4.2.1. The applicable measurement period for the purposes of determining fuel input rate must be as specified in section 2.1.4.2.1.1. of this appendix for the “Warm-Up Period” and 2.1.4.2.1.2. of this appendix for the “Test Period.”

2.1.4.2.1.1. For the purposes of confirming steady-state operation during the “Warm-Up Period,” the measurement period must be 15 minutes and tT in Equation C2 in Section C7.2.3.1 of Appendix C of ANSI/AHRI Standard 1500-2015 must be 0.25 hours to determine fuel input rate.

2.1.4.2.1.2. For the purposes of determining thermal efficiency during the “Test Period,” the measurement period and tT are as specified in sections 2.3.4 and 2.3.5 of this appendix.

2.1.4.3 In addition to the provisions of Section C2.2.1.2 of ANSI/AHRI Standard 1500-2015, vent gases may alternatively be discharged vertically into a straight stack section without elbows. R-7 minimum insulation must extend 6 stack diameters above the flue collar, the thermocouple grid must be located at a vertical distance of 3 stack diameters above the flue collar, and the sampling tubes for flue gases must be installed within 1 stack diameter beyond the thermocouple grid. If dilution air is introduced into the flue gases before the plane of the thermocouple and flue gas sampling points, utilize an alternate plane of thermocouple grid and flue gas sampling point located downstream from the heat exchanger and upstream from the point of dilution air introduction.

2.1.5. Additional Requirements for Outdoor Commercial Packaged Boilers. If the manufacturer provides more than one outdoor venting arrangement, the outdoor commercial packaged boiler (as defined in Section 3.2.6 of ANSI/AHRI Standard 1500-2015; incorporated by reference, see § 431.85) must be tested with the shortest total venting arrangement as measured by adding the straight lengths of venting supplied with the equipment. If the manufacturer does not provide an outdoor venting arrangement, install the outdoor commercial packaged boiler venting consistent with the procedure specified in Section C2.2 of Appendix C of ANSI/AHRI Standard 1500-2015.

2.1.6. Additional Requirements for Steam Tests. In addition to the provisions of Section C2 of Appendix C of ANSI/AHRI Standard 1500-2015 (incorporated by reference, see § 431.85), the following requirements apply for steam tests.

2.1.6.1. Insulate all steam piping from the commercial packaged boiler to the steam separator, and extend insulation at least one foot (1 ft.) beyond the steam separator, using insulation meeting the requirements specified in Table 2.3 of this appendix.

2.1.6.2. A temperature sensing device must be installed in the insulated steam piping prior to the water separator if the commercial packaged boiler produces superheated steam.

2.1.6.3. Water entrained in the steam and water condensing within the steam piping must be collected and used to calculate the quality of steam during the “Test Period.” Steam condensate must be collected and measured using either a cumulative (totalizing) flow rate or by measuring the mass of the steam condensate. Instrumentation used to determine the amount of steam condensate must meet the requirements identified in Table C1 in Appendix C of ANSI/AHRI Standard 1500-2015.

2.1.7. Additional Requirements for Water Tests. In addition to the provisions of section C2 of Appendix C of ANSI/AHRI Standard 1500-2015 (incorporated by reference, see § 431.85), the following requirements apply for water tests.

2.1.7.1. Insulate all water piping between the commercial packaged boiler and the location of the temperature measuring equipment, including one foot (1 ft.) beyond the sensor, using insulation meeting the requirements specified in Table 2.3 of this appendix.

2.1.7.2. Install a temperature measuring device at Point B of Figure C9 of ANSI/AHRI Standard 1500-2015 (incorporated by reference, see § 431.85). Water entering the commercial packaged boiler must first enter the run of a tee and exit from the top outlet of the tee. The remaining connection of the tee must be plugged. Measure the inlet water temperature at Point B in the run of a second tee located 12 ± 2 pipe diameters downstream from the first tee and no more than the greater of 12 inches or 6 pipe diameters from the inlet of the commercial packaged boiler. The temperature measuring device shall extend into the water flow at the point of exit from the side outlet of the second tee. All inlet piping between the temperature measuring device and the inlet of the commercial packaged boilers must be wrapped with R-7 insulation.

2.1.7.3. Do not use Section C2.7.2.2.2 or its subsections of ANSI/AHRI Standard 1500-2015 for water meter calibration.

2.1.8. Flue Gas Sampling. In section C2.5.2 of Appendix C of ANSI/AHRI Standard 1500-2015, replace the last sentence with the following: When taking flue gas samples from a rectangular plane, collect samples at1/4,1/2, and3/4 the distance from one side of the rectangular plane in the longer dimension and along the centerline midway between the edges of the plane in the shorter dimension and use the average of the three samples. The tolerance in each dimension for each measurement location is ± 1 inch.

2.2. Test Conditions.

2.2.1. General. Use the test conditions from Section 5 and Section C3 of Appendix C of ANSI/AHRI Standard 1500-2015 (incorporated by reference, see § 431.85) for thermal efficiency testing but do not use the following sections:

(1) 5.3 Introductory text

(2) 5.3.5 (and subsections; see sections 2.2.3. and 2.2.4. of this appendix)

(3) 5.3.8 (see section 2.2.5. of this appendix)

(4) 5.3.9 (see section 2.2.6. of this appendix)

(5) C3.1.3 (and subsections)

(6) C3.5 (including Table C2; see section 2.2.7. of this appendix)

(7) C3.6 (see section 2.2.5. of this appendix)

(8) C3.7 (see section 2.2.6. of this appendix)

2.2.2. Burners for Oil-Fired Commercial Packaged Boilers. In addition to section C3.3 of Appendix C of ANSI/AHRI Standard 1500-2015, the following applies: For oil-fired commercial packaged boilers, test the unit with the particular make and model of burner as certified (or to be certified) by the manufacturer. If multiple burners are specified in the certification report for that basic model, then use any of the listed burners for testing.

2.2.3. Water Temperatures. Maintain the outlet temperature measured at Point C in Figure C9 of Appendix C of ANSI/AHRI Standard 1500-2015 at 180 °F ± 2 °F and maintain the inlet temperature measured at Point B at 80 °F ± 5 °F during the “Warm-up Period” and “Test Period” as indicated by 1-minute interval data pursuant to Table 2.2 of this appendix. Each reading must meet these temperature requirements. Use the inlet temperature and flow rate measured at Point B in Figure C9 of Appendix C of ANSI/AHRI Standard 1500-2015 for calculation of thermal efficiency.

2.2.4 Exceptions to Water Temperature Requirements. For commercial packaged boilers that require a higher flow rate than that resulting from the water temperature requirements of sections 2.2.3 of this appendix to prevent boiling, use a recirculating loop and maintain the inlet temperature at Point B of Figure C9 of Appendix C of ANSI/AHRI Standard 1500-2015 at 140 °F ± 5 °F during the “Warm-up Period” and “Test Period” as indicated by 1-minute interval data pursuant to Table 2.2 of this appendix. Each reading must meet these temperature requirements. Use the inlet temperature and flow rate measured at Point A in Figure C9 of Appendix C of ANSI/AHRI Standard 1500-2015 for calculation of thermal efficiency.

2.2.5 Air Temperature. For tests of non-condensing boilers, maintain ambient room temperature between 65 °F and 100 °F at all times during the “Warm-up Period” and “Test Period” (as described in Section C4 of Appendix C of ANSI/AHRI Standard 1500-2015) as indicated by 1-minute interval data pursuant to Table 2.2 of this appendix. For tests of condensing boilers, maintain ambient room temperature between 65 °F and 85 °F at all times during the “Warm-up Period” and “Test Period” (as described in Section C4 of Appendix C of ANSI/AHRI Standard 1500-2015) as indicated by 1-minute interval data pursuant to Table 2.2 of this appendix. The ambient room temperature may not differ by more than ± 5 °F from the average ambient room temperature during the entire “Test Period” at any reading. Measure the room ambient temperature within 6 feet of the front of the unit at mid height. The test air temperature, measured at the air inlet of the commercial packaged boiler, must be within ± 5 °F of the room ambient temperature when recorded at the 1-minute interval defined by Table 2.2 of this appendix.

2.2.6. Ambient Humidity. For condensing boilers, maintain ambient room relative humidity below 80-percent at all times during both the “Warm-up Period” and “Test Period” (as described in Section C4 of Appendix C of ANSI/AHRI Standard 1500-2015) pursuant to Table 2.2 of this appendix. Measure the ambient humidity in the same location as ambient air temperature in section 2.2.5 of this appendix.

2.2.7. Flue Gas Temperature. The flue gas temperature during the test must not vary from the flue gas temperature measured at the start of the Test Period (as defined in Section C4 of ANSI/AHRI Standard 1500-2015) when recorded at the interval defined in Table 2.2 of this appendix by more than the limits prescribed in Table 2.4 of this appendix.

Table 2.4 - Flue Gas Temperature Variation Limits During Test Period

Fuel type Non-condensing Condensing
Gas ± 2 percent Greater of ± 3 percent and ± 5 °F
Light Oil ± 2 percent
Heavy Oil Greater of ± 3 percent and ± 5 °F

2.3. Test Method.

2.3.1. General. Conduct the thermal efficiency test as prescribed in Section C4 “Test Procedure” of Appendix C of ANSI/AHRI Standard 1500-2015 (incorporated by reference, see § 431.85) excluding sections:

(1) C4.1.1.1.2 (see section 2.3.1.1 of this appendix)

(2) C4.1.1.2.3 (see 2.3.4 of this appendix)

(3) C4.1.2.1.5 (see section 2.3.2. of this appendix)

(4) C4.1.2.2.2

(5) C4.1.2.2.3 (see 2.3.5 of this appendix)

(6) C4.2

(7) C4.2.1

(8) C4.2.2

2.3.1.1. Adjust oil or non-atmospheric gas to produce the required firebox pressure and CO2 or O2 concentration in the flue gas, as described in Section 5.3.1 of ANSI/AHRI Standard 1500-2015. Conduct steam tests with steam pressure at the pressure specified in the manufacturer literature shipped with the commercial packaged boiler or in the manufacturer's supplemental testing instructions pursuant to § 429.60(b)(4) of this chapter, but not exceeding 15 psig. If no pressure is specified in the manufacturer literature shipped with the commercial packaged boiler or in the manufacturer's supplemental testing instructions (pursuant to § 429.60(b)(4) of this chapter), or if a range of operating pressures is specified, conduct testing at a steam pressure equal to atmospheric pressure. If necessary to maintain steam quality as required by Section 5.3.7 of ANSI/AHRI Standard 1500-2015, increase steam pressure in 1 psig increments by throttling with a valve beyond the separator until the test is completed and the steam quality requirements have been satisfied, but do not increase the steam pressure to greater than 15 psig.

2.3.2. Water Test Steady-State. Ensure that a steady-state is reached by confirming that three consecutive readings have been recorded at 15-minute intervals pursuant to Table 2.2 of this appendix that indicate that the measured fuel input rate is within ± 2-percent of the rated input. Water temperatures must meet the conditions specified in sections 2.2.3 and 2.2.4 of this appendix as applicable.

2.3.3. Condensate Collection for Condensing Commercial Packaged Boilers. Collect condensate in a covered vessel so as to prevent evaporation.

2.3.4. Steam Test Duration. Replace Section C4.1.1.2.3 of ANSI/AHRI Standard 1500-2015 with the following: The test period is one hour in duration if the steam condensate is measured or two hours if feedwater is measured. The test period must end with a 15-minute reading (steam condensate or feedwater and separator weight reading) pursuant to Table 2.2 of this appendix. When feedwater is measured, the water line at the end of the test must be within 0.25 inches of the starting level.

2.3.5. Water Test Duration. Replace Section C4.1.2.2.3 of ANSI/AHRI Standard 1500-2015 with the following: The test period is one hour for condensing commercial packaged boilers and 30 minutes for non-condensing commercial packaged boilers, and ends with a 15-minute interval reading pursuant to Table 2.2 of this appendix.

2.4. Calculations.

2.4.1. General. To determine the thermal efficiency of commercial packaged boilers, use the variables in section C6 of Appendix C of ANSI/AHRI Standard 1500-2015 and calculation procedure for the thermal efficiency test specified in section C7.2 of Appendix C of ANSI/AHRI Standard 1500-2015, excluding sections C7.2.12 and C7.2.20.

2.4.2. Use of Steam Properties Table. If the average measured temperature of the steam is higher than the value in Table D1 in Appendix D of ANSI/AHRI Standard 1500-2015 that corresponds to the average measured steam pressure, then use Table 2.5 of this appendix to determine the latent heat of superheated steam in (Btu/lb). Use linear interpolation for determining the latent heat of steam in Btu/lb if the measured steam pressure is between two values listed in Table D1 in Appendix D of ANSI/AHRI Standard 1500-2015 or in Table 2.5 of this appendix.

2.4.3. Alternative Thermal Efficiency Calculation for Large Steam Commercial Packaged Boilers. To determine the thermal efficiency of commercial packaged boilers with a fuel input rate greater than 5,000,000 Btu/h according to the steam test pursuant to Section C4.1.1 of ANSI/AHRI Standard 1500-2015, either:

2.4.3.1. Calculate the thermal efficiency of commercial packaged boiler models in steam mode in accordance with the provisions of section 2.4.1 of this appendix, or

2.4.3.2. Measure and calculate combustion efficiency Effyss in steam mode according to Section 3. Combustion Efficiency Test of this appendix and convert to thermal efficiency using the following equation:

EffyT = Effyss − 2.0

where EffyT is the thermal efficiency and EFFYss is the combustion efficiency as defined in C6 of ANSI/AHRI Standard 1500-2015. The combustion efficiency Effyss is as calculated in Section C7.2.14 of ANSI/AHRI Standard 1500-2015.

2.4.4. Rounding. Round the final thermal efficiency value to nearest one tenth of one percent.

3. Combustion Efficiency Test.

3.1. Test Setup.

3.1.1. Instrumentation. Use instrumentation meeting the minimum requirements found in Table C1 of ANSI/AHRI Standard 1500-2015 (incorporated by reference, see § 431.85).

3.1.2. Data collection and sampling. Record all test data in accordance with Table 3.1 and Table 3.2 of this appendix. Do not use Section C5 and Table C4 of Appendix C in ANSI/AHRI Standard 1500-2015.

Table 3.1 - Data To Be Recorded Before Testing

Item recorded Additional instruction
Date of Test None.
Manufacturer None.
Commercial Packaged Boiler Model Number None.
Burner Model Number & Manufacturer None.
Nozzle description and oil pressure None.
Oil Analysis - H, C, API Gravity, lb/gal and Btu/lb None.
Gas Manifold Pressure Record at start and end of test.
Gas line pressure at meter Measurement may be made manually.
Gas temperature Measurement may be made manually.
Barometric Pressure (Steam and Natural Gas Only) Measurement may be made manually.
Gas Heating Value, Btu/ft3 * Record at start and end of test.

3.1.3. Instrument Calibration. Instruments must be calibrated at least once per year and a calibration record, containing at least the date of calibration and the method of calibration, must be kept as part of the data underlying each basic model certification, pursuant to § 429.71 of this chapter.

3.1.4. Test Setup and Apparatus. Set up the commercial packaged boiler for combustion efficiency testing according to the provisions of Section C2 (except section C2.1) of Appendix C of ANSI/AHRI Standard 1500-2015.

3.1.4.1. For tests of oil-fired commercial packaged boilers, determine the weight of fuel consumed using one of the methods specified in sections 3.1.4.1.1. or 3.1.4.1.2. of this appendix:

3.1.4.1.1. If using a scale, determine the weight of fuel consumed as the difference between the weight of the oil vessel before and after each measurement period, as specified in sections 3.1.4.1.3.1. or 3.1.4.1.3.2. of this appendix, determined using a scale meeting the accuracy requirements of Table C1 of ANSI/AHRI Standard 1500-2015.

3.1.4.1.2. If using a flow meter, first determine the volume of fuel consumed as the total volume over the applicable measurement period, as specified in sections 3.1.4.1.3.1. or 3.1.4.1.3.2. of this appendix, and as measured by a flow meter meeting the accuracy requirements of Table C1 of ANSI/AHRI Standard 1500-2015 upstream of the oil inlet port of the commercial packaged boiler. Then determine the weight of fuel consumed by multiplying the total volume of fuel over the applicable measurement period by the density of oil, in pounds per gallon, as determined pursuant to Section C3.2.1.1.3. of ANSI/AHRI Standard 1500-2015.

3.1.4.1.3. The applicable measurement period for the purposes of determining fuel input rate must be as specified in section 3.1.4.1.3.1. of this appendix for the “Warm-Up Period” or 3.1.4.1.3.2. of this appendix for the “Test Period.”

3.1.4.1.3.1. For the purposes of confirming steady-state operation during the “Warm-Up Period,” the measurement period must be 15 minutes and tT in Equation C2 in Section C7.2.3.1 of ANSI/AHRI Standard 1500-2015 must be 0.25 hours to determine fuel input rate.

3.1.4.1.3.2. For the purposes of determining combustion efficiency during the “Test Period,” the measurement period and tT are 0.5 hours pursuant to section 3.3.1.1. of this appendix.

3.1.4.2 For tests of gas-fired commercial packaged boilers, install a volumetric gas meter meeting the accuracy requirements of Table C1 of ANSI/AHRI Standard 1500-2015 upstream of the gas inlet port of the commercial packaged boiler. Record the accumulated gas volume consumed for each applicable measurement period. Use Equation C7.2.3.2. of ANSI/AHRI Standard 1500-2015 to calculate fuel input rate.

3.1.4.2.1. The applicable measurement period for the purposes of determining fuel input rate must be as specified in section 3.1.4.2.1.1. of this appendix for the “Warm-Up Period” and 3.1.4.2.1.2. of this appendix for the “Test Period.”

3.1.4.2.1.1. For the purposes of confirming steady-state operation during the “Warm-Up Period,” the measurement period must be 15 minutes and tT in Equation C2 in Section C7.2.3.1 of ANSI/AHRI Standard 1500-2015 must be 0.25 hour to determine fuel input rate.

3.1.4.2.1.2. For the purposes of determining combustion efficiency during the “Test Period,” the measurement period and tT are 0.5 hour pursuant to section 3.3.1.1. of this appendix.

3.1.4.3. In addition to the provisions of Section C2.2.1.2 of ANSI/AHRI Standard 1500-2015, vent gases may alternatively be discharged vertically into a straight stack section without elbows. R-7 minimum insulation must extend 6 stack diameters above the flue collar, the thermocouple grid must be located at a vertical distance of 3 stack diameters above the flue collar, and the sampling tubes for flue gases must be installed within 1 stack diameter beyond the thermocouple grid. If dilution air is introduced into the flue gases before the plane of the thermocouple and flue gas sampling points, utilize an alternate plane of thermocouple grid and flue gas sampling point located downstream from the heat exchanger and upstream from the point of dilution air introduction.

3.1.5. Additional Requirements for Outdoor Commercial Packaged Boilers. If the manufacturer provides more than one outdoor venting arrangement, the outdoor commercial packaged boiler (as defined in section 3.2.6 of ANSI/AHRI Standard 1500-2015 (incorporated by reference, see § 431.85) must be tested with the shortest total venting arrangement as measured by adding the straight lengths of venting supplied with the equipment. If the manufacturer does not provide an outdoor venting arrangement, install the outdoor commercial packaged boiler venting consistent with the procedure specified in Section C2.2 of Appendix C of ANSI/AHRI Standard 1500-2015.

3.1.6. Additional Requirements for Field Tests.

3.1.6.1 Field tests are exempt from the requirements of Section C2.2 of Appendix C of ANSI/AHRI Standard 1500-2015. Measure the flue gas temperature according to Section C2.5.1 of Appendix C of ANSI/AHRI Standard 1500-2015 and the thermocouple grids identified in Figure C12 of ANSI/AHRI Standard 1500-2015, with the following modification: the thermocouple grid may be staggered vertically by up to 1.5 inches to allow the use of instrumented rods to be inserted through holes drilled in the venting.

3.1.6.2. Field tests are exempt from the requirements of Section C2.6.3 of Appendix C of ANSI/AHRI Standard 1500-2015.

3.1.7. Additional Requirements for Water Tests. In addition to the provisions of Section C2 of Appendix C of ANSI/AHRI Standard 1500-2015 (incorporated by reference, see § 431.85) the following requirements apply for water tests:

3.1.7.1. Insulate all water piping between the commercial packaged boiler and the location of the temperature measuring equipment, including one foot (1 ft.) beyond the sensor, using insulation meeting the requirements specified in Table 2.3 of this appendix.

3.1.7.2. Install a temperature measuring device at Point B of Figure C9 of ANSI/AHRI Standard 1500-2015. Water entering the commercial packaged boiler must first enter the run of a tee and exit from the top outlet of the tee. The remaining connection of the tee must be plugged. Measure the inlet water temperature at Point B in the run of a second tee located 12 ± 2 pipe diameters downstream from the first tee and no more than the greater of 12 inches or 6 pipe diameters from the inlet of the commercial packaged boiler. The temperature measuring device shall extend into the water flow at the point of exit from the side outlet of the second tee. All inlet piping between the temperature measuring device and the inlet of the commercial packaged boilers must be wrapped with R-7 insulation. Field tests must also measure the inlet water temperature at Point B in Figure C9, however they are not required to use the temperature measurement piping described in this section 3.1.7. of this appendix.

3.1.7.3. Do not use Section C2.7.2.2.2 or its subsections of ANSI/AHRI Standard 1500-2015 for water meter calibration.

3.1.8. Flue Gas Sampling. In section C2.5.2 of Appendix C of ANSI/AHRI Standard 1500-2015, replace the last sentence with the following: When taking flue gas samples from a rectangular plane, collect samples at1/4,1/2, and3/4 the distance from one side of the rectangular plane in the longer dimension and along the centerline midway between the edges of the plane in the shorter dimension and use the average of the three samples. The tolerance in each dimension for each measurement location is ± 1 inch.

3.2. Test Conditions.

3.2.1. General. Use the test conditions from Sections 5 and C3 of Appendix C of ANSI/AHRI Standard 1500-2015 (incorporated by reference; see § 431.85) for combustion efficiency testing but do not use the following sections:

(1) 5.3 Introductory text

(2) 5.3.5 (and subsections; see sections 3.2.3, 3.2.3.1, and 3.2.3.2 of this appendix)

(3) 5.3.7 (excluded for field tests only)

(4) 5.3.8 (see section 3.2.4 of this appendix)

(5) 5.3.9 (see section 3.2.5 of this appendix)

(6) C3.1.3 (and subsections)

(7) C3.5 (including Table C2; see section 3.2.6 of this appendix)

(8) C3.6 (see section 3.2.4 of this appendix)

(9) C3.7 (see section 3.2.5 of this appendix)

3.2.2. Burners for Oil-Fired Commercial Packaged Boilers. In addition to Section C3.3 of Appendix C of ANSI/AHRI Standard 1500-2015, the following applies: for oil-fired commercial packaged boilers, test the unit with the particular make and model of burner as certified (or to be certified) by the manufacturer. If multiple burners are specified in the certification report for that basic model, then use any of the listed burners for testing.

3.2.3. Water Temperatures. Maintain the outlet temperature measured at Point C in Figure C9 at 180 °F ± 2 °F and maintain the inlet temperature measured at Point B at 80 °F ± 5 °F during the “Warm-up Period” and “Test Period” as indicated by 1-minute interval data pursuant to Table 3.2 of this appendix. Each reading must meet these temperature requirements. Field tests are exempt from this requirement and instead must comply with the requirements of section 3.2.3.1 of this appendix.

3.2.3.1. For field tests, the inlet temperature measured at Point A and Point B in Figure C9 and the outlet temperature measured and Point C in Figure C9 of ANSI/AHRI Standard 1500-2015 must be recorded in the data underlying that model's certification pursuant to § 429.71 of this chapter, and the difference between the inlet (measured at Point B) and outlet temperature (measured at Point C) must not be less than 20 °F at any point during the “Warm-up Period” and “Test Period,” after stabilization has been achieved, as indicated by 1-minute interval data pursuant to Table 3.2 of this appendix.

3.2.3.2 For commercial packaged boilers that require a higher flow rate than that resulting from the water temperature requirements of sections 3.2.3 of this appendix to prevent boiling, use a recirculating loop and maintain the inlet temperature at Point B of Figure C9 of ANSI/AHRI Standard 1500-2015 at 140 °F ± 5 °F during the “Warm-up Period” and “Test Period” as indicated by 1-minute interval data pursuant to Table 3.2 of this appendix. Each reading must meet these temperature requirements.

3.2.4. Air Temperature. For tests of non-condensing boilers (except during field tests), maintain ambient room temperature between 65 °F and 100 °F at all times during the “Warm-up Period” and “Test Period” (as described in Section C4 of Appendix C of ANSI/AHRI Standard 1500-2015) as indicated by 1-minute interval data pursuant to Table 3.2 of this appendix. For tests of condensing boilers (except during field tests), maintain ambient room temperature between 65 °F and 85 °F at all times during the “Warm-up Period” and “Test Period” (as described in Section C4 of Appendix C of ANSI/AHRI Standard 1500-2015) as indicated by 1-minute interval data pursuant to Table 3.2 of this appendix. The ambient room temperature may not differ by more than ± 5 °F from the average ambient room temperature during the entire “Test Period” at any 1-minute interval reading. Measure the room ambient temperature within 6 feet of the front of the unit at mid height. The test air temperature, measured at the air inlet of the commercial packaged boiler, must be within ± 5 °F of the room ambient temperature when recorded at the 1-minute interval defined by Table 3.2 of this appendix. For field tests, record the ambient room temperature at 1-minute intervals in accordance with Table 3.2 of this appendix.

3.2.5. Ambient Humidity. For condensing boilers (except during field tests), maintain ambient room relative humidity below 80-percent relative humidity at all times during both the “Warm-up Period” and “Test Period” (as described in Section C4 of Appendix C of ANSI/AHRI Standard 1500-2015) pursuant to Table 3.2 of this appendix. Measure the ambient humidity in the same location as ambient air temperature. For field tests of condensing boilers, record the ambient room relative humidity in accordance with Table 3.2 of this appendix.

3.2.6. Flue Gas Temperature. The flue gas temperature during the test must not vary from the flue gas temperature measured at the start of the Test Period (as defined in Section C4 of ANSI/AHRI Standard 1500-2015) when recorded at the interval defined in Table 3.2 by more than the limits prescribed in Table 3.3 of this appendix. For field tests, flue gas temperature does not need to be within the limits in Table 3.3 of this appendix but must be recorded at the interval specified in Table 3.2 of this appendix.

Table 3.3 - Flue Gas Temperature Variation Limits During Test Period

Fuel type Non-condensing Condensing
Gas ± 2 percent Greater of ± 3 percent and ± 5 °F.
Light Oil ± 2 percent
Heavy Oil Greater of ± 3 percent and ± 5 °F

3.3. Test Method.

3.3.1. General. Conduct the combustion efficiency test using the test method prescribed in Section C4 “Test Procedure” of Appendix C of ANSI/AHRI Standard 1500-2015 excluding sections:

(1) C4.1.1.1.2 (see section 3.3.1.2 of this appendix)

(2) C4.1.1.2.3

(3) C4.1.2.1.5 (see section 3.3.2 of this appendix)

(4) C4.1.2.2.2

(5) C4.1.2.2.3

(6) C4.2

(7) C4.2.1

(8) C4.2.2

3.3.1.1. The duration of the “Test Period” for combustion efficiency outlined in sections C4.1.1.2 of Appendix C of ANSI/AHRI Standard 1500-2015 (incorporated by reference, see § 431.85) and C4.1.2.2 of Appendix C of ANSI/AHRI Standard 1500-2015 is 30 minutes. For condensing commercial packaged boilers, condensate must be collected for the 30 minute Test Period.

3.3.1.2. Adjust oil or non-atmospheric gas to produce the required firebox pressure and CO2 or O2 concentration in the flue gas, as described in section 5.3.1 of ANSI/AHRI Standard 1500-2015. Conduct steam tests with steam pressure at the pressure specified in the manufacturer literature shipped with the commercial packaged boiler or in the manufacturer's supplemental testing instructions pursuant to § 429.60(b)(4) of this chapter, but not exceeding 15 psig. If no pressure is specified in the manufacturer literature shipped with the commercial packaged boiler or in the manufacturer's supplemental testing instructions (pursuant to § 429.60(b)(4)) of this chapter, or if a range of operating pressures is specified, conduct testing at a steam pressure equal to atmospheric pressure. If necessary to maintain steam quality as required by section 5.3.7 of ANSI/AHRI Standard 1500-2015, increase steam pressure in 1 psig increments by throttling with a valve beyond the separator until the test is completed and the steam quality requirements have been satisfied, but do not increase the steam pressure to greater than 15 psig.

3.3.2. Water Test Steady-State. Ensure that a steady-state is reached by confirming that three consecutive readings have been recorded at 15-minute intervals that indicate that the measured fuel input rate is within ± 2-percent of the rated input. Water temperatures must meet the conditions specified in sections 3.2.3, 3.2.3.1, and 3.2.3.2 of this appendix as applicable.

3.3.3. Procedure for the Measurement of Condensate for a Condensing Commercial Packaged Boiler. Collect flue condensate using a covered vessel so as to prevent evaporation. Measure the condensate from the flue gas during the “Test Period.” Flue condensate mass must be measured within 5 minutes after the end of the “Test Period” (defined in C4.1.1.2 and C4.1.2.2 of ANSI/AHRI Standard 1500-2015) to prevent evaporation loss from the sample. Determine the mass of flue condensate for the “Test Period” by subtracting the tare container weight from the total weight of the container and flue condensate measured at the end of the ”Warm-up Period.”

3.4. Calculations.

3.4.1. General. To determine the combustion efficiency of commercial packaged boilers, use the variables in Section C6 and calculation procedure for the combustion efficiency test specified in Section C7.3 of Appendix C (including the specified subsections of C7.2) of ANSI/AHRI Standard 1500-2015 (incorporated by reference, see § 431.85).

3.4.2. Rounding. Round the final combustion efficiency value to nearest one tenth of a percent.

[81 FR 89306, Dec. 9, 2016]

Subpart F - Commercial Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps
Source:

69 FR 61969, Oct. 21, 2004, unless otherwise noted.

§ 431.91 Purpose and scope.

This subpart specifies test procedures and energy conservation standards for certain commercial air conditioners and heat pumps, pursuant to Part C of Title III of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act, as amended, 42 U.S.C. 6311-6317.

[69 FR 61969, Oct. 21, 2004, as amended at 70 FR 60415, Oct. 18, 2005]

§ 431.92 Definitions concerning commercial air conditioners and heat pumps.

The following definitions apply for purposes of this subpart F, and of subparts J through M of this part. Any words or terms not defined in this section or elsewhere in this part shall be defined as provided in 42 U.S.C. 6311.

Basic model includes:

(1) Packaged terminal air conditioner (PTAC) or packaged terminal heat pump (PTHP) means all units manufactured by one manufacturer within a single equipment class, having the same primary energy source (e.g., electric or gas), and which have the same or comparable compressors, same or comparable heat exchangers, and same or comparable air moving systems that have a cooling capacity within 300 Btu/h of one another.

(2) Small, large, and very large air-cooled or water-cooled commercial package air conditioning and heating equipment means all units manufactured by one manufacturer within a single equipment class, having the same or comparably performing compressor(s), heat exchangers, and air moving system(s) that have a common “nominal” cooling capacity.

(3) Single package vertical units means all units manufactured by one manufacturer within a single equipment class, having the same primary energy source (e.g., electric or gas), and which have the same or comparably performing compressor(s), heat exchangers, and air moving system(s) that have a rated cooling capacity within 1500 Btu/h of one another.

(4) Computer room air conditioners means all units manufactured by one manufacturer within a single equipment class, having the same primary energy source (e.g., electric or gas), and which have the same or comparably performing compressor(s), heat exchangers, and air moving system(s) that have a common “nominal” cooling capacity.

(5) Variable refrigerant flow systems means all units manufactured by one manufacturer within a single equipment class, having the same primary energy source (e.g., electric or gas), and which have the same or comparably performing compressor(s) that have a common “nominal” cooling capacity and the same heat rejection medium (e.g., air or water) (includes VRF water source heat pumps).

(6) Small, large, and very large water source heat pump means all units manufactured by one manufacturer within a single equipment class, having the same primary energy source (e.g., electric or gas), and which have the same or comparable compressors, same or comparable heat exchangers, and same or comparable “nominal” capacity.

Coefficient of Performance, or COP means the ratio of the produced cooling effect of an air conditioner or heat pump (or its produced heating effect, depending on the mode of operation) to its net work input, when both the cooling (or heating) effect and the net work input are expressed in identical units of measurement.

Commercial package air-conditioning and heating equipment means air-cooled, water-cooled, evaporatively-cooled, or water source (not including ground water source) electrically operated, unitary central air conditioners and central air-conditioning heat pumps for commercial application.

Computer Room Air Conditioner means a basic model of commercial package air-conditioning and heating equipment (packaged or split) that is: Used in computer rooms, data processing rooms, or other information technology cooling applications; rated for sensible coefficient of performance (SCOP) and tested in accordance with 10 CFR 431.96, and is not a covered consumer product under 42 U.S.C. 6291(1)-(2) and 6292. A computer room air conditioner may be provided with, or have as available options, an integrated humidifier, temperature, and/or humidity control of the supplied air, and reheating function.

Double-duct air conditioner or heat pump means air-cooled commercial package air conditioning and heating equipment that -

(1) Is either a horizontal single package or split-system unit; or a vertical unit that consists of two components that may be shipped or installed either connected or split;

(2) Is intended for indoor installation with ducting of outdoor air from the building exterior to and from the unit, as evidenced by the unit and/or all of its components being non-weatherized, including the absence of any marking (or listing) indicating compliance with UL 1995, “Heating and Cooling Equipment,” or any other equivalent requirements for outdoor use;

(3)

(i) If it is a horizontal unit, a complete unit has a maximum height of 35 inches;

(ii) If it is a vertical unit, a complete unit has a maximum depth of 35 inches; and

(4) Has a rated cooling capacity greater than or equal to 65,000 Btu/h and up to 300,000 Btu/h.

Energy Efficiency Ratio, or EER means the ratio of the produced cooling effect of an air conditioner or heat pump to its net work input, expressed in Btu/watt-hour.

Heat Recovery (in the context of variable refrigerant flow multi-split air conditioners or variable refrigerant flow multi-split heat pumps) means that the air conditioner or heat pump is also capable of providing simultaneous heating and cooling operation, where recovered energy from the indoor units operating in one mode can be transferred to one or more other indoor units operating in the other mode. A variable refrigerant flow multi-split heat recovery heat pump is a variable refrigerant flow multi-split heat pump with the addition of heat recovery capability.

Heating seasonal performance factor, or HSPF means the total heating output of a central air-conditioning heat pump during its normal annual usage period for heating, expressed in Btu's and divided by the total electric power input, expressed in watt-hours, during the same period.

Integrated energy efficiency ratio, or IEER, means a weighted average calculation of mechanical cooling EERs determined for four load levels and corresponding rating conditions, as measured in appendix A of this subpart, expressed in Btu/watt-hour.

Large commercial package air-conditioning and heating equipment means commercial package air-conditioning and heating equipment that is rated -

(1) At or above 135,000 Btu per hour; and

(2) Below 240,000 Btu per hour (cooling capacity).

Non-standard size means a packaged terminal air conditioner or packaged terminal heat pump with existing wall sleeve dimensions having an external wall opening of less than 16 inches high or less than 42 inches wide, and a cross-sectional area less than 670 square inches.

Packaged terminal air conditioner means a wall sleeve and a separate un-encased combination of heating and cooling assemblies specified by the builder and intended for mounting through the wall, and that is industrial equipment. It includes a prime source of refrigeration, separable outdoor louvers, forced ventilation, and heating availability by builder's choice of hot water, steam, or electricity.

Packaged terminal heat pump means a packaged terminal air conditioner that utilizes reverse cycle refrigeration as its prime heat source, that has a supplementary heat source available, with the choice of hot water, steam, or electric resistant heat, and that is industrial equipment.

Seasonal energy efficiency ratio or SEER means the total cooling output of a central air conditioner or central air-conditioning heat pump, expressed in Btu's, during its normal annual usage period for cooling and divided by the total electric power input, expressed in watt-hours, during the same period.

Sensible Coefficient of Performance, or SCOP means the net sensible cooling capacity in watts divided by the total power input in watts (excluding reheaters and humidifiers).

Single package unit means any central air conditioner or central air-conditioning heat pump in which all the major assemblies are enclosed in one cabinet.

Single package vertical air conditioner means air-cooled commercial package air conditioning and heating equipment that -

(1) Is factory-assembled as a single package that -

(i) Has major components that are arranged vertically;

(ii) Is an encased combination of cooling and optional heating components; and

(iii) Is intended for exterior mounting on, adjacent interior to, or through an outside wall;

(2) Is powered by a single-or 3-phase current;

(3) May contain 1 or more separate indoor grilles, outdoor louvers, various ventilation options, indoor free air discharges, ductwork, well plenum, or sleeves; and

(4) Has heating components that may include electrical resistance, steam, hot water, or gas, but may not include reverse cycle refrigeration as a heating means.

Single package vertical heat pump means a single package vertical air conditioner that -

(1) Uses reverse cycle refrigeration as its primary heat source; and

(2) May include secondary supplemental heating by means of electrical resistance, steam, hot water, or gas.

Small commercial package air-conditioning and heating equipment means commercial package air-conditioning and heating equipment that is rated below 135,000 Btu per hour (cooling capacity).

Split system means any central air conditioner or central air conditioning heat pump in which one or more of the major assemblies are separate from the others.

Standard size means a packaged terminal air conditioner or packaged terminal heat pump with wall sleeve dimensions having an external wall opening of greater than or equal to 16 inches high or greater than or equal to 42 inches wide, and a cross-sectional area greater than or equal to 670 square inches.

Variable Refrigerant Flow Multi-Split Air Conditioner means a unit of commercial package air-conditioning and heating equipment that is configured as a split system air conditioner incorporating a single refrigerant circuit, with one or more outdoor units, at least one variable-speed compressor or an alternate compressor combination for varying the capacity of the system by three or more steps, and multiple indoor fan coil units, each of which is individually metered and individually controlled by an integral control device and common communications network and which can operate independently in response to multiple indoor thermostats. Variable refrigerant flow implies three or more steps of capacity control on common, inter-connecting piping.

Variable Refrigerant Flow Multi-Split Heat Pump means a unit of commercial package air-conditioning and heating equipment that is configured as a split system heat pump that uses reverse cycle refrigeration as its primary heating source and which may include secondary supplemental heating by means of electrical resistance, steam, hot water, or gas. The equipment incorporates a single refrigerant circuit, with one or more outdoor units, at least one variable-speed compressor or an alternate compressor combination for varying the capacity of the system by three or more steps, and multiple indoor fan coil units, each of which is individually metered and individually controlled by a control device and common communications network and which can operate independently in response to multiple indoor thermostats. Variable refrigerant flow implies three or more steps of capacity control on common, inter-connecting piping.

Very large commercial package air-conditioning and heating equipment means commercial package air-conditioning and heating equipment that is rated -

(1) At or above 240,000 Btu per hour; and

(2) Below 760,000 Btu per hour (cooling capacity).

Water-source heat pump means a single-phase or three-phase reverse-cycle heat pump that uses a circulating water loop as the heat source for heating and as the heat sink for cooling. The main components are a compressor, refrigerant-to-water heat exchanger, refrigerant-to-air heat exchanger, refrigerant expansion devices, refrigerant reversing valve, and indoor fan. Such equipment includes, but is not limited to, water-to-air water-loop heat pumps.

[69 FR 61969, Oct. 21, 2004, as amended at 70 FR 60415, Oct. 18, 2005; 73 FR 58828, Oct. 7, 2008; 74 FR 12073, Mar. 23, 2009; 76 FR 12503, Mar. 7, 2011; 77 FR 28988, May 16, 2012; 78 FR 79598, Dec. 31, 2013; 80 FR 42664, July 17, 2015; 80 FR 79669, Dec. 23, 2015; 81 FR 2529, Jan. 15, 2016]

Test Procedures
§ 431.95 Materials incorporated by reference.

(a) General. DOE incorporates by reference the following test procedures into subpart F of part 431. The materials listed have been approved for incorporation by reference by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Any subsequent amendment to the listed materials by the standard-setting organization will not affect the DOE regulations unless and until such regulations are amended by DOE. Materials are incorporated as they exist on the date of the approval, and a notice of any changes in the materials will be published in the Federal Register. All approved materials are available for inspection at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of this material at NARA, call (202) 741-6030, or go to: http://www.archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. Also, this material is available for inspection at U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, 6th Floor, 950 L'Enfant Plaza SW., Washington, DC 20024, (202) 586-2945, or go to: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/appliance_standards/. The referenced test procedure standards are listed below by relevant standard-setting organization, along with information on how to obtain copies from those sources.

(b) AHRI. Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute, 2111 Wilson Blvd., Suite 500, Arlington, VA 22201, (703) 524-8800, or go to: http://www.ahrinet.org.

(1) ARI Standard 210/240-2003, “2003 Standard for Unitary Air-Conditioning & Air-Source Heat Pump Equipment,” published in 2003 (AHRI 210/240-2003), IBR approved for § 431.96.

(2) ANSI/AHRI Standard 210/240-2008, “2008 Standard for Performance Rating of Unitary Air-Conditioning & Air-Source Heat Pump Equipment,” approved by ANSI on October 27, 2011 and updated by addendum 1 in June 2011 and addendum 2 in March 2012 (AHRI 210/240-2008), IBR approved for § 431.96.

(3) AHRI Standard 310/380-2014, (“AHRI 310/380-2014”), “Standard for Packaged Terminal Air-Conditioners and Heat Pumps,” February 2014, IBR approved for § 431.96.

(4) ANSI/AHRI Standard 340/360-2007, “2007 Standard for Performance Rating of Commercial and Industrial Unitary Air-Conditioning and Heat Pump Equipment,” approved by ANSI on October 27, 2011 and updated by addendum 1 in December 2010 and addendum 2 in June 2011 (AHRI 340/360-2007), IBR approved for § 431.96 and appendix A of this subpart.

(5) ANSI/AHRI Standard 390-2003, “2003 Standard for Performance Rating of Single Package Vertical Air-Conditioners and Heat Pumps,” dated 2003, (AHRI 390-2003), IBR approved for § 431.96.

(6) ANSI/AHRI Standard 1230-2010, “2010 Standard for Performance Rating of Variable Refrigerant Flow (VRF) Multi-Split Air-Conditioning and Heat Pump Equipment,” approved August 2, 2010 and updated by addendum 1 in March 2011 (AHRI 1230-2010), IBR approved for § 431.96.

(7) [Reserved]

(c) ASHRAE. American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, 1791 Tullie Circle, NE., Atlanta, Georgia 30329, (404) 636-8400, or go to: http://www.ashrae.org.

(1) ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 16-1983 (RA 2014), (“ANSI/ASHRAE 16”), “Method of Testing for Rating Room Air Conditioners and Packaged Terminal Air Conditioners,” ASHRAE reaffirmed July 3, 2014, IBR approved for § 431.96.

(2) ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 37-2009, (“ANSI/ASHRAE 37”), “Methods of Testing for Rating Electrically Driven Unitary Air-Conditioning and Heat Pump Equipment,” ASHRAE approved June 24, 2009, IBR approved for § 431.96 and appendix A of this subpart.

(3) ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 58-1986 (RA 2014), (“ANSI/ASHRAE 58”), “Method of Testing for Rating Room Air-Conditioner and Packaged Terminal Air-Conditioner Heating Capacity,” ASHRAE reaffirmed July 3, 2014, IBR approved for § 431.96.

(4) ASHRAE Standard 127-2007, “Method of Testing for Rating Computer and Data Processing Room Unitary Air Conditioners,” approved on June 28, 2007, (ASHRAE 127-2007), IBR approved for § 431.96.

(d) ISO. International Organization for Standardization, 1, ch. De la Voie-Creuse, Case Postale 56, CH-1211 Geneva 20, Switzerland, + 41 22 749 01 11 or go to: http://www.iso.ch/.

(1) ISO Standard 13256-1, “Water-source heat pumps - Testing and rating for performance - Part 1: Water-to-air and brine-to-air heat pumps,” approved 1998, IBR approved for § 431.96.

(2) [Reserved]

[77 FR 28989, May 16, 2012, as amended at 80 FR 37148, June 30, 2015; 80 FR 79669, Dec. 23, 2015]

§ 431.96 Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial air conditioners and heat pumps.

(a) Scope. This section contains test procedures for measuring, pursuant to EPCA, the energy efficiency of any small, large, or very large commercial package air-conditioning and heating equipment, packaged terminal air conditioners and packaged terminal heat pumps, computer room air conditioners, variable refrigerant flow systems, and single package vertical air conditioners and single package vertical heat pumps.

(b) Testing and calculations.

(1) Determine the energy efficiency of each type of covered equipment by conducting the test procedure(s) listed in Table 1 of this section along with any additional testing provisions set forth in paragraphs (c) through (g) of this section and appendix A to this subpart, that apply to the energy efficiency descriptor for that equipment, category, and cooling capacity. The omitted sections of the test procedures listed in Table 1 of this section must not be used.

(2) After June 24, 2016, any representations made with respect to the energy use or efficiency of packaged terminal air conditioners and heat pumps (PTACs and PTHPs) must be made in accordance with the results of testing pursuant to this section. Manufacturers conducting tests of PTACs and PTHPs after July 30, 2015 and prior to June 24, 2016, must conduct such test in accordance with either table 1 to this section or § 431.96 as it appeared at 10 CFR part 431, subpart F, in the 10 CFR parts 200 to 499 edition revised as of January 1, 2014. Any representations made with respect to the energy use or efficiency of such packaged terminal air conditioners and heat pumps must be in accordance with whichever version is selected.

Table 1 to § 431.96 - Test Procedures for Commercial Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps

Equipment type Category Cooling capacity Energy efficiency descriptor Use tests, conditions, and
procedures1 in
Additional test procedure provisions as indicated in the listed paragraphs of this section
Small Commercial Package Air-Conditioning and Heating Equipment Air-Cooled, 3-Phase, AC and HP <65,000 Btu/h SEER and HSPF AHRI 210/240-2008 (omit section 6.5) Paragraphs (c) and (e).
Air-Cooled AC and HP ≥65,000 Btu/h and <135,000 Btu/h EER, IEER, and COP Appendix A to this subpart None.
Water-Cooled and Evaporatively-Cooled AC <65,000 Btu/h EER AHRI 210/240-2008 (omit section 6.5) Paragraphs (c) and (e).
≥65,000 Btu/h and <135,000 Btu/h EER AHRI 340/360-2007 (omit section 6.3) Paragraphs (c) and (e).
Water-Source HP <135,000 Btu/h EER and COP ISO Standard 13256-1 (1998) Paragraph (e).
Large Commercial Package Air-Conditioning and Heating Equipment Air-Cooled AC and HP ≥135,000 Btu/h and <240,000 Btu/h EER, IEER and COP Appendix A to this subpart None.
Water-Cooled and Evaporatively-Cooled AC ≥135,000 Btu/h and <240,000 Btu/h EER AHRI 340/360-2007 (omit section 6.3) Paragraphs (c) and (e).
Very Large Commercial Package Air-Conditioning and Heating Equipment Air-Cooled AC and HP ≥240,000 Btu/h and <760,000 Btu/h EER, IEER and COP Appendix A to this subpart None.
Water-Cooled and Evaporatively-Cooled AC ≥240,000 Btu/h and <760,000 Btu/h EER AHRI 340/360-2007 (omit section 6.3) Paragraphs (c) and (e).
Packaged Terminal Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps AC and HP <760,000 Btu/h EER and COP Paragraph (g) of this section Paragraphs (c), (e), and (g).
Computer Room Air Conditioners AC <65,000 Btu/h SCOP ASHRAE 127-2007 (omit section 5.11) Paragraphs (c) and (e).
≥65,000 Btu/h and <760,000 Btu/h SCOP ASHRAE 127-2007 (omit section 5.11) Paragraphs (c) and (e).
Variable Refrigerant Flow Multi-split Systems AC <65,000 Btu/h (3-phase) SEER AHRI 1230-2010 (omit sections 5.1.2 and 6.6) Paragraphs (c), (d), (e), and (f).
≥65,000 Btu/h and <760,000 Btu/h EER AHRI 1230-2010 (omit sections 5.1.2 and 6.6) Paragraphs (c), (d), (e), and (f).
Variable Refrigerant Flow Multi-split Systems, Air-cooled HP <65,000 Btu/h (3-phase) SEER and HSPF AHRI 1230-2010 (omit sections 5.1.2 and 6.6) Paragraphs (c), (d), (e), and (f).
≥65,000 Btu/h and <760,000 Btu/h EER and COP AHRI 1230-2010 (omit sections 5.1.2 and 6.6) Paragraphs (c), (d), (e), and (f).
Variable Refrigerant Flow Multi-split Systems, Water-source HP <760,000 Btu/h EER and COP AHRI 1230-2010 (omit sections 5.1.2 and 6.6) Paragraphs (c), (d), (e), and (f).
Single Package Vertical Air Conditioners and Single Package Vertical Heat Pumps AC and HP <760,000 Btu/h EER and COP AHRI 390-2003 (omit section 6.4) Paragraphs (c) and (e).

(c) Optional break-in period for tests conducted using AHRI 210/240-2008, AHRI 390-2003, AHRI 1230-2010, and ASHRAE 127-2007. Manufacturers may optionally specify a “break-in” period, not to exceed 20 hours, to operate the equipment under test prior to conducting the test method specified by AHRI 210/240-2008, AHRI 390-2003, AHRI 1230-2010, or ASHRAE 127-2007 (incorporated by reference; see § 431.95). A manufacturer who elects to use an optional compressor break-in period in its certification testing should record this information (including the duration) in the test data underlying the certified ratings that is required to be maintained under 10 CFR 429.71.

(d) Refrigerant line length corrections for tests conducted using AHRI 1230-2010. For test setups where it is physically impossible for the laboratory to use the required line length listed in Table 3 of the AHRI 1230-2010 (incorporated by reference, see § 431.95), then the actual refrigerant line length used by the laboratory may exceed the required length and the following correction factors are applied:

Piping length beyond minimum, X
(ft)
Piping length beyond minimum, Y
(m)
Cooling capacity correction
%
0>X ≤20 0>Y ≤6.1 1
20>X ≤40 6.1>Y ≤12.2 2
40>X ≤60 12.2>Y ≤18.3 3
60>X ≤80 18.3>Y ≤24.4 4
80>X ≤100 24.4>Y ≤30.5 5
100 >X ≤120 30.5>Y ≤36.6 6

(e) Additional provisions for equipment set-up. The only additional specifications that may be used in setting up the basic model for test are those set forth in the installation and operation manual shipped with the unit. Each unit should be set up for test in accordance with the manufacturer installation and operation manuals. Paragraphs (e)(1) through (3) of this section provide specifications for addressing key information typically found in the installation and operation manuals.

(1) If a manufacturer specifies a range of superheat, sub-cooling, and/or refrigerant pressure in its installation and operation manual for a given basic model, any value(s) within that range may be used to determine refrigerant charge or mass of refrigerant, unless the manufacturer clearly specifies a rating value in its installation and operation manual, in which case the specified rating value shall be used.

(2) The air flow rate used for testing must be that set forth in the installation and operation manuals being shipped to the commercial customer with the basic model and clearly identified as that used to generate the DOE performance ratings. If a rated air flow value for testing is not clearly identified, a value of 400 standard cubic feet per minute (scfm) per ton shall be used.

(3) For VRF systems, the test set-up and the fixed compressor speeds (i.e., the maximum, minimum, and any intermediate speeds used for testing) should be recorded and maintained as part of the test data underlying the certified ratings that is required to be maintained under 10 CFR 429.71.

(f) Manufacturer involvement in assessment or enforcement testing for variable refrigerant flow systems. A manufacturer's representative will be allowed to witness assessment and/or enforcement testing for VRF systems. The manufacturer's representative will be allowed to inspect and discuss set-up only with a DOE representative and adjust only the modulating components during testing in the presence of a DOE representative that are necessary to achieve steady-state operation. Only previously documented specifications for set-up as specified under paragraphs (d) and (e) of this section will be used.

(g) Test Procedures for Packaged Terminal Air Conditioners and Packaged Terminal Heat Pumps -

(1) Cooling mode testing. The test method for testing packaged terminal air conditioners and packaged terminal heat pumps in cooling mode shall consist of application of the methods and conditions in AHRI 310/380-2014 sections 3, 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, and 4.4 (incorporated by reference; see § 431.95), and in ANSI/ASHRAE 16 (incorporated by reference; see § 431.95) or ANSI/ASHRAE 37 (incorporated by reference; see § 431.95), except that instruments used for measuring electricity input shall be accurate to within ±0.5 percent of the quantity measured. Where definitions provided in AHRI 310/380-2014, ANSI/ASHRAE 16, and/or ANSI/ASHRAE 37 conflict with the definitions provided in 10 CFR 431.92, the 10 CFR 431.92 definitions shall be used. Where AHRI 310/380-2014 makes reference to ANSI/ASHRAE 16, it is interpreted as reference to ANSI/ASHRAE 16-1983 (RA 2014).

(2) Heating mode testing. The test method for testing packaged terminal heat pumps in heating mode shall consist of application of the methods and conditions in AHRI 310/380-2014 sections 3, 4.1, 4.2 (except the section 4.2.1.2(b) reference to ANSI/ASHRAE 37), 4.3, and 4.4 (incorporated by reference; see § 431.95), and in ANSI/ASHRAE 58 (incorporated by reference; see § 431.95). Where definitions provided in AHRI 310/380-2014 or ANSI/ASHRAE 58 conflict with the definitions provided in 10 CFR 431.92, the 10 CFR 431.92 definitions shall be used. Where AHRI 310/380-2014 makes reference to ANSI/ASHRAE 58, it is interpreted as reference to ANSI/ASHRAE 58-1986 (RA 2014).

(3) Wall sleeves. For packaged terminal air conditioners and packaged terminal heat pumps, the unit must be installed in a wall sleeve with a 14 inch depth if available. If a 14 inch deep wall sleeve is not available, use the available wall sleeve option closest to 14 inches in depth. The area(s) between the wall sleeve and the insulated partition between the indoor and outdoor rooms must be sealed to eliminate all air leakage through this area.

(4) Optional pre-filling of the condensate drain pan. For packaged terminal air conditioners and packaged terminal heat pumps, test facilities may add water to the condensate drain pan of the equipment under test (until the water drains out due to overflow devices or until the pan is full) prior to conducting the test method specified by AHRI 310/380-2014 (incorporated by reference, see § 431.95). No specific level of water mineral content or water temperature is required for the water added to the condensate drain pan.

(5) Filter selection. For packaged terminal air conditioners and packaged terminal heat pumps, the indoor filter used during testing shall be the standard or default filter option shipped with the model. If a particular model is shipped without a filter, the unit must be tested with a MERV-1 filter sized appropriately for the filter slot.

[77 FR 28989, May 16, 2012; 80 FR 11857, Mar. 5, 2015, as amended at 80 FR 37148, June 30, 2015; 80 FR 79669, Dec. 23, 2015]

Energy Efficiency Standards
§ 431.97 Energy efficiency standards and their compliance dates.

(a) All basic models of commercial package air-conditioning and heating equipment must be tested for performance using the applicable DOE test procedure in § 431.96, be compliant with the applicable standards set forth in paragraphs (b) through (f) of this section, and be certified to the Department under 10 CFR part 429.

(b) Each commercial air conditioner or heat pump (not including single package vertical air conditioners and single package vertical heat pumps, packaged terminal air conditioners and packaged terminal heat pumps, computer room air conditioners, and variable refrigerant flow systems) manufactured starting on the compliance date listed in the corresponding table must meet the applicable minimum energy efficiency standard level(s) set forth in Tables 1 through 6 of this section.

Table 1 to § 431.97 - Minimum Cooling Efficiency Standards for Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment

[Not including single package vertical air conditioners and single package vertical heat pumps, packaged terminal air conditioners and packaged terminal heat pumps, computer room air conditioners, variable refrigerant flow multi-split air conditioners and heat pumps, and double-duct air-cooled commercial package air conditioning and heating equipment]

Equipment type Cooling capacity Subcategory Heating type Efficiency level Compliance date: Equipment manufactured starting on . . .
Small Commercial Package Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment (Air-Cooled, 3-Phase, Split-System) <65,000 Btu/h AC All SEER = 13 June 16, 2008.
HP All SEER = 13 June 16, 2008.1
Small Commercial Package Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment (Air-Cooled, 3-Phase, Single-Package) <65,000 Btu/h AC All SEER = 13 June 16, 2008.1
HP All SEER = 13 June 16, 2008.1
Small Commercial Package Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment (Air-Cooled) ≥65,000 Btu/h and <135,000 Btu/h AC No Heating or Electric Resistance Heating EER = 11.2 January 1, 2010.2
All Other Types of Heating EER = 11.0 January 1, 2010.2
HP No Heating or Electric Resistance Heating EER = 11.0 January 1, 2010.2
All Other Types of Heating EER = 10.8 January 1, 2010.2
Large Commercial Package Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment (Air-Cooled) ≥135,000 Btu/h and <240,000 Btu/h AC No Heating or Electric Resistance Heating EER = 11.0 January 1, 2010.2
All Other Types of Heating EER = 10.8 January 1, 2010.2
HP No Heating or Electric Resistance Heating EER = 10.6 January 1, 2010.2
All Other Types of Heating EER = 10.4 January 1, 2010.2
Very Large Commercial Package Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment (Air-Cooled) ≥240,000 Btu/h and <760,000 Btu/h AC No Heating or Electric Resistance Heating EER = 10.0 January 1, 2010.2
All Other Types of Heating EER = 9.8 January 1, 2010.2
HP No Heating or Electric Resistance Heating EER = 9.5 January 1, 2010.2
All Other Types of Heating EER = 9.3 January 1, 2010.2
Small Commercial Package Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment (Water-Cooled) <65,000 Btu/h AC All EER = 12.1 October 29, 2003.
≥65,000 Btu/h and <135,000 Btu/h AC No Heating or Electric Resistance Heating EER = 12.1 June 1, 2013.
All Other Types of Heating EER = 11.9 June 1, 2013.
Large Commercial Package Air-Conditioning and Heating Equipment (Water-Cooled) ≥135,000 Btu/h and <240,000 Btu/h AC No Heating or Electric Resistance Heating EER = 12.5 June 1, 2014.
All Other Types of Heating EER = 12.3 June 1, 2014.
Very Large Commercial Package Air-Conditioning and Heating Equipment (Water-Cooled) ≥240,000 Btu/h and <760,000 Btu/h AC No Heating or Electric Resistance Heating EER = 12.4 June 1, 2014.
All Other Types of Heating EER = 12.2 June 1, 2014.
Small Commercial Package Air-Conditioning and Heating Equipment (Evaporatively-Cooled) <65,000 Btu/h AC All EER = 12.1 October 29, 2003.
≥65,000 Btu/h and <135,000 Btu/h AC No Heating or Electric Resistance Heating EER = 12.1 June 1, 2013.
All Other Types of Heating EER = 11.9 June 1, 2013.
Large Commercial Package Air-Conditioning and Heating Equipment (Evaporatively-Cooled) ≥135,000 Btu/h and <240,000 Btu/h AC No Heating or Electric Resistance Heating EER = 12.0 June 1, 2014.
All Other Types of Heating EER = 11.8 June 1, 2014.
Very Large Commercial Package Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment (Evaporatively-Cooled) ≥240,000 Btu/h and <760,000 Btu/h AC No Heating or Electric Resistance Heating EER = 11.9 June 1, 2014.
All Other Types of Heating EER = 11.7 June 1, 2014.
Small Commercial Package Air-Conditioning and Heating Equipment (Water-Source: Water-to-Air, Water-Loop) <17,000 Btu/h HP All EER = 11.2 October 29, 2003.3
≥17,000 Btu/h and <65,000 Btu/h HP All EER = 12.0 October 29, 2003.3
≥65,000 Btu/h and <135,000 Btu/h HP All EER = 12.0 October 29, 2003.3

Table 2 to § 431.97 - Minimum Heating Efficiency Standards for Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment [Heat Pumps]

[Not including single package vertical air conditioners and single package vertical heat pumps, packaged terminal air conditioners and packaged terminal heat pumps, computer room air conditioners, variable refrigerant flow multi-split air conditioners and heat pumps, and double-duct air-cooled commercial package air conditioning and heating equipment]

Equipment type Cooling capacity Efficiency level Compliance date: Equipment manufactured starting on . . .
Small Commercial Package Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment (Air-Cooled, 3-Phase, Split-System) <65,000 Btu/h HSPF = 7.7 June 16, 2008.1
Small Commercial Pacakage Air-Conditioning and Heating Equipment (Air-Cooled, 3-Phase, Single-Package) <65,000 Btu/h HSPF = 7.7 June 16, 2008.1
Small Commercial Package Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment (Air-Cooled) ≥65,000 Btu/h and <135,000 Btu/h COP = 3.3 January 1, 2010.2
Large Commercial Packaged Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment (Air-Cooled) ≥135,000 Btu/h and <240,000 Btu/h COP = 3.2 January 1, 2010.2
Very Large Commercial Packaged Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment (Air-Cooled) ≥240,000 Btu/h and <760,000 Btu/h COP = 3.2 January 1, 2010.2
Small Commercial Packaged Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment (Water-Source: Water-to-Air, Water-Loop) <135,000 Btu/h COP = 4.2 October 29, 2003.3

Table 3 to § 431.97 - Updates to the Minimum Cooling Efficiency Standards for Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment

[Not including single package vertical air conditioners and single package vertical heat pumps, packaged terminal air conditioners and packaged terminal heat pumps, computer room air conditioners, variable refrigerant flow multi-split air conditioners and heat pumps, and double-duct air-cooled commercial package air conditioning and heating equipment]

Equipment type Cooling capacity Subcategory Heating type Efficiency level Compliance date: Equipment manufactured starting on . . .
Small Commercial Packaged Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment (Air-Cooled) ≥65,000 Btu/h and <135,000 Btu/h AC Electric Resistance Heating or No Heating IEER = 12.9
IEER = 14.8
January 1, 2018.1
January 1, 2023.
All Other Types of Heating IEER = 12.7
IEER = 14.6
January 1, 2018.1
January 1, 2023.
HP Electric Resistance Heating or No Heating IEER = 12.2
IEER = 14.1
January 1, 2018.1
January 1, 2023.
All Other Types of Heating IEER = 12.0
IEER = 13.9
January 1, 2018.1
January 1, 2023.
Large Commercial Packaged Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment (Air-Cooled) ≥135,000 Btu/h and <240,000 Btu/h AC Electric Resistance Heating or No Heating IEER = 12.4
IEER = 14.2
January 1, 2018.1
January 1, 2023.
All Other Types of Heating IEER = 12.2
IEER = 14.0
January 1, 2018.1
January 1, 2023.
HP Electric Resistance Heating or No Heating IEER = 11.6
IEER = 13.5
January 1, 2018.1
January 1, 2023.
All Other Types of Heating IEER = 11.4
IEER = 13.3
January 1, 2018.1
January 1, 2023.
Very Large Commercial Packaged Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment (Air-Cooled) ≥240,000 Btu/h and <760,000 Btu/h AC Electric Resistance Heating or No Heating IEER = 11.6
IEER = 13.2
January 1, 2018.1
January 1, 2023.
All Other Types of Heating IEER = 11.4
IEER = 13.0
January 1, 2018.1
January 1, 2023.
HP Electric Resistance Heating or No Heating IEER = 10.6
IEER = 12.5
January 1, 2018.1
January 1, 2023.
All Other Types of Heating IEER = 10.4
IEER = 12.3
January 1, 2018.1
January 1, 2023.
Small Commercial Package Air-Conditioning and Heating Equipment (Air-Cooled, 3-Phase, Split-System) <65,000 Btu/h AC All SEER = 13.0 June 16, 2008.
HP All SEER = 14.0 January 1, 2017.
Small Commercial Package Air-Conditioning and Heating Equipment (Air-Cooled, 3-Phase, Single-Package) <65,000Btu/h AC All SEER = 14.0 January 1, 2017.
HP All SEER = 14.0 January 1, 2017.
Small Commercial Packaged Air-Conditioning and Heating Equipment (Water Source: Water-to-Air, Water-Loop) <17,000 Btu/h HP All EER = 12.2 October 9, 2015.
≥17,000 Btu/h and <65,000 Btu/h HP All EER = 13.0 October 9, 2015.
≥65,000 Btu/h and <135,000Btu/h HP All EER = 13.0 October 9, 2015.

Table 4 to § 431.97 - Updates to the Minimum Heating Efficiency Standards for Air-Cooled Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment [Heat Pumps]

[Not including single package vertical air conditioners and single package vertical heat pumps, packaged terminal air conditioners and packaged terminal heat pumps, computer room air conditioners, variable refrigerant flow multi-split air conditioners and heat pumps, and double-duct air-cooled commercial package air conditioning and heating equipment]

Equipment type Cooling capacity Efficiency level.1 Compliance date: Equipment manufactured starting on . . .
Small Commercial Package Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment (Air-Cooled, 3-Phase, Split-Sytem) <65,000 Btu/h HSPF = 8.2 January 1, 2017.
Small Commercial Package Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment (Air-Cooled, 3-Phase, Single Package) <65,000 Btu/h HSPF = 8.0 January 1, 2017.
Small Commercial Package Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment (Water-Source: Water-to-Air, Water-Loop) <135,000 Btu/h COP = 4.3 October 9, 2015.
Small Commercial Packaged Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment (Air-Cooled) ≥65,000 Btu/h and
<135,000 Btu/h
COP = 3.3
COP = 3.4
January 1, 2018.2
January 1, 2023.
Large Commercial Packaged Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment (Air-Cooled) ≥135,000 Btu/h and
<240,000 Btu/h
COP = 3.2
COP = 3.3
January 1, 2018.2
January 1, 2023.
Very Large Commercial Packaged Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment (Air-Cooled) ≥240,000 Btu/h and
<760,000 Btu/h
COP = 3.2 January 1, 2018.

Table 5 to § 431.97 - Minimum Cooling Efficiency Standards for Double-Duct Air-Conditioning and Heating Equipment

Equipment type Cooling capacity Subcategory Heating type Efficiency level Compliance date: Equipment manufactured starting on . . .
Small Double-Duct Commercial Packaged Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment (Air-Cooled) ≥65,000 Btu/h and <135,000 Btu/h AC Electric Resistance Heating or No Heating EER = 11.2 January 1, 2010.
All Other Types of Heating EER = 11.0 January 1, 2010.
HP Electric Resistance Heating or No Heating EER = 11.0 January 1, 2010.
All Other Types of Heating EER = 10.8 January 1, 2010.
Large Commercial Double-Duct Packaged Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment (Air-Cooled) ≥135,000 Btu/h and <240,000 Btu/h AC Electric Resistance Heating or No Heating EER = 11.0 January 1, 2010.
All Other Types of Heating EER = 10.8 January 1, 2010.
HP Electric Resistance Heating or No Heating EER = 10.6 January 1, 2010.
All Other Types of Heating EER = 10.4 January 1, 2010.
Very Large Double-Duct Commercial Packaged Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment (Air-Cooled) ≥240,000 Btu/h and <300,000 Btu/h AC Electric Resistance Heating or No Heating EER = 10.0 January 1, 2010.
All Other Types of Heating EER = 9.8 January 1, 2010.
HP Electric Resistance Heating or No Heating EER = 9.5 January 1, 2010.
All Other Types of Heating EER = 9.3 January 1, 2010.

Table 6 to § 431.97 - Minimum Heating Efficiency Standards for Double-Duct Air-Cooled Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment

[Heat pumps]

Equipment type Cooling capacity Heating type Efficiency level1 Compliance date: Equipment manufactured starting on . . .
Small Commercial Packaged Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment (Air-Cooled, Double-Duct) ≥65,000 Btu/h and <135,000 Btu/h Electric Resistance Heating or No Heating COP = 3.3 January 1, 2010.
All Other Types of Heating COP = 3.3 January 1, 2010.
Large Commercial Packaged Air-Conditioning and Heating Equipment (Air-Cooled, Double-Duct) ≥135,000 Btu/h and <240,000 Btu/h Electric Resistance Heating or No Heating COP = 3.2 January 1, 2010.
All Other Types of Heating COP = 3.2 January 1, 2010.
Very Large Commercial Packaged Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment (Air-Cooled, Double-Duct) ≥240,000 Btu/h and <300,000 Btu/h Electric Resistance Heating or No Heating COP = 3.2 January 1, 2010.
All Other Types of Heating COP = 3.2 January 1, 2010.

(c) Each non-standard size packaged terminal air conditioner (PTAC) and packaged terminal heat pump (PTHP) manufactured on or after October 7, 2010 must meet the applicable minimum energy efficiency standard level(s) set forth in Table 7 of this section. Each standard size PTAC manufactured on or after October 8, 2012, and before January 1, 2017 must meet the applicable minimum energy efficiency standard level(s) set forth in Table 7 of this section. Each standard size PTHP manufactured on or after October 8, 2012 must meet the applicable minimum energy efficiency standard level(s) set forth in Table 7 of this section. Each standard size PTAC manufactured on or after January 1, 2017 must meet the applicable minimum energy efficiency standard level(s) set forth in Table 8 of this section.

Table 7 to § 431.97 - Minimum Efficiency Standards for PTAC and PTHP

Equipment type Category Cooling capacity Efficiency level Compliance date: products
manufactured on
and after . . .
PTAC Standard Size <7,000 Btu/h EER = 11.7 October 8, 2012.2
≥7,000 Btu/h and ≤15,000 Btu/h EER = 13.8−(0.3 × Cap1) October 8, 2012.2
>15,000 Btu/h EER = 9.3 October 8, 2012.2
Non-Standard Size <7,000 Btu/h EER = 9.4 October 7, 2010.
≥7,000 Btu/h and ≤15,000 Btu/h EER = 10.9−(0.213 × Cap1) October 7, 2010.
>15,000 Btu/h EER = 7.7 October 7, 2010.
PTHP Standard Size <7,000 Btu/h EER = 11.9
COP = 3.3
October 8, 2012.
≥7,000 Btu/h and ≤15,000 Btu/h EER = 14.0−(0.3 × Cap1)
COP = 3.7−(0.052 × Cap1)
October 8, 2012.
>15,000 Btu/h EER = 9.5
COP = 2.9
October 8, 2012.
Non-Standard Size <7,000 Btu/h EER = 9.3
COP = 2.7
October 7, 2010.
≥7,000 Btu/h and ≤15,000 Btu/h EER = 10.8−(0.213 × Cap1)
COP = 2.9−(0.026 × Cap1)
October 7, 2010.
>15,000 Btu/h EER = 7.6
COP = 2.5
October 7, 2010.

Table 8 to § 431.97 - Updated Minimum Efficiency Standards for PTAC

Equipment type Category Cooling capacity Efficiency level Compliance date: products
manufactured on
and after . . .
PTAC Standard Size <7,000 Btu/h EER = 11.9 January 1, 2017.
≥7,000 Btu/h and ≤15,000 Btu/h EER = 14.0−(0.3 × Cap1) January 1, 2017.
>15,000 Btu/h EER = 9.5 January 1, 2017.

(d)

(1) Each single package vertical air conditioner and single package vertical heat pump manufactured on or after January 1, 2010, but before October 9, 2015 (for models ≥65,000 Btu/h and <135,000 Btu/h) or October 9, 2016 (for models ≥135,000 Btu/h and <240,000 Btu/h), must meet the applicable minimum energy conservation standard level(s) set forth in this section.

Table 9 to § 431.97 - Minimum Efficiency Standards for Single Package Vertical Air Conditioners and Single Package Vertical Heat Pumps

Equipment type Cooling capacity Sub-category Efficiency level Compliance date: products manufactured on and
after . . .
Single package vertical air conditioners and single package vertical heat pumps, single-phase and three-phase <65,000 Btu/h AC
HP
EER = 9.0
EER = 9.0
COP = 3.0
January 1, 2010
January 1, 2010
Single package vertical air conditioners and single package vertical heat pumps ≥65,000 Btu/h and <135,000 Btu/h AC
HP
EER = 8.9
EER = 8.9
COP = 3.0
January 1, 2010
January 1, 2010
Single package vertical air conditioners and single package vertical heat pumps ≥135,000 Btu/h and <240,000 Btu/h AC
HP
EER = 8.6
EER = 8.6
COP = 2.9
January 1, 2010
January 1, 2010

(2) Each single package vertical air conditioner and single package vertical heat pump manufactured on and after October 9, 2015 (for models ≥65,000 Btu/h and <135,000 Btu/h) or October 9, 2016 (for models ≥135,000 Btu/h and <240,000 Btu/h), but before September 23, 2019 must meet the applicable minimum energy conservation standard level(s) set forth in this section.

Table 10 to § 431.97 - Minimum Efficiency Standards for Single Package Vertical Air Conditioners and Single Package Vertical Heat Pumps

Equipment type Cooling capacity Sub-category Efficiency level Compliance date: Products manufactured on and
after . . .
Single package vertical air conditioners and single package vertical heat pumps, single-phase and three-phase <65,000 Btu/h AC
HP
EER = 9.0
EER = 9.0
COP = 3.0
January 1, 2010
January 1, 2010
Single package vertical air conditioners and single package vertical heat pumps ≥65,000 Btu/h and <135,000 Btu/h AC
HP
EER = 10.0
EER = 10.0
COP = 3.0
October 9, 2015
October 9, 2015
Single package vertical air conditioners and single package vertical heat pumps ≥135,000 Btu/h and <240,000 Btu/h AC
HP
EER = 10.0
EER = 10.0
COP = 3.0
October 9, 2016
October 9, 2016

(3) Each single package vertical air conditioner and single package vertical heat pump manufactured on and after September 23, 2019 must meet the applicable minimum energy conservation standard level(s) set forth in this section.

Table 11 to § 431.97 - Updated Minimum Efficiency Standards for Single Package Vertical Air Conditioners and Single Package Vertical Heat Pumps

Equipment type Cooling capacity Sub-category Efficiency level Compliance date: products manufactured on and
after . . .
Single package vertical air conditioners and single package vertical heat pumps, single-phase and three-phase <65,000 Btu/h AC
HP
EER = 11.0
EER = 11.0
COP = 3.3
September 23, 2019.
September 23, 2019.
Single package vertical air conditioners and single package vertical heat pumps ≥65,000 Btu/h and <135,000 Btu/h AC
HP
EER = 10.0
EER = 10.0
COP = 3.0
October 9, 2015.
October 9, 2015.
Single package vertical air conditioners and single package vertical heat pumps ≥135,000 Btu/h and <240,000 Btu/h AC
HP
EER = 10.0
EER = 10.0
COP = 3.0
October 9, 2016.
October 9, 2016.

(e) Each computer room air conditioner with a net sensible cooling capacity less than 65,000 Btu/h manufactured on or after October 29, 2012, and each computer room air conditioner with a net sensible cooling capacity greater than or equal to 65,000 Btu/h manufactured on or after October 29, 2013, must meet the applicable minimum energy efficiency standard level(s) set forth in this section.

Table 12 to § 431.97 - Minimum Efficiency Standards for Computer Room Air Conditioners

Equipment type Net sensible cooling capacity Minimum SCOP efficiency Compliance date: Products manufactured on and after . . .
Downflow unit Upflow unit
Computer Room Air Conditioners, Air-Cooled <65,000 Btu/h
≥65,000 Btu/h and <240,000 Btu/h
2.20
2.10
2.09
1.99
October 29, 2012.
October 29, 2013.
≥240,000 Btu/h and <760,000 Btu/h 1.90 1.79 October 29, 2013.
Computer Room Air Conditioners, Water-Cooled <65,000 Btu/h
≥65,000 Btu/h and <240,000 Btu/h
2.60
2.50
2.49
2.39
October 29, 2012.
October 29, 2013.
≥240,000 Btu/h and <760,000 Btu/h 2.40 2.29 October 29, 2013.
Computer Room Air Conditioners, Water-Cooled with a Fluid Economizer <65,000 Btu/h
≥65,000 Btu/h and <240,000 Btu/h
≥240,000 Btu/h and <760,000 Btu/h
2.55
2.45
2.35
2.44
2.34
2.24
October 29, 2012.
October 29, 2013.
October 29, 2013.
Computer Room Air Conditioners, Glycol-Cooled <65,000 Btu/h
≥65,000 Btu/h and <240,000 Btu/h
2.50
2.15
2.39
2.04
October 29, 2012.
October 29, 2013.
≥240,000 Btu/h and <760,000 Btu/h 2.10 1.99 October 29, 2013.
Computer Room Air Conditioner, Glycol-Cooled with a Fluid Economizer <65,000 Btu/h
≥65,000 Btu/h and <240,000 Btu/h
≥240,000 Btu/h and <760,000 Btu/h
2.45
2.10
2.05
2.34
1.99
1.94
October 29, 2012.
October 29, 2013.
October 29, 2013.

(f) Each variable refrigerant flow air conditioner or heat pump manufactured on or after the compliance date listed in this table must meet the applicable minimum energy efficiency standard level(s) set forth in this section.

Table 13 to § 431.97 - Minimum Efficiency Standards for Variable Refrigerant Flow Multi-Split Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps

Equipment type Cooling capacity Heating type1 Efficiency level Compliance date: Products manufactured on and after . . .
VRF Multi-Split Air Conditioners (Air-Cooled) <65,000 Btu/h
≥65,000 Btu/h and <135,000 Btu/h
All
No Heating or Electric Resistance Heating
13.0 SEER
11.2 EER
June 16, 2008.
January 1, 2010.
All Other Types of Heating 11.0 EER January 1, 2010.
≥135,000 Btu/h and <240,000 Btu/h No Heating or Electric Resistance Heating 11.0 EER January 1, 2010.
All Other Types of Heating 10.8 EER January 1, 2010.
≥240,000 Btu/h and <760,000 Btu/h No Heating or Electric Resistance Heating 10.0 EER January 1, 2010.
All Other Types of Heating 9.8 EER January 1, 2010.
VRF Multi-Split Heat Pumps
(Air-Cooled)
<65,000 Btu/h All 13.0 SEER
7.7 HSPF
June 16, 2008.
≥65,000 Btu/h and <135,000 Btu/h No Heating or Electric Resistance Heating 11.0 EER
3.3 COP
January 1, 2010.
All Other Types of Heating 10.8 EER
3.3 COP
January 1, 2010.
≥135,000 Btu/h and <240,000 Btu/h No Heating or Electric Resistance Heating 10.6 EER
3.2 COP
January 1, 2010.
All Other Types of Heating 10.4 EER
3.2 COP
January 1, 2010.
≥240,000 Btu/h and <760,000 Btu/h No Heating or Electric Resistance Heating 9.5 EER
3.2 COP
January 1, 2010.
All Other Types of Heating 9.3 EER
3.2 COP
January 1, 2010.
VRF Multi-Split Heat Pumps
(Water-Source)* * *
<17,000 Btu/h Without heat recovery 12.0 EER
4.2 COP
October 29, 2012.
October 29, 2003.
With heat recovery 11.8 EER
4.2 COP
October 29, 2012.
October 29, 2003.
≥17,000 Btu/h and <65,000 Btu/h All 12.0 EER
4.2 COP
October 29, 2003.
≥65,000 Btu/h and <135,000 Btu/h All 12.0 EER
4.2 COP
October 29, 2003.
≥135,000 Btu/h and <760,000 Btu/h Without heat recovery 10.0 EER
3.9 COP
October 29, 2013.
With heat recovery 9.8 EER
3.9 COP
October 29, 2013

[77 FR 28991, May 16, 2012, as amended at 77 FR 76830, Dec. 31, 2012; 80 FR 42664, July 17, 2015; 80 FR 43212, July 21, 2015; 80 FR 56895, Sept. 21, 2015; 80 FR 57500, Sept. 23, 2015; 81 FR 2529, Jan. 15, 2016; 81 FR 53907, Aug. 15, 2016]

Appendix A to Subpart F of Part 431 - Uniform Test Method for the Measurement of Energy Consumption of Air-Cooled Small (≥65,000 Btu/h), Large, and Very Large Commercial Package Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment

Note: Prior to December 19, 2016, representations with respect to the energy use or efficiency of air-cooled small, large, and very large commercial package air conditioning and heating equipment, including compliance certifications, must be based on testing conducted in accordance with either Table 1 to § 431.96 as it now appears or Table 1 to § 431.96 as it appeared in subpart F of this part, in the 10 CFR parts 200 through 499 edition revised as of January 1, 2015. After December 19, 2016, representations with respect to energy use or efficiency of air-cooled small, large, and very large commercial package air conditioning and heating equipment, including compliance certifications, must be based on testing conducted in accordance with Table 1 to § 431.96 as it now appears.

(1) Cooling mode test method. The test method for cooling mode consists of the methods and conditions in AHRI 340/360-2007 sections 3, 4, and 6 (omitting section 6.3) (incorporated by reference; see § 431.95), and in ANSI/ASHRAE 37-2009 (incorporated by reference; see § 431.95). In case of a conflict between AHRI 340/360-2007 or ANSI/ASHRAE 37-2009 and the CFR, the CFR provisions control.

(2) Heating mode test method. The test method for heating mode consists of the methods and conditions in AHRI 340/360-2007 sections 3, 4, and 6 (omitting section 6.3) (incorporated by reference; see § 431.95), and in ANSI/ASHRAE 37-2009 (incorporated by reference; see § 431.95). In case of a conflict between AHRI 340/360-2007 or ANSI/ASHRAE 37-2009 and the CFR, the CFR provisions control.

(3) Minimum external static pressure. Use the certified cooling capacity for the basic model to choose the minimum external static pressure found in table 5 of section 6 of AHRI 340/360-2007 (incorporated by reference; see § 431.95) for testing.

(4) Optional break-in period. Manufacturers may optionally specify a “break-in” period, not to exceed 20 hours, to operate the equipment under test prior to conducting the test method in appendix A of this part. A manufacturer who elects to use an optional compressor break-in period in its certification testing must record this information (including the duration) as part of the information in the supplemental testing instructions under 10 CFR 429.43.

(5) Additional provisions for equipment set-up. The only additional specifications that may be used in setting up a unit for test are those set forth in the installation and operation manual shipped with the unit. Each unit should be set up for test in accordance with the manufacturer installation and operation manuals. Paragraphs (5)(i) through (ii) of this section provide specifications for addressing key information typically found in the installation and operation manuals.

(i) If a manufacturer specifies a range of superheat, sub-cooling, and/or refrigerant pressure in its installation and operation manual for a given basic model, any value(s) within that range may be used to determine refrigerant charge or mass of refrigerant, unless the manufacturer clearly specifies a rating value in its installation and operation manual, in which case the specified rating value shall be used.

(ii) The airflow rate used for testing must be that set forth in the installation and operation manuals being shipped to the customer with the basic model and clearly identified as that used to generate the DOE performance ratings. If a certified airflow value for testing is not clearly identified, a value of 400 standard cubic feet per minute (scfm) per ton shall be used.

(6) Indoor airflow testing and adjustment.

(i) When testing full-capacity cooling operation at the required external static pressure condition, the full-load indoor airflow rate must be within ± 3 percent of the certified-rated airflow at full-capacity cooling operation. If the indoor airflow rate at the required minimum external pressure is outside the ± 3-percent tolerance, the unit and/or test setup must be adjusted such that both the airflow and ESP are within the required tolerances. This process may include, but is not limited to, adjusting any adjustable motor sheaves, adjusting variable drive settings, or adjusting the code tester fan.

(ii) When testing other than full-capacity cooling operation using the full-load indoor airflow rate (e.g., full-load heating), the full-load indoor airflow rate must be within ± 3 percent of the certified-rated full-load cooling airflow (without regard to the resulting external static pressure), unless the unit is designed to operate at a different airflow for cooling and heating mode. If necessary, a test facility setup may be made in order to maintain airflow within the required tolerance; however, no adjustments to the unit under test may be made.

(7) Condenser head pressure controls. Condenser head pressure controls, if typically shipped with units of the basic model by the manufacturer or available as an option to the basic model, must be active during testing.

(8) Standard CFM. In the referenced sections of AHRI 340/360-2007 (incorporated by reference; see § 431.95), all instances of CFM refer to standard CFM (SCFM). Likewise, all references to airflow or air quantity refer to standard airflow and standard air quantity.

(9) Capacity rating at part-load. When testing to determine EER for the part-load rating points (i.e. 75-percent load, 50-percent load, and 25-percent load), if the measured capacity expressed as a percent of full-load capacity for a given part-load test is within three percent above or below the target part-load percentage, the EER calculated for the test may be used without any interpolation to determine IEER.

(10) Condenser air inlet temperature for part-load testing. When testing to determine EER for the part-load rating points (i.e. 75-percent load, 50-percent load, and 25-percent load), the condenser air inlet temperature shall be calculated (using the equation in Table 6 of AHRI 340/360-2007; incorporated by reference; see § 431.95) for the target percent load rather than for the percent load measured in the test. Table 1 of this appendix shows the condenser air inlet temperature corresponding with each target percent load, as calculated using the equation in Table 6 of AHRI 340/360-2007.

Table 1 to Appendix A to Subpart F of Part 431 - Condenser Air Inlet Temperatures for Part-Load Tests

Target percent load
(%)
Condenser air inlet temperature
( °F)
25 65
50 68
75 81.5

[80 FR 79670, Dec. 23, 2015]

Subpart G - Commercial Water Heaters, Hot Water Supply Boilers and Unfired Hot Water Storage Tanks
Source:

69 FR 61983, Oct. 21, 2004, unless otherwise noted.

§ 431.101 Purpose and scope.

This subpart contains energy conservation requirements for certain commercial water heaters, hot water supply boilers and unfired hot water storage tanks, pursuant to Part C of Title III of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act, as amended, 42 U.S.C. 6311-6317.

[69 FR 61983, Oct. 21, 2004, as amended at 70 FR 60415, Oct. 18, 2005]

§ 431.102 Definitions concerning commercial water heaters, hot water supply boilers, unfired hot water storage tanks, and commercial heat pump water heaters.

The following definitions apply for purposes of this subpart G, and of subparts J through M of this part. Any words or terms not defined in this section or elsewhere in this part shall be defined as provided in section 340 of the Act, 42 U.S.C. 6311.

Air-source commercial heat pump water heater means a commercial heat pump water heater that utilizes indoor or outdoor air as the heat source.

Basic model means all water heaters, hot water supply boilers, or unfired hot water storage tanks manufactured by one manufacturer within a single equipment class, having the same primary energy source (e.g., gas or oil) and that have essentially identical electrical, physical and functional characteristics that affect energy efficiency.

Coefficient of performance (COPh) means the dimensionless ratio of the rate of useful heat transfer gained by the water (expressed in Btu/h), to the rate of electric power consumed during operation (expressed in Btu/h).

Commercial heat pump water heater (CHPWH) means a water heater (including all ancillary equipment such as fans, blowers, pumps, storage tanks, piping, and controls, as applicable) that uses a refrigeration cycle, such as vapor compression, to transfer heat from a low-temperature source to a higher-temperature sink for the purpose of heating potable water, and has a rated electric power input greater than 12 kW. Such equipment includes, but is not limited to, air-source heat pump water heaters, water-source heat pump water heaters, and direct geo-exchange heat pump water heaters.

Direct geo-exchange commercial heat pump water heater means a commercial heat pump water heater that utilizes the earth as a heat source and allows for direct exchange of heat between the earth and the refrigerant in the evaporator coils.

Flow-activated instantaneous water heater means an instantaneous water heater or hot water supply boiler that activates the burner or heating element only if heated water is drawn from the unit.

Fuel input rate means the maximum measured rate at which gas-fired or oil-fired commercial water heating equipment uses energy as determined using test procedures prescribed under § 431.106 of this part.

Ground-source closed-loop commercial heat pump water heater means a commercial heat pump water heater that utilizes a fluid circulated through a closed piping loop as a medium to transfer heat from the ground to the refrigerant in the evaporator. The piping loop may be buried inside the ground in horizontal trenches or vertical bores, or submerged in a surface water body.

Ground water-source commercial heat pump water heater means a commercial heat pump water heater that utilizes ground water as the heat source.

Hot water supply boiler means a packaged boiler (defined in § 431.82 of this part) that is industrial equipment and that:

(1) Has a rated input from 300,000 Btu/h to 12,500,000 Btu/h and of at least 4,000 Btu/h per gallon of stored water;

(2) Is suitable for heating potable water; and

(3) Meets either or both of the following conditions:

(i) It has the temperature and pressure controls necessary for heating potable water for purposes other than space heating; or

(ii) The manufacturer's product literature, product markings, product marketing, or product installation and operation instructions indicate that the boiler's intended uses include heating potable water for purposes other than space heating.

Indoor water-source commercial heat pump water heater means a commercial heat pump water heater that utilizes indoor water as the heat source.

Instantaneous water heater means a water heater that uses gas, oil, or electricity, including:

(1) Gas-fired instantaneous water heaters with a rated input both greater than 200,000 Btu/h and not less than 4,000 Btu/h per gallon of stored water;

(2) Oil-fired instantaneous water heaters with a rated input both greater than 210,000 Btu/h and not less than 4,000 Btu/h per gallon of stored water; and

(3) Electric instantaneous water heaters with a rated input both greater than 12 kW and not less than 4,000 Btu/h per gallon of stored water.

Rated input means the maximum rate at which commercial water heating equipment is rated to use energy as specified on the nameplate.

R-value means the thermal resistance of insulating material as determined using ASTM C177-13 or C518-15 (incorporated by reference; see § 431.105) and expressed in ( °F·ft2·h/Btu).

Residential-duty commercial water heater means any gas-fired storage, oil-fired storage, or electric instantaneous commercial water heater that meets the following conditions:

(1) For models requiring electricity, uses single-phase external power supply;

(2) Is not designed to provide outlet hot water at temperatures greater than 180 °F; and

(3) Does not meet any of the following criteria:

Water heater type Indicator of non-residential application
Gas-fired Storage Rated input >105 kBtu/h; Rated storage volume >120 gallons.
Oil-fired Storage Rated input >140 kBtu/h; Rated storage volume >120 gallons.
Electric Instantaneous Rated input >58.6 kW; Rated storage volume >2 gallons.

Standby loss means:

(1) For electric commercial water heating equipment (not including commercial heat pump water heaters), the average hourly energy required to maintain the stored water temperature expressed as a percent per hour (%/h) of the heat content of the stored water above room temperature and determined in accordance with appendix B or D to subpart G of part 431 (as applicable), denoted by the term “S”; or

(2) For gas-fired and oil-fired commercial water heating equipment, the average hourly energy required to maintain the stored water temperature expressed in British thermal units per hour (Btu/h) based on a 70 °F temperature differential between stored water and ambient room temperature and determined in accordance with appendix A or C to subpart G of part 431 (as applicable), denoted by the term “SL.”

Storage-type instantaneous water heater means an instantaneous water heater that includes a storage tank with a storage volume greater than or equal to 10 gallons.

Storage water heater means a water heater that uses gas, oil, or electricity to heat and store water within the appliance at a thermostatically-controlled temperature for delivery on demand, including:

(1) Gas-fired storage water heaters with a rated input both greater than 75,000 Btu/h and less than 4,000 Btu/h per gallon of stored water;

(2) Oil-fired storage water heaters with a rated input both greater than 105,000 Btu/h and less than 4,000 Btu/h per gallon of stored water; and

(3) Electric storage water heaters with a rated input both greater than 12 kW and less than 4,000 Btu/h per gallon of stored water.

Tank surface area means, for the purpose of determining portions of a tank requiring insulation, those areas of a storage tank, including hand holes and manholes, in its uninsulated or pre-insulated state, that do not have pipe penetrations or tank supports attached.

Thermal efficiency for an instantaneous water heater, a storage water heater or a hot water supply boiler means the ratio of the heat transferred to the water flowing through the water heater to the amount of energy consumed by the water heater as measured during the thermal efficiency test procedure prescribed in this subpart.

Unfired hot water storage tank means a tank used to store water that is heated externally, and that is industrial equipment.

[69 FR 61983, Oct. 21, 2004, as amended at 76 FR 12503, Mar. 7, 2011; 78 FR 79599, Dec. 31, 2013; 79 FR 40586, July 11, 2014; 81 FR 79321, Nov. 10, 2016]

Test Procedures
§ 431.105 Materials incorporated by reference.

(a) General. DOE incorporates by reference the following test procedures into subpart G of part 431. The materials listed have been approved for incorporation by reference by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Any subsequent amendment to the listed materials by the standard-setting organization will not affect the DOE regulations unless and until such regulations are amended by DOE. Materials are incorporated as they exist on the date of the approval, and a notice of any change in the materials will be published in the Federal Register. All approved materials are available for inspection at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of this material at NARA, call (202) 741-6030, or go to: http://www.archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. Also, this material is available for inspection at U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, 6th Floor, 950 L'Enfant Plaza, SW., Washington, DC 20024, (202) 586-2945, or go to: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/appliance_standards The referenced test procedure standards are listed below by relevant standard-setting organization, along with information on how to obtain copies from those sources.

(b) ASHRAE. American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, 1791 Tullie Circle NE. Atlanta, GA 30329, (800) 527-4723, or go to https://www.ashrae.org.

(1) ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 118.1-2012, “Method of Testing for Rating Commercial Gas, Electric, and Oil Service Water-Heating Equipment,” approved by ASHRAE on October 26, 2012, IBR approved for appendix E to this subpart, as follows:

(i) Section 3 - Definitions and Symbols;

(ii) Section 4 - Classifications by Mode of Operation (sections 4.4, and 4.5 only);

(iii) Section 6 - Instruments (except sections 6.3, 6.4 and 6.6);

(iv) Section 7 - Apparatus (except section 7.4, Figures 1 through 4, section 7.7.5, Table 2, and section 7.7.7.4);

(v) Section 8 - Methods of Testing:

(A) Section 8.2 - Energy Supply, Section 8.2.1 - Electrical Supply;

(B) Section 8.7 - Water Temperature Control;

(vi) Section 9 - Test Procedures: 9.1 - Input Rating, Heating Capacity, Thermal Efficiency, Coefficient of Performance (COP), and Recovery Rating; 9.1.1 - Full Input Rating;

(vii) Section 10 - Calculation of Results: Section 10.3 - Heat-Pump Water Heater Water-Heating Capacity, Coefficient of Performance (COP), and Recovery Rating; Section 10.3.1 - Type IV and Type V Full-Capacity Test Method.

(2) [Reserved]

(c) ASTM. ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, P.O. Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959, (610) 832-9585, or go to http://www.astm.org.

(1) ASTM C177-13, “Standard Test Method for Steady-State Heat Flux Measurements and Thermal Transmission Properties by Means of the Guarded-Hot-Plate Apparatus,” approved September 15, 2013, IBR approved for § 431.102.

(2) ASTM C518-15, “Standard Test Method for Steady-State Thermal Transmission Properties by Means of the Heat Flow Meter Apparatus,” approved September 1, 2015, IBR approved for § 431.102t.

(3) ASTM D2156-09 (Reapproved 2013), “Standard Test Method for Smoke Density in Flue Gases from Burning Distillate Fuels,” approved October 1, 2013, IBR approved for appendices A and C to this subpart.

(d) CSA Group, 5060 Spectrum Way, Suite 100, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada L4W 5N6, 800-463-6727, or go to http://www.csagroup.org/.

(1) ANSI Z21.10.3-2015 * CSA 4.3-2015 (“ANSI Z21.10.3-2015”), “Gas-fired water heaters, volume III, storage water heaters with input ratings above 75,000 Btu per hour, circulating and instantaneous,” approved by ANSI on October 5, 2015, IBR approved for appendices A, B, and C to this subpart, as follows:

(i) Annex E (normative) Efficiency test procedures - E.1 - Method of test for measuring thermal efficiency, paragraph c - Vent requirements; and

(ii) Annex E (normative) Efficiency test procedures - E.1 - Method of test for measuring thermal efficiency, paragraph f - Installation of temperature sensing means.

(2) [Reserved]

[77 FR 28996, May 16, 2012, as amended at 81 FR 79322, Nov. 10, 2016]

§ 431.106 Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial water heating equipment.

(a) Scope. This section contains test procedures for measuring, pursuant to EPCA, the energy efficiency of commercial water heating equipment.

(b) Testing and calculations. Determine the energy efficiency of commercial water heating equipment by conducting the applicable test procedure(s):

(1) Residential-duty commercial water heaters. Test in accordance with appendix E to subpart B of part 430 of this chapter.

(2) Commercial water heating equipment other than residential-duty commercial water heaters. Test in accordance with the appropriate test procedures in appendices to subpart G of this part.

(i) Gas-fired and oil-fired storage water heaters and storage-type instantaneous water heaters. Test according to appendix A to subpart G of this part.

(ii) Electric storage water heaters and storage-type instantaneous water heaters. Test according to appendix B to subpart G of this part.

(iii) Gas-fired and oil-fired instantaneous water heaters and hot water supply boilers (other than storage-type instantaneous water heaters). Test according to appendix C to subpart G of this part.

(iv) Electric instantaneous water heaters (other than storage-type instantaneous water heaters). Test according to appendix D to subpart G of this part.

(v) Commercial heat pump water heaters. Test according to appendix E to subpart G of this part.

[81 FR 79322, Nov. 10, 2016]

Energy Conservation Standards
§ 431.110 Energy conservation standards and their effective dates.

(a) Each commercial storage water heater, instantaneous water heater, unfired hot water storage tank and hot water supply boiler (excluding residential-duty commercial water heaters) must meet the applicable energy conservation standard level(s) as specified in the table in this paragraph. Any packaged boiler that provides service water that meets the definition of “commercial packaged boiler” in subpart E of this part, but does not meet the definition of “hot water supply boiler” in subpart G, must meet the requirements that apply to it under subpart E.

Equipment category Size Energy conservation standarda
Maximum standby lossc (equipment manufactured on and after October 29, 2003)b Minimum thermal efficiency (equipment manufactured on and after October 29, 2003 and
before October 9, 2015)b
(%)
Minimum thermal efficiency (equipment manufactured on and after October 9, 2015)b
(%)
Electric storage water heaters All 0.30 + 27/Vm (%/hr) N/A N/A
Gas-fired storage water heaters ≤155,000 Btu/hr Q/800 + 110(Vr)1/2 (Btu/hr) 80 80
>155,000 Btu/hr Q/800 + 110(Vr)1/2 (Btu/hr) 80 80
Oil-fired storage water heaters ≤155,000 Btu/hr Q/800 + 110(Vr)1/2 (Btu/hr) 78 80
>155,000 Btu/hr Q/800 + 110(Vr)1/2 (Btu/hr) 78 80
Gas-fired instantaneous water heaters and hot water supply boilers <10 gal
≥10 gal
N/A
Q/800 + 110(Vr)1/2 (Btu/hr)
80
80
80
80
Oil-fired instantaneous water heaters and hot water supply boilers <10 gal
≥10 gal
N/A
Q/800 + 110(Vr)1/2 (Btu/hr)
80
78
80
78
Equipment category Size Minimum thermal insulation
Unfired hot water storage tank All R-12.5

(b) Each residential-duty commercial water heater must meet the applicable energy conservation standard level(s) as follows:

Product class Specificationsa Draw pattern Uniform energy factorb
Gas-fired Storage >75 kBtu/hr and ≤105 kBtu/hr and ≤120 gal Very Small
Low
0.2674 − (0.0009 × Vr)
0.5362 − (0.0012 × Vr)
Medium 0.6002 − (0.0011 × Vr)
High 0.6597 − (0.0009 × Vr)
Oil-fired Storage >105 kBtu/hr and ≤140 kBtu/hr and ≤120 gal Very Small
Low
0.2932 − (0.0015 × Vr)
0.5596 − (0.0018 × Vr)
Medium 0.6194 − (0.0016 × Vr)
High 0.6740 − (0.0013 × Vr)
Electric Instantaneous >12 kW and ≤58.6 kW and ≤2 gal Very Small 0.80
Low 0.80
Medium 0.80
High 0.80

[81 FR 96238, Dec. 29, 2016]

Appendix A to Subpart G of Part 431 - Uniform Test Method for the Measurement of Thermal Efficiency and Standby Loss of Gas-Fired and Oil-Fired Storage Water Heaters and Storage-Type Instantaneous Water Heaters

Note: Prior to November 6, 2017, manufacturers must make any representations with respect to the energy use or efficiency of the subject commercial water heating equipment in accordance with the results of testing pursuant to this appendix or the procedures in 10 CFR 431.106 that were in place on January 1, 2016. On and after November 6, 2017, manufacturers must make any representations with respect to energy use or efficiency of gas-fired and oil-fired storage water heaters and storage-type instantaneous water heaters in accordance with the results of testing pursuant to this appendix to demonstrate compliance with the energy conservation standards at 10 CFR 431.110.

1. General

Determine the thermal efficiency and standby loss (as applicable) in accordance with the following sections of this appendix. Certain sections reference sections of Annex E.1 of ANSI Z21.10.3-2015 (incorporated by reference; see § 431.105). Where the instructions contained in the sections below conflict with instructions in Annex E.1 of ANSI Z21.10.3-2015, the instructions contained in this appendix control.

2. Test Set-Up

2.1. Placement of Water Heater. A water heater for installation on combustible floors must be placed on a3/4-inch plywood platform supported by three 2 x 4-inch runners. If the water heater is for installation on noncombustible floors, suitable noncombustible material must be placed on the platform. When the use of the platform for a large water heater is not practical, the water heater may be placed on any suitable flooring. A wall-mounted water heater must be mounted on a simulated wall section.

2.2. Installation of Temperature Sensors. Inlet and outlet water piping must be turned vertically downward from the connections on the water heater so as to form heat traps. Temperature sensors for measuring supply and outlet water temperatures must be installed upstream from the inlet heat trap piping and downstream from the outlet heat trap piping, respectively, in accordance with Figure 2.1, 2.2, or 2.3 (as applicable based on the location of inlet and outlet piping connections) of this section.

The water heater must meet the requirements shown in Figure 2.1, 2.2, or 2.3 (as applicable) at all times during the conduct of the thermal efficiency and standby loss tests. Any factory-supplied heat traps must be installed per the installation instructions while ensuring the requirements in Figure 2.1, 2.2, or 2.3 are met. All dimensions specified in Figure 2.1, 2.2, and 2.3 and in this section are measured from the outer surface of the pipes and water heater outer casing (as applicable).

2.3 Installation of Temperature Sensors for Measurement of Mean Tank Temperature. Install temperature sensors inside the tank for measurement of mean tank temperature according to the instructions in paragraph f of Annex E.1 of ANSI Z21.10.3-2015 (incorporated by reference; see § 431.105). Calculate the mean tank temperature as the average of the six installed temperature sensors.

2.4. Piping Insulation. Insulate all water piping external to the water heater jacket, including heat traps and piping that are installed by the manufacturer or shipped with the unit, for at least 4 ft of piping length from the connection at the appliance, with material having an R-value not less than 4 °F·ft2·h/Btu. Ensure that the insulation does not contact any appliance surface except at the location where the pipe connections penetrate the appliance jacket or enclosure.

2.5. Temperature and Pressure Relief Valve Insulation. If the manufacturer has not provided a temperature and pressure relief valve, one shall be installed and insulated as specified in section 2.4 of this appendix.

2.6. Vent Requirements. Follow the requirements for venting arrangements specified in paragraph c of Annex E.1 of ANSI Z21.10.3-2015 (incorporated by reference; see § 431.105).

2.7. Energy Consumption. Install equipment that determines, within ± 1 percent:

2.7.1. The quantity and rate of fuel consumed.

2.7.2. The quantity of electricity consumed by factory-supplied water heater components.

3. Test Conditions

3.1. Water Supply

3.1.1. Water Supply Pressure. The pressure of the water supply must be maintained between 40 psi and the maximum pressure specified by the manufacturer of the unit being tested. The accuracy of the pressure-measuring devices must be within ± 1.0 pounds per square inch (psi).

3.1.2. Water Supply Temperature. During the steady-state verification period and the thermal efficiency test, the temperature of the supply water must be maintained at 70 °F ± 2 °F.

3.1.3. Isolate the water heater using a shutoff valve in the supply line with an expansion tank installed in the supply line downstream of the shutoff valve. There must be no shutoff means between the expansion tank and the appliance inlet.

3.2. Gas Pressure for Gas-Fired Equipment. The supply gas pressure must be within the range specified by the manufacturer on the nameplate of the unit being tested. The difference between the outlet pressure of the gas appliance pressure regulator and the value specified by the manufacturer on the nameplate of the unit being tested must not exceed the greater of: ± 10 percent of the nameplate value or ± 0.2 inches water column (in. w.c.). Obtain the higher heating value of the gas burned.

3.3. Ambient Room Temperature. During the soak-in period (as applicable), the steady-state verification period, the thermal efficiency test, and the standby loss test, maintain the ambient room temperature at 75 °F ± 10 °F at all times. Measure the ambient room temperature at 1-minute intervals during these periods, except for the soak-in period. Measure the ambient room temperature once before beginning the soak-in period, and ensure no actions are taken during the soak-in period that would cause the ambient room temperature to deviate from the allowable range. Measure the ambient room temperature at the vertical mid-point of the water heater and approximately 2 feet from the water heater jacket. Shield the sensor against radiation. Calculate the average ambient room temperature separately for the thermal efficiency test and standby loss test. During the thermal efficiency and standby loss tests, the ambient room temperature must not vary by more than ± 5.0 °F at any reading from the average ambient room temperature.

3.4. Test Air Temperature. During the steady-state verification period, the thermal efficiency test, and the standby loss test, the test air temperature must not vary by more than ± 5 °F from the ambient room temperature at any reading. Measure the test air temperature at 1-minute intervals during these periods and at a location within two feet of the air inlet of the water heater or the combustion air intake vent, as applicable. Shield the sensor against radiation. For units with multiple air inlets, measure the test air temperature at each air inlet, and maintain the specified tolerance on deviation from the ambient room temperature at each air inlet. For units without a dedicated air inlet, measure the test air temperature within two feet of any location on the water heater where combustion air is drawn.

3.5. Maximum Air Draft. During the steady-state verification period, the thermal efficiency test, and the standby loss test, the water heater must be located in an area protected from drafts of more than 50 ft/min. Prior to beginning the steady-state verification period and the standby loss test, measure the air draft within three feet of the jacket or enclosure of the water heater to ensure this condition is met. Ensure that no other changes that would increase the air draft are made to the test set-up or conditions during the conduct of the tests.

3.6. Setting the Tank Thermostat. Before starting the steady-state verification period (as applicable) or before the soak-in period (as applicable), the thermostat setting must first be obtained by starting with the water in the system at 70 °F ± 2 °F. Set the thermostat to ensure:

3.6.1. With the supply water temperature set as per section 3.1.2 of this appendix (i.e., 70 °F ± 2 °F), the water flow rate can be varied so that the outlet water temperature is constant at 70 °F ± 2 °F above the supply water temperature while the burner is firing at full firing rate; and

3.6.2. After the water supply is turned off and the thermostat reduces the fuel supply to a minimum, the maximum water temperature measured by the topmost tank temperature sensor (i.e., the highest of the 6 temperature sensors used for calculating mean tank temperature, as required by section 2.3 of this appendix) is 140 °F ± 5 °F.

3.7. Additional Requirements for Oil-Fired Equipment.

3.7.1. Venting Requirements. Connect a vertical length of flue pipe to the flue gas outlet of sufficient height so as to meet the minimum draft specified by the manufacturer.

3.7.2. Oil Supply. Adjust the burner rate so that the following conditions are met:

3.7.2.1. The CO2 reading is within the range specified by the manufacturer;

3.7.2.2. The fuel pump pressure is within ± 10 percent of manufacturer's specifications;

3.7.2.3. If either the fuel pump pressure or range for CO2 reading are not specified by the manufacturer on the nameplate of the unit, in literature shipped with the unit, or in supplemental test report instructions included with a certification report, then a default value of 100 psig is to be used for fuel pump pressure, and a default range of 9-12 percent is to be used for CO2 reading; and

3.7.2.4. Smoke in the flue does not exceed No. 1 smoke as measured by the procedure in ASTM D2156-09 (Reapproved 2013) (incorporated by reference, see § 431.105). To determine the smoke spot number, connect the smoke measuring device to an open-ended tube. This tube must project into the flue1/4 to1/2 of the pipe diameter.

3.7.2.5. If no settings on the water heater have been changed and the water heater has not been turned off since the end of a previously run thermal efficiency or standby loss test, measurement of the CO2 reading and conduct of the smoke spot test are not required prior to beginning a test. Otherwise, measure the CO2 reading and determine the smoke spot number, with the burner firing, before the beginning of the steady-state verification period prior to the thermal efficiency test, and prior to beginning the standby loss test.

3.8. Data Collection Intervals. Follow the data recording intervals specified in the following sections.

3.8.1. Soak-In Period. For units that require a soak-in period, measure the ambient room temperature, in °F, prior to beginning the soak-in period.

3.8.2. Steady-State Verification Period and Thermal Efficiency Test. For the steady-state verification period and the thermal efficiency test, follow the data recording intervals specified in Table 3.1 of this appendix.

Table 3.1 - Data To Be Recorded Before and During the Steady-State Verification Period and Thermal Efficiency Test

Item recorded Before steady-state
verification
period
Every 1
minutea
Every 10
minutes
Gas supply pressure, in w.c. X
Gas outlet pressure, in w.c. X
Barometric pressure, in Hg X
Fuel higher heating value, Btu/ft3 (gas) or Btu/lb (oil) X
Oil pump pressure, psig (oil only) X
CO2 reading, % (oil only) Xb
Oil smoke spot reading (oil only) Xb
Air draft, ft/min X
Time, minutes/seconds X
Fuel weight or volume, lb (oil) or ft3 (gas) Xc
Supply water temperature (TSWT), °F X
Outlet water temperature (TOWT), °F X
Ambient room temperature, °F X
Test air temperature, °F X
Water flow rate, (gpm) X

3. 8.3. Standby Loss Test. For the standby loss test, follow the data recording intervals specified in Table 3.2 of this appendix. Additionally, the fuel and electricity consumption over the course of the entire test must be measured and used in calculation of standby loss.

Table 3.2 - Data To Be Recorded Before and During the Standby Loss Test

Item recorded Before test Every 1 minutea
Gas supply pressure, in w.c. X
Gas outlet pressure, in w.c. X
Barometric pressure, in Hg X
Fuel higher heating value, Btu/ft3 (gas) or Btu/lb (oil) X
Oil pump pressure, psig (oil only) X
CO2 reading, % (oil only) Xb
Oil smoke spot reading (oil only) Xb
Air draft, ft/min X
Time, minutes/seconds X
Mean tank temperature, °F Xc
Ambient room temperature, °F X
Test air temperature, °F X

4. Determination of Storage Volume. Determine the storage volume by subtracting the tare weight, measured while the system is dry and empty, from the weight of the system when filled with water and dividing the resulting net weight of water by the density of water at the measured water temperature. The volume of the water contained in the water heater must be computed in gallons.

5. Thermal Efficiency Test. Before beginning the steady-state verification period, record the applicable parameters as specified in section 3.8.2 of this appendix. Begin drawing water from the unit by opening the main supply, and adjust the water flow rate to achieve an outlet water temperature of 70 °F ± 2 °F above supply water temperature. The thermal efficiency test shall be deemed complete when there is a continuous, one-hour-long period where the steady-state conditions specified in section 5.1 of this appendix have been met, as confirmed by consecutive readings of the relevant parameters recorded at 1-minute intervals (except for fuel input rate, which is determined at 10-minute intervals, as specified in section 5.4 of this appendix). During the one-hour-long period, the water heater must fire continuously at its full firing rate (i.e., no modulations or cut-outs) and no settings can be changed on the unit being tested at any time. The first 30 minutes of the one-hour-period where the steady-state conditions in section 5.1 of this appendix are met is the steady-state verification period. The final 30 minutes of the one-hour-period where the steady-state conditions in section 5.1 of this appendix are met is the thermal efficiency test. The last reading of the steady-state verification period must be the first reading of the thermal efficiency test (i.e., the thermal efficiency test starts immediately once the steady-state verification period ends).

5. 1. Steady-State Conditions. The following conditions must be met at consecutive readings taken at 1-minute intervals (except for fuel input rate, for which measurements are taken at 10-minute intervals) to verify the water heater has achieved steady-state operation during the steady-state verification period and thermal efficiency test.

5.1.1. The water flow rate must be maintained within ± 0.25 gallons per minute (gpm) of the initial reading at the start of the steady-state verification period;

5.1.2. Outlet water temperature must be maintained at 70 °F ± 2 °F above supply water temperature;

5.1.3. Fuel input rate must be maintained within ± 2 percent of the rated input certified by the manufacturer;

5.1.4. The supply water temperature must be maintained within ± 0.50 °F of the initial reading at the start of the steady-state verification period; and

5.1.5. The rise between the supply and outlet water temperatures must be maintained within ± 0.50 °F of its initial value taken at the start of the steady-state verification period for units with rated input less than 500,000 Btu/h, and maintained within ± 1.00 °F of its initial value for units with rated input greater than or equal to 500,000 Btu/h.

5.2. Water Flow Measurement. Measure the total weight of water heated during the 30-minute thermal efficiency test with either a scale or a water flow meter. With either method, the error of measurement of weight of water heated must not exceed 1 percent of the weight of the total draw.

5. 3. Determination of Fuel Input Rate. During the steady-state verification period and the thermal efficiency test, record the fuel consumed at 10-minute intervals. Calculate the fuel input rate over each 10-minute period using the equations in section 5.4 of this appendix. The measured fuel input rates for these 10-minute periods must not vary by more than ± 2 percent between any two readings. Determine the overall fuel input rate using the fuel consumption for the entire duration of the thermal efficiency test.

5. 4. Fuel Input Rate Calculation. To calculate the fuel input rate, use the following equation:

Where,

Q = Fuel input rate, expressed in Btu/h

Qs = Total fuel flow as metered, expressed in ft3 for gas-fired equipment and lb for oil-fired equipment

Cs = Correction applied to the heating value of a gas H, when it is metered at temperature and/or pressure conditions other than the standard conditions for which the value of H is based. Cs=1 for oil-fired equipment.

H = Higher heating value of fuel, expressed in Btu/ft3 for gas-fired equipment and Btu/lb for oil-fired equipment.

t = Duration of measurement of fuel consumption

5. 5. Thermal Efficiency Calculation. Thermal efficiency must be calculated using data from the 30-minute thermal efficiency test. Calculate thermal efficiency, Et, using the following equation:

Where,

K = 1.004 Btu/lb· °F, the nominal specific heat of water at 105 °F

W = Total weight of water heated, expressed in lb

θ1 = Average supply water temperature, expressed in °F

θ2 = Average outlet water temperature, expressed in °F

Q = Total fuel flow as metered, expressed in ft3 for gas-fired equipment and lb for oil-fired equipment.

Cs = Correction applied to the heating value of a gas H, when it is metered at temperature and/or pressure conditions other than the standard conditions for which the value of H is based. Cs=1 for oil-fired equipment

H. = Higher heating value of the fuel, expressed in Btu/ft3 for gas-fired equipment and Btu/lb for oil-fired equipment.

Ec = Electrical consumption of the water heater and, when used, the test set-up recirculating pump, expressed in Btu

6. Standby Loss Test

6.1. If no settings on the water heater have changed and the water heater has not been turned off since a previously run thermal efficiency or standby loss test, skip to section 6.3 of this appendix. Otherwise, conduct the soak-in period according to section 6.2 of this appendix.

6.2. Soak-In Period. Conduct a soak-in period, in which the water heater must sit without any draws taking place for at least 12 hours. Begin the soak-in period after setting the tank thermostat as specified in section 3.6 of this appendix, and maintain these thermostat settings throughout the soak-in period.

6.3. Begin the standby loss test at the first cut-out following the end of the soak-in period (if applicable); or at a cut-out following the previous thermal efficiency or standby loss test (if applicable). Allow the water heater to remain in standby mode. Do not change any settings on the water heater at any point until measurements for the standby loss test are finished. Begin recording the applicable parameters specified in section 3.8.3 of this appendix.

6. 4. At the second cut-out, record the time and ambient room temperature, and begin measuring the fuel and electricity consumption. Record the initial mean tank temperature and initial ambient room temperature. For the remainder of the test, continue recording the applicable parameters specified in section 3.8.3 of this appendix.

6. 5. Stop the test after the first cut-out that occurs after 24 hours, or at 48 hours, whichever comes first.

6. 6. Immediately after conclusion of the standby loss test, record the total fuel flow and electrical energy consumption, the final ambient room temperature, the duration of the standby loss test, and if the test ends at 48 hours without a cut-out, the final mean tank temperature, or if the test ends after a cut-out, the maximum mean tank temperature that occurs after the cut-out. Calculate the average of the recorded values of the mean tank temperature and of the ambient room temperature taken at each measurement interval, including the initial and final values.

6. 7. Standby Loss Calculation. To calculate the standby loss, follow the steps below:

6. 7.1. The standby loss expressed as a percentage (per hour) of the heat content of the stored water above room temperature must be calculated using the following equation:

Where,

ΔT3 = Average value of the mean tank temperature minus the average value of the ambient room temperature, expressed in °F

ΔT4 = Final mean tank temperature measured at the end of the test minus the initial mean tank temperature measured at the start of the test , expressed in °F

k = 8.25 Btu/gallon· °F, the nominal specific heat of water

Va = Volume of water contained in the water heater in gallons measured in accordance with section 4 of this appendix

Et = Thermal efficiency of the water heater determined in accordance with this appendix, expressed in %

Ec = Electrical energy consumed by the water heater during the duration of the test in Btu

t = Total duration of the test in hours

Cs = Correction applied to the heating value of a gas H, when it is metered at temperature and/or pressure conditions other than the standard conditions for which the value of H is based. Cs=1 for oil-fired equipment.

Qs = Total fuel flow as metered, expressed in ft3 (gas) or lb (oil)

H = Higher heating value of fuel, expressed in Btu/ft3 (gas) or Btu/lb (oil)

S = Standby loss, the average hourly energy required to maintain the stored water temperature expressed as a percentage of the heat content of the stored water above room temperature

6.7.2. The standby loss expressed in Btu per hour must be calculated as follows:

SL (Btu per hour) = S (% per hour) × 8.25 (Btu/gal- °F) × Measured Volume (gal) × 70 ( °F).

Where, SL refers to the standby loss of the water heater, defined as the amount of energy required to maintain the stored water temperature expressed in Btu per hour

[81 FR 79323, Nov. 10, 2016]

Appendix B to Subpart G of Part 431 - Uniform Test Method for the Measurement of Standby Loss of Electric Storage Water Heaters and Storage-Type Instantaneous Water Heaters

Note: Prior to November 6, 2017, manufacturers must make any representations with respect to the energy use or efficiency of the subject commercial water heating equipment in accordance with the results of testing pursuant to this appendix or the procedures in 10 CFR 431.106 that were in place on January 1, 2016. On and after November 6, 2017, manufacturers must make any representations with respect to energy use or efficiency of electric storage water heaters and storage-type instantaneous water heaters in accordance with the results of testing pursuant to this appendix to demonstrate compliance with the energy conservation standards at 10 CFR 431.110.

1. General

Determine the standby loss in accordance with the following sections of this appendix. Certain sections reference sections of Annex E.1 of ANSI Z21.10.3-2015 (incorporated by reference; see § 431.105). Where the instructions contained in the sections below conflict with instructions in Annex E.1 of ANSI Z21.10.3-2015, the instructions contained in this appendix control.

2. Test Set-Up

2. 1. Placement of Water Heater. A water heater for installation on combustible floors must be placed on a3/4-inch plywood platform supported by three 2 × 4-inch runners. If the water heater is for installation on noncombustible floors, suitable noncombustible material must be placed on the platform. When the use of the platform for a large water heater is not practical, the water heater may be placed on any suitable flooring. A wall-mounted water heater must be mounted on a simulated wall section.

2. 2. Installation of Temperature Sensors. Inlet and outlet piping must be turned vertically downward from the connections on a tank-type water heater so as to form heat traps. Temperature sensors for measuring supply water temperature must be installed upstream of the inlet heat trap piping, in accordance with Figure 2.1, 2.2, or 2.3 (as applicable) of this appendix.

The water heater must meet the requirements shown in either Figure 2.1, 2.2, or 2.3 (as applicable) at all times during the conduct of the standby loss test. Any factory-supplied heat traps must be installed per the installation instructions while ensuring the requirements in Figure 2.1, 2.2, or 2.3 are met. All dimensions specified in Figure 2.1, 2.2, and 2.3 are measured from the outer surface of the pipes and water heater outer casing (as applicable).

2.3. Installation of Temperature Sensors for Measurement of Mean Tank Temperature. Install temperature sensors inside the tank for measurement of mean tank temperature according to the instructions in paragraph f of Annex E.1 of ANSI Z21.10.3-2015 (incorporated by reference; see § 431.105 rt). Calculate the mean tank temperature as the average of the six installed temperature sensors.

2. 4. Piping Insulation. Insulate all water piping external to the water heater jacket, including heat traps and piping that is installed by the manufacturer or shipped with the unit, for at least 4 ft of piping length from the connection at the appliance, with material having an R-value not less than 4 °F·ft2·h/Btu. Ensure that the insulation does not contact any appliance surface except at the location where the pipe connections penetrate the appliance jacket or enclosure.

2.5. Temperature and Pressure Relief Valve Insulation. If the manufacturer or has not provided a temperature and pressure relief valve, one shall be installed and insulated as specified in section 2.4 of this appendix.

2. 6. Energy Consumption. Install equipment that determines, within ± 1 percent, the quantity of electricity consumed by factory-supplied water heater components.

3. Test Conditions

3.1. Water Supply

3. 1.1. Water Supply Pressure. The pressure of the water supply must be maintained between 40 psi and the maximum pressure specified by the manufacturer of the unit being tested. The accuracy of the pressure-measuring devices must be within ± 1.0 pounds per square inch (psi).

3.1.2. Water Supply Temperature. When filling the tank with water prior to the soak-in period, maintain the supply water temperature at 70 °F ± 2 °F.

3.1.3. Isolate the water heater using a shutoff valve in the supply line with an expansion tank installed in the supply line downstream of the shutoff valve. There must be no shutoff means between the expansion tank and the appliance inlet.

3.2. Electrical Supply. Maintain the electrical supply voltage to within ± 5 percent of the voltage specified on the water heater nameplate. If a voltage range is specified on the nameplate, maintain the voltage to within ± 5 percent of the center of the voltage range specified on the nameplate.

3. 3. Ambient Room Temperature. During the soak-in period and the standby loss test, maintain the ambient room temperature at 75 °F ± 10 °F at all times. Measure the ambient room temperature at 1-minute intervals during these periods, except for the soak-in period. Measure the ambient room temperature once before beginning the soak-in period, and ensure no actions are taken during the soak-in period that would cause the ambient room temperature to deviate from the allowable range. Measure the ambient room temperature at the vertical mid-point of the water heater and approximately 2 feet from the water heater jacket. Shield the sensor against radiation. Calculate the average ambient room temperature for the standby loss test. During the standby loss test, the ambient room temperature must not vary by more than ± 5.0 °F at any reading from the average ambient room temperature.

3. 4. Maximum Air Draft. During the standby loss test, the water heater must be located in an area protected from drafts of more than 50 ft/min. Prior to beginning the standby loss test, measure the air draft within three feet of the jacket of the water heater to ensure this condition is met. Ensure that no other changes that would increase the air draft are made to the test set-up or conditions during the conduct of the test.

3. 5. Setting the Tank Thermostat(s). Before starting the required soak-in period, the thermostat setting(s) must first be obtained as explained in the following sections. The thermostat setting(s) must be obtained by starting with the tank full of water at 70 °F ± 2 °F. After the tank is completely filled with water at 70 °F ± 2 °F, turn off the water flow, and set the thermostat(s) as follows.

3.5.1. For water heaters with a single thermostat, the thermostat setting must be set so that the maximum mean tank temperature after cut-out is 140 °F ± 5 °F.

3.5.2. For water heaters with multiple adjustable thermostats, set only the topmost and bottommost thermostats, and turn off any other thermostats for the duration of the standby loss test. Set the topmost thermostat first to yield a maximum mean water temperature after cut-out of 140 °F ± 5 °F, as calculated using only the temperature readings measured at locations in the tank higher than the heating element corresponding to the topmost thermostat (the lowermost heating element corresponding to the topmost thermostat if the thermostat controls more than one element). While setting the topmost thermostat, all lower thermostats must be turned off so that no elements below that (those) corresponding to the topmost thermostat are in operation. After setting the topmost thermostat, set the bottommost thermostat to yield a maximum mean water temperature after cut-out of 140 °F ± 5 °F. When setting the bottommost thermostat, calculate the mean tank temperature using all the temperature sensors installed in the tank as per section 2.3 of this appendix.

3.6. Data Collection Intervals. Follow the data recording intervals specified in the following sections.

3. 6.1. Soak-In Period. Measure the ambient room temperature, in °F, every minute during the soak-in period.

3. 6.2. Standby Loss Test. Follow the data recording intervals specified in Table 3.1 of this appendix. Additionally, the electricity consumption over the course of the entire test must be measured and used in calculation of standby loss.

Table 3.1 - Data To Be Recorded Before and During the Standby Loss Test

Item recorded Before test Every 1
minutea
Air draft, ft/min X
Time, minutes/seconds X
Mean tank temperature, °F Xb
Ambient room temperature, °F X

4. Determination of Storage Volume. Determine the storage volume by subtracting the tare weight, measured while the system is dry and empty, from the weight of the system when filled with water and dividing the resulting net weight of water by the density of water at the measured water temperature. The volume of water contained in the water heater must be computed in gallons.

5. Standby Loss Test

5. 1. If no settings on the water heater have changed and the water heater has not been turned off since a previously run standby loss test, skip to section 5.3 of this appendix. Otherwise, conduct the soak-in period according to section 5.2 of this appendix.

5.2. Soak-In Period. Conduct a soak-in period, in which the water heater must sit without any draws taking place for at least 12 hours. Begin the soak-in period after setting the tank thermostat(s) as specified in section 3.5 of this appendix, and maintain these settings throughout the soak-in period.

5.3. Begin the standby loss test at the first cut-out following the end of the soak-in period (if applicable), or at a cut-out following the previous standby loss test (if applicable). Allow the water heater to remain in standby mode. At this point, do not change any settings on the water heater until measurements for the standby loss test are finished. Begin recording applicable parameters as specified in section 3.6.2 of this appendix.

5.4. At the second cut-out, record the time and ambient room temperature, and begin measuring the electric consumption. Record the initial mean tank temperature and initial ambient room temperature. For the remainder of the test, continue recording the applicable parameters specified in section 3.6.2 of this appendix.

5.5. Stop the test after the first cut-out that occurs after 24 hours, or at 48 hours, whichever comes first.

5. 6. Immediately after conclusion of the standby loss test, record the total electrical energy consumption, the final ambient room temperature, the duration of the standby loss test, and if the test ends at 48 hours without a cut-out, the final mean tank temperature, or if the test ends after a cut-out, the maximum mean tank temperature that occurs after the cut-out. Calculate the average of the recorded values of the mean tank temperature and of the ambient air temperatures taken at each measurement interval, including the initial and final values.

5. 7. Standby Loss Calculation. To calculate the standby loss, follow the steps below:

5. 7.1 The standby loss expressed as a percentage (per hour) of the heat content of the stored water above room temperature must be calculated using the following equation:

Where,

ΔT3 = Average value of the mean tank temperature minus the average value of the ambient room temperature, expressed in °F

ΔT4 = Final mean tank temperature measured at the end of the test minus the initial mean tank temperature measured at the start of the test, expressed in °F

k = 8.25 Btu/gallon· °F, the nominal specific heat of water

Va = Volume of water contained in the water heater in gallons measured in accordance with section 4 of this appendix

Et = Thermal efficiency = 98 percent for electric water heaters with immersed heating elements

Ec = Electrical energy consumed by the water heater during the duration of the test in Btu

t = Total duration of the test in hours

S = Standby loss, the average hourly energy required to maintain the stored water temperature expressed as a percentage of the heat content of the stored water above room temperature

[81 FR 79328, Nov. 10, 2016]

Appendix C to Subpart G of Part 431 - Uniform Test Method for the Measurement of Thermal Efficiency and Standby Loss of Gas-Fired and Oil-Fired Instantaneous Water Heaters and Hot Water Supply Boilers (Other Than Storage-Type Instantaneous Water Heaters)
Note:

Prior to November 6, 2017, manufacturers must make any representations with respect to the energy use or efficiency of the subject commercial water heating equipment in accordance with the results of testing pursuant to this appendix or the procedures in 10 CFR 431.106 that were in place on January 1, 2016. On and after November 6, 2017, manufacturers must make any representations with respect to energy use or efficiency of gas-fired and oil-fired instantaneous water heaters and hot water supply boilers (other than storage-type instantaneous water heaters) in accordance with the results of testing pursuant to this appendix to demonstrate compliance with the energy conservation standards at 10 CFR 431.110.

1. General

Determine the thermal efficiency and standby loss (as applicable) in accordance with the following sections of this appendix. Certain sections reference sections of Annex E.1 of ANSI Z21.10.3-2015 (incorporated by reference; see § 431.105). Where the instructions contained in the sections below conflict with instructions in Annex E.1 of ANSI Z21.10.3-2015, the instructions contained in this appendix control.

2. Test Set-Up

2. 1. Placement of Water Heater. A water heater for installation on combustible floors must be placed on a3/4-inch plywood platform supported by three 2 x 4-inch runners. If the water heater is for installation on noncombustible floors, suitable noncombustible material must be placed on the platform. When the use of the platform for a large water heater is not practical, the water heater may be placed on any suitable flooring. A wall-mounted water heater must be mounted on a simulated wall section.

2. 2. Test Configuration. If the instantaneous water heater or hot water supply boiler is not required to be tested using a recirculating loop, then set up the unit in accordance with Figures 2.1, 2.2, or 2.3 of this appendix (as applicable). If the unit is required to be tested using a recirculating loop, then set up the unit as per Figure 2.4 of this appendix.

2.2.1. If the instantaneous water heater or hot water supply boiler does not have any external piping, install an outlet water valve within 10 inches of piping length of the water heater jacket or enclosure. If the instantaneous water heater or hot water supply boiler includes external piping assembled at the manufacturer's premises prior to shipment, install water valves in the outlet piping within 5 inches of the end of the piping supplied with the unit.

2. 2.2. If the water heater is not able to achieve an outlet water temperature of 70 °F ± 2 °F (TOWT) above the supply water temperature at full firing rate, a recirculating loop with pump as shown in Figure 2.4 of this appendix must be used.

2.2.2.1. If a recirculating loop with a pump is used, then ensure that the inlet water temperature labeled as TIWT in Figure 2.4 of this appendix, is greater than or equal to 70 °F and less than or equal to 120 °F at all times during the thermal efficiency test and steady-state verification period (as applicable).

2.3. Installation of Temperature Sensors

2.3.1. Without Recirculating Loop.

2.3.1.1. Vertical Connections. Use Figure 2.1 (for top connections) and 2.2 (for bottom connections) of this appendix.

2.3.1.2. Horizontal Connections. Use Figure 2.3 of this appendix.

2.3.2. With Recirculating Loop. Set up the recirculating loop as shown in Figure 2.4 of this appendix.

2.3.3. For water heaters with multiple outlet water connections leaving the water heater jacket that are required to be operated to achieve the rated input, temperature sensors must be installed for each outlet water connection leaving the water heater jacket or enclosure that is used during testing, in accordance with the provisions in sections 2.3.1 and 2.3.2 of this appendix (as applicable).

2. 4. Piping Insulation. Insulate all water piping external to the water heater jacket or enclosure, including piping that is installed by the manufacturer or shipped with the unit, for at least 4 ft of piping length from the connection at the appliance with material having an R-value not less than 4 °F·ft2·h/Btu. Ensure that the insulation does not contact any appliance surface except at the location where the pipe connections penetrate the appliance jacket or enclosure.

2.5. Temperature and Pressure Relief Valve Insulation. If the manufacturer has not provided a temperature and pressure relief valve, one shall be installed and insulated as specified in section 2.4 of this appendix. The temperature and pressure relief valve must be installed in the outlet water piping, between the unit being tested and the outlet water valve.

2. 6. Vent Requirements. Follow the requirements for venting arrangements specified in paragraph c of Annex E.1 of ANSI Z21.10.3-2015 (incorporated by reference; see § 431.105).

2. 7. Energy Consumption. Install equipment that determines, within ± 1 percent:

2. 7.1. The quantity and rate of fuel consumed.

2.7.2. The quantity of electricity consumed by factory-supplied water heater components, and of the test loop recirculating pump, if used.

3. Test Conditions

3.1. Water Supply

3.1.1. Water Supply Pressure. The pressure of the water supply must be maintained between 40 psi and the maximum pressure specified by the manufacturer of the unit being tested. The accuracy of the pressure-measuring devices must be within ± 1.0 psi.

3. 1.2. Water Supply Temperature. During the thermal efficiency test and steady-state verification period (as applicable), the temperature of the supply water (TSWT) must be maintained at 70 °F ± 2 °F.

3. 2. Gas Pressure for Gas-Fired Equipment. The supply gas pressure must be within the range specified by the manufacturer on the nameplate of the unit being tested. The difference between the outlet pressure of the gas appliance pressure regulator and the value specified by the manufacturer on the nameplate of the unit being tested must not exceed the greater of: ± 10 percent of the nameplate value or ± 0.2 inches water column (in. w.c.). Obtain the higher heating value of the gas burned.

3.3. Ambient Room Temperature. Maintain the ambient room temperature at 75 °F ± 10 °F at all times during the steady-state verification period, the thermal efficiency test, and the standby loss test (as applicable). Measure the ambient room temperature at 1-minute intervals during these periods. Measure the ambient room temperature at the vertical mid-point of the water heater and approximately 2 feet from the water heater jacket or enclosure. Shield the sensor against radiation. Calculate the average ambient room temperature separately for the thermal efficiency test and the standby loss test. During the thermal efficiency and standby loss tests, the ambient room temperature must not vary by more than ± 5.0 °F at any reading from the average ambient room temperature.

3.4. Test Air Temperature. During the steady-state verification period, the thermal efficiency test, and the standby loss test (as applicable), the test air temperature must not vary by more than ± 5 °F from the ambient room temperature at any reading. Measure the test air temperature at 1-minute intervals during these periods and at a location within two feet of the air inlet of the water heater or the combustion air intake vent, as applicable. Shield the sensor against radiation. For units with multiple air inlets, measure the test air temperature at each air inlet, and maintain the specified tolerance on deviation from the ambient room temperature at each air inlet. For units without a dedicated air inlet, measure the test air temperature within two feet of any location on the water heater where combustion air is drawn.

3. 5. Maximum Air Draft. During the steady-state verification period, the thermal efficiency test, and the standby loss test (as applicable), the water heater must be located in an area protected from drafts of more than 50 ft/min. Prior to beginning the steady-state verification period and the standby loss test, measure the air draft within three feet of the jacket or enclosure of the water heater to ensure this condition is met. Ensure that no other changes that would increase the air draft are made to the test set-up or conditions during the conduct of the tests.

3.6. Primary Control

3.6.1. Thermostatically-Activated Water Heaters With an Internal Thermostat. Before starting the thermal efficiency test and the standby loss test (unless the thermostat is already set before the thermal efficiency test), the thermostat setting must be obtained. Set the thermostat to ensure:

3.6.1.1. With supply water temperature set as per section 3.1.2 of this appendix (i.e., 70 °F ± 2 °F) the water flow rate can be varied so that the outlet water temperature is constant at 70 °F ± 2 °F above the supply water temperature, while the burner is firing at full firing rate; and

3.6.1.2. After the water supply is turned off and the thermostat reduces the fuel supply to a minimum, the maximum heat exchanger outlet water temperature (TOHX) is 140 °F ± 5 °F.

3.6.1.3. If the water heater includes a built-in safety mechanism that prevents it from achieving a heat exchanger outlet water temperature of 140 °F ± 5 °F, adjust the thermostat to its maximum setting.

3.6.2. Flow-Activated Instantaneous Water Heaters and Thermostatically-Activated Instantaneous Water Heaters With an External Thermostat. Energize the primary control such that it is always calling for heating and the burner is firing at the full firing rate. Maintain the supply water temperature as per section 3.1.2 of this appendix (i.e., 70 °F ± 2 °F). Set the control so that the outlet water temperature (TOWT) is 140 °F ± 5 °F. If the water heater includes a built-in safety mechanism that prevents it from achieving a heat exchanger outlet water temperature of 140 °F ± 5 °F, adjust the control to its maximum setting.

3.7. Units With Multiple Outlet Water Connections

3.7.1. For each connection leaving the water heater that is required for the unit to achieve the rated input, the outlet water temperature must not differ from that of any other outlet water connection by more than 2 °F during the steady-state verification period and thermal efficiency test.

3.7.2. Determine the outlet water temperature representative for the entire unit at every required measurement interval by calculating the average of the outlet water temperatures measured at each connection leaving the water heater jacket or enclosure that is used during testing. Use the outlet water temperature representative for the entire unit in all calculations for the thermal efficiency and standby loss tests, as applicable.

3.8. Additional Requirements for Oil-Fired Equipment.

3. 8.1. Venting Requirements. Connect a vertical length of flue pipe to the flue gas outlet of sufficient height so as to meet the minimum draft specified by the manufacturer.

3.8.2. Oil Supply. Adjust the burner rate so that the following conditions are met:

3.8.2.1. The CO2 reading is within the range specified by the manufacturer;

3.8.2.2. The fuel pump pressure is within ± 10 percent of manufacturer's specifications;

3.8.2.3. If either the fuel pump pressure or range for CO2 reading are not specified by the manufacturer on the nameplate of the unit, in literature shipped with the unit, or in supplemental test report instructions included with a certification report, then a default value of 100 psig is to be used for fuel pump pressure, and a default range of 9-12 percent is to be used for CO2 reading; and

3.8.2.4. Smoke in the flue does not exceed No. 1 smoke as measured by the procedure in ASTM D2156-09 (Reapproved 2013) (incorporated by reference, see § 431.105). To determine the smoke spot number, the smoke measuring device shall be connected to an open-ended tube. This tube must project into the flue1/4 to1/2 of the pipe diameter.

3.8.2.5. If no settings on the water heater have been changed and the water heater has not been turned off since the end of a previously run thermal efficiency (or standby loss test for thermostatically-activated instantaneous water heaters with an internal thermostat), measurement of the CO2 reading and conduct of the smoke spot test are not required prior to beginning a test. Otherwise, measure the CO2 reading and determine the smoke spot number, with the burner firing, before beginning measurements for the steady-state verification period (prior to beginning the thermal efficiency test or standby loss test, as applicable). However, measurement of the CO2 reading and conduct of the smoke spot test are not required for the standby loss test for thermostatically-activated instantaneous water heaters with an external thermostat and flow-activated instantaneous water heaters.

3. 9. Data Collection Intervals. Follow the data recording intervals specified in the following sections.

3. 9.1. Steady-State Verification Period and Thermal Efficiency Test. For the steady-state verification period and the thermal efficiency test, follow the data recording intervals specified in Table 3.1 of this appendix. These data recording intervals must also be followed if conducting a steady-state verification period prior to conducting the standby loss test.

Table 3.1 - Data To Be Recorded Before and During the Steady-State Verification Period and Thermal Efficiency Test

Item recorded Before
steady-state
verification period
Every 1
minutea
Every 10
minutes
Gas supply pressure, in w.c. X
Gas outlet pressure, in w.c. X
Barometric pressure, in Hg X
Fuel higher heating value, Btu/ft3 (gas) or Btu/lb (oil) X
Oil pump pressure, psig (oil only) X
CO2 reading, % (oil only) Xb
Oil smoke spot reading (oil only) Xb
Air draft, ft/min X
Time, minutes/seconds X
Fuel weight or volume, lb (oil) or ft3 (gas) Xc
Supply water temperature (TSWT), °F X
Inlet water temperature (TIWT), °F Xd
Outlet water temperature (TOWT), °F X
Ambient room temperature, °F X
Test air temperature, °F X
Water flow rate, gpm X

3.9.2. Standby Loss Test. For the standby loss test, follow the data recording intervals specified in Table 3.2 of this appendix. (Follow the data recording intervals specified in Table 3.1 of this appendix of the steady-state verification period, if conducted prior to the standby loss test.) Additionally, the fuel and electricity consumption over the course of the entire test must be measured and used in calculation of standby loss.

Table 3.2 - Data To Be Recorded Before and During the Standby Loss Test

Item recorded Before test Every 1
minutea
Gas supply pressure, in w.c. X
Gas outlet pressure, in w.c. X
Barometric pressure, in Hg X
Fuel higher heating value, Btu/ft3 (gas) or Btu/lb (oil) X
Oil pump pressure, psig (oil only) X
Air draft, ft/min X
Time, minutes/seconds X
Heat exchanger outlet water temperature (TOHX), °F X
Ambient room temperature, °F X
Test air temperature, °F X
Water flow rate, gpm Xb
Inlet water temperature (TIWT), °F Xb

4. Determination of Storage Volume. Determine the storage volume by subtracting the tare weight, measured while the system is dry and empty, from the weight of the system when filled with water and dividing the resulting net weight of water by the density of water at the measured water temperature. The volume of water contained in the water heater must be computed in gallons.

5. Fuel Input Rate

5.1. Determination of Fuel Input Rate. During the steady-state verification period and thermal efficiency test, as applicable, record the fuel consumption at 10-minute intervals. Calculate the fuel input rate for each 10-minute period using the equations in section 5.2 of this appendix. The measured fuel input rates for these 10-minute periods must not vary by more than ± 2 percent between any two readings. Determine the overall fuel input rate using the fuel consumption for the entire duration of the thermal efficiency test.

5.2. Fuel Input Rate Calculation. To calculate the fuel input rate, use the following equation:

Where:

Q = Fuel input rate, expressed in Btu/h

Qs = Total fuel flow as metered, expressed in ft3 for gas-fired equipment and lb for oil-fired equipment

Cs = Correction applied to the heating value of a gas H, when it is metered at temperature and/or pressure conditions other than the standard conditions for which the value of H is based. Cs=1 for oil-fired equipment.

H = Higher heating value of the fuel, expressed as Btu/ft3 for gas-fired equipment and Btu/lb for oil-fired equipment.

t = Duration of measurement of fuel consumption

6. Thermal Efficiency Test. Before beginning the steady-state verification period, record the applicable parameters as specified in section 3.9.1 of this appendix. Begin drawing water from the unit by opening the main supply and outlet water valve, and adjust the water flow rate to achieve an outlet water temperature of 70 °F ± 2 °F above supply water temperature. The thermal efficiency test shall be deemed complete when there is a continuous, one-hour-long period where the steady-state conditions specified in section 6.1 of this appendix have been met, as confirmed by consecutive readings of the relevant parameters at 1-minute intervals (except for fuel input rate, which is determined at 10-minute intervals, as specified in section 5.1 of this appendix). During the one-hour-long period, the water heater must fire continuously at its full firing rate (i.e., no modulation or cut-outs) and no settings can be changed on the unit being tested at any time. The first 30 minutes of the one-hour-period where the steady-state conditions in section 6.1 of this appendix are met is the steady-state verification period. The final 30 minutes of the one-hour-period where the steady-state conditions in section 6.1 of this appendix are met is the thermal efficiency test. The last reading of the steady-state verification period must be the first reading of the thermal efficiency test (i.e., the thermal efficiency test starts immediately once the steady-state verification period ends).

6.1. Steady-State Conditions. The following conditions must be met at consecutive readings taken at 1-minute intervals (except for fuel input rate, for which measurements are taken at 10-minute intervals) to verify the water heater has achieved steady-state operation during the steady-state verification period and the thermal efficiency test.

6.1.1. The water flow rate must be maintained within ± 0.25 gallons per minute (gpm) of the initial reading at the start of the steady-state verification period.

6.1.2. Outlet water temperature must be maintained at 70 °F ± 2 °F above supply water temperature.

6.1.3. Fuel input rate must be maintained within ± 2 percent of the rated input certified by the manufacturer.

6.1.4. The supply water temperature (TSWT) (or inlet water temperature (TIWT) if a recirculating loop is used) must be maintained within ± 0.50 °F of the initial reading at the start of the steady-state verification period.

6.1.5. The rise between supply (or inlet if a recirculating loop is used) and outlet water temperatures must be maintained within ± 0.50 °F of its initial value taken at the start of the steady-state verification period for units with rated input less than 500,000 Btu/h, and maintained within ± 1.00 °F of its initial value for units with rated input greater than or equal to 500,000 Btu/h.

6.2. Water Flow Measurement. Measure the total weight of water heated during the 30-minute thermal efficiency test with either a scale or a water flow meter. With either method, the error of measurement of weight of water heated must not exceed 1 percent of the weight of the total draw.

6.3. Thermal Efficiency Calculation. Thermal efficiency must be calculated using data from the 30-minute thermal efficiency test. Calculate thermal efficiency, Et, using the following equation:

Where:

K = 1.004 Btu/lb· °F, the nominal specific heat of water at 105 °F

W = Total weight of water heated, lb

θ1 = Average supply water temperature, expressed in °F

θ2 = Average outlet water temperature, expressed in °F

Q = Total fuel flow as metered, expressed in ft3 (gas) or lb (oil)

Cs = Correction applied to the heating value of a gas H, when it is metered at temperature and/or pressure conditions other than the standard conditions for which the value of H is based. Cs=1 for oil-fired equipment.

H = Higher heating value of the fuel, expressed in Btu/ft3 (gas) or Btu/lb (oil)

Ec = Electrical consumption of the water heater and, when used, the test set-up recirculating pump, expressed in Btu

7. Standby Loss Test. If the standby loss test is conducted immediately after a thermal efficiency test and no settings or conditions have been changed since the completion of the thermal efficiency test, then skip to section 7.2 or 7.3 of this appendix (as applicable). Otherwise, perform the steady-state verification in section 7.1 of this appendix. For thermostatically-activated instantaneous water heaters with an internal thermostat, use section 7.2 of this appendix to conduct the standby loss test, and for flow-activated and/or thermostatically-activated instantaneous water heaters with an external thermostat use section 7.3 of this appendix to conduct the standby loss test.

7.1. Steady-State Verification Period. For water heaters where the standby loss test is not conducted immediately following the thermal efficiency test, the steady-state verification period must be conducted before starting the standby loss test. Set the primary control in accordance with section 3.6 of this appendix, such that the primary control is always calling for heat and the water heater is firing continuously at the full firing rate (i.e., no modulation or cut-outs). Begin drawing water from the unit by opening the main supply and the outlet water valve, and adjust the water flow rate to achieve an outlet water temperature of 70 °F ± 2 °F above supply water temperature. The steady-state verification period is complete when there is a continuous 30-minute period where the steady-state conditions specified in section 7.1.1 of this appendix are met, as confirmed by consecutive readings of the relevant parameters recorded at 1-minute intervals (except for fuel input rate, which is determined at 10-minute intervals, as specified in section 5.1 of this appendix).

7.1.1. Steady-State Conditions. The following conditions must be met at consecutive readings taken at 1-minute intervals (except for fuel input rate, for which measurements are taken at 10-minute intervals) to verify the water heater has achieved steady-state operation during the steady-state verification period prior to conducting the standby loss test.

7.1.1.1. The water flow rate must be maintained within ± 0.25 gallons per minute (gpm) of the initial reading at the start of the steady-state verification period;

7.1.1.2. Fuel input rate must be maintained within ± 2 percent of the rated input certified by the manufacturer;

7.1.1.3. The supply water temperature (TSWT) (or inlet water temperature (TIWT) if a recirculating loop is used) must be maintained within ± 0.50 °F of the initial reading at the start of the steady-state verification period; and

7.1.1.4. The rise between the supply (or inlet if a recirculating loop is used) and outlet water temperatures must be maintained within ± 0.50 °F of its initial value taken at the start of the steady-state verification period for units with rated input less than 500,000 Btu/h, and maintained within ± 1.00 °F of its initial value for units with rated input greater than or equal to 500,000 Btu/h.

7.2. Thermostatically-Activated Instantaneous Water Heaters with an Internal Thermostat. For water heaters that will experience cut-in based on a temperature-activated control that is internal to the water heater, use the following steps to conduct the standby loss test.

7.2.1. Immediately after the thermal efficiency test or the steady-state verification period (as applicable), turn off the outlet water valve(s) (installed as per the provisions in section 2.2 of this appendix), and the water pump (if applicable) simultaneously and ensure that there is no flow of water through the water heater.

7 .2.2. After the first cut-out following the end of the thermal efficiency test or steady-state verification period (as applicable), allow the water heater to remain in standby mode. Do not change any settings on the water heater at any point until measurements for the standby loss test are finished. Begin recording the applicable parameters specified in section 3.9.2 of this appendix.

7 .2.3. At the second cut-out, record the time and ambient room temperature, and begin measuring the fuel and electricity consumption. Record the initial heat exchanger outlet water temperature (TOHX) and initial ambient room temperature. For the remainder of the test, continue recording the applicable parameters specified in section 3.9.2 of this appendix.

7 .2.4. Stop the test after the first cut-out that occurs after 24 hours, or at 48 hours, whichever comes first.

7 .2.5. Immediately after conclusion of the standby loss test, record the total fuel flow and electrical energy consumption, the final ambient room temperature, the duration of the standby loss test, and if the test ends at 48 hours without a cut-out, the final heat exchanger outlet temperature, or if the test ends after a cut-out, the maximum heat exchanger outlet temperature that occurs after the cut-out. Calculate the average of the recorded values of the heat exchanger outlet water temperature and the ambient room temperature taken at each measurement interval, including the initial and final values.

7 .2.6. Standby Loss Calculation. To calculate the standby loss, follow the steps below:

7 .2.6.1. The standby loss expressed as a percentage (per hour) of the heat content of the stored water above room temperature must be calculated using the following equation:

Where:

ΔT3 = Average value of the heat exchanger outlet water temperature (TOHX) minus the average value of the ambient room temperature, expressed in °F

ΔT4 = Final heat exchanger outlet water temperature (TOHX) measured at the end of the test minus the initial heat exchanger outlet water temperature (TOHX) measured at the start of the test, expressed in °F

K = 8.25 Btu/gallon· °F, the nominal specific heat of water

Va = Volume of water contained in the water heater in gallons measured in accordance with section 4 of this appendix

Et = Thermal efficiency of the water heater determined in accordance with section 6 of this appendix, expressed in %

Ec = Electrical energy consumed by the water heater during the duration of the test in Btu

T = Total duration of the test in hours

Cs = Correction applied to the heating value of a gas H, when it is metered at temperature and/or pressure conditions other than the standard conditions for which the value of H is based. Cs=1 for oil-fired equipment.

Qs = Total fuel flow as metered, expressed in ft3 (gas) or lb (oil)

H = Higher heating value of gas or oil, expressed in Btu/ft3 (gas) or Btu/lb (oil)

S = Standby loss, the average hourly energy required to maintain the stored water temperature expressed as a percentage of the initial heat content of the stored water above room temperature

7.2.6.2. The standby loss expressed in Btu per hour must be calculated as follows:

SL (Btu per hour) = S (% per hour) × 8.25 (Btu/gal- °F) × Measured Volume (gal) × 70 ( °F).

Where, SL refers to the standby loss of the water heater, defined as the amount of energy required to maintain the stored water temperature expressed in Btu per hour.

7.3. Flow-Activated and Thermostatically-Activated Instantaneous Water Heaters with an External Thermostat. For water heaters that are either flow-activated or thermostatically-activated with an external thermostat, use the following steps to conduct the standby loss test.

7.3.1. Immediately after the thermal efficiency test or the steady-state verification period (as applicable), de-energize the primary control to end the call for heating. If the main burners do not cut out, then turn off the fuel supply.

7. 3.1.1. If the unit does not have an integral pump purge functionality, then turn off the outlet water valve and water pump at this time.

7.3.1.2. If the unit has an integral pump purge functionality, allow the pump purge operation to continue. After the pump purge operation is complete, immediately turn off the outlet water valve and water pump and continue recording the required parameters for the remainder of the test.

7.3.2. Recording Data

7.3.2.1. For units with pump purge functionality, record the initial heat exchanger outlet water temperature (TOHX), and ambient room temperature when the main burner(s) cut-out or the fuel supply is turned off. After the pump purge operation is complete, record the time as t = 0 and the initial electricity meter reading. Continue to monitor and record the heat exchanger outlet water temperature (TOHX) and time elapsed from the start of the test, and the electricity consumption as per the requirements in section 3.9.2 of this appendix.

7.3.2.2. For units not equipped with pump purge functionality, begin recording the measurements as per the requirements of section 3.9.2 of this appendix when the main burner(s) cut-out or the fuel supply is turned off. Specifically, record the time as t = 0, and record the initial heat exchanger outlet water temperature (TOHX), ambient room temperature, and electricity meter readings. Continue to monitor and record the heat exchanger outlet water temperature (TOHX) and the time elapsed from the start of the test as per the requirements in section 3.9.2 of this appendix.

7.3.3. Stopping Criteria. Stop the test when one of the following occurs:

7.3.3.1. The heat exchanger outlet water temperature (TOHX) decreases by 35 °F from its value recorded immediately after the main burner(s) has cut-out, and the pump purge operation (if applicable) is complete; or

7.3.3.2. 24 hours have elapsed from the start of the test.

7.3.4. At the end of the test, record the final heat exchanger outlet water temperature (TOHX), fuel consumed, electricity consumed from time t=0, and the time elapsed from the start of the test.

7.3.5. Standby Loss Calculation

7.3.5.1. Once the test is complete, use the following equation to calculate the standby loss as a percentage (per hour) of the heat content of the stored water above room temperature:

Where,

ΔT1 = Heat exchanger outlet water temperature (TOHX) measured after the pump purge operation is complete (if the unit is integrated with pump purge functionality); or after the main burner(s) cut-out (if the unit is not equipped with pump purge functionality) minus heat exchanger outlet water temperature (TOHX) measured at the end of the test, expressed in °F

ΔT2 = Heat exchanger outlet water temperature (TOHX) minus the ambient temperature, both measured after the main burner(s) cut-out, at the start of the test, expressed in °F

K = 8.25 Btu/gallon· °F, the nominal specific heat of water

Va = Volume of water contained in the water heater in gallons measured in accordance with section 4 of this appendix

Et = Thermal efficiency of the water heater determined in accordance with section 6 of this appendix, expressed in %

Ec = Electrical energy consumed by the water heater during the duration of the test in Btu

t = Total duration of the test in hours

S = Standby loss, the average hourly energy required to maintain the stored water temperature expressed as a percentage of the initial heat content of the stored water above room temperature

7.3.5.2. The standby loss expressed in terms of Btu per hour must be calculated as follows:

SL (Btu per hour) = S (% per hour) × 8.25 (Btu/gal- °F) × Measured Volume (gal) × 70 ( °F)

Where, SL refers to the standby loss of the water heater, defined as the amount of energy required to maintain the stored water temperature expressed in Btu per hour.

[81 FR 79332, Nov. 10, 2016]

Appendix D to Subpart G of Part 431 - Uniform Test Method for the Measurement of Standby Loss of Electric Instantaneous Water Heaters (Other Than Storage-Type Instantaneous Water Heaters)

Note: Prior to November 6, 2017, manufacturers must make any representations with respect to the energy use or efficiency of the subject commercial water heating equipment in accordance with the results of testing pursuant to this appendix or the procedures in 10 CFR 431.106 that were in place on January 1, 2016. On and after November 6, 2017, manufacturers must make any representations with respect to energy use or efficiency of electric instantaneous water heaters (other than storage-type instantaneous water heaters) in accordance with the results of testing pursuant to this appendix to demonstrate compliance with the energy conservation standards at 10 CFR 431.110.

1. General

Determine the standby loss (as applicable) in accordance with the following sections of this appendix.

2. Test Set-Up

2. 1. Placement of Water Heater. A water heater for installation on combustible floors must be placed on a3/4-inch plywood platform supported by three 2 × 4-inch runners. If the water heater is for installation on noncombustible floors, suitable noncombustible material must be placed on the platform. When the use of the platform for a large water heater is not practical, the water heater may be placed on any suitable flooring. A wall-mounted water heater must be mounted on a simulated wall section.

2. 2. Test Configuration. If the instantaneous water heater is not required to be tested using a recirculating loop, then set up the unit in accordance with Figure 2.1, 2.2, or 2.3 of this appendix (as applicable). If the unit is required to be tested using a recirculating loop, then set up the unit as per Figure 2.4 of this appendix.

2.2.1. If the instantaneous water heater does not have any external piping, install an outlet water valve within 10 inches of the piping length of the water heater jacket or enclosure. If the instantaneous water heater includes external piping assembled at the manufacturer's premises prior to shipment, install water valves in the outlet piping within 5 inches of the end of the piping supplied with the unit.

2.2.2. If the water heater is not able to achieve an outlet water temperature of 70 °F ± 2 °F above the supply water temperature at a constant maximum electricity input rate, a recirculating loop with pump as shown in Figure 2.4 of this appendix must be used.

2. 2.2.1. If a recirculating loop with a pump is used, then ensure that the inlet water temperature (labeled as TIWT in Figure 2.4 of this appendix) is greater than or equal to 70 °F and less than or equal to 120 °F at all times during the steady-state verification period.

2.3. Installation of Temperature Sensors

2.3.1. Without Recirculating Loop

2.3.1.1. Vertical Connections. Use Figure 2.1 (for top connections) and 2.2 (for bottom connections) of this appendix.

2.3.1.2. Horizontal Connections. Use Figure 2.3 of this appendix.

2.3.2. With Recirculating Loop. Set up the recirculating loop as shown in Figure 2.4 of this appendix.

2.3.3. For water heaters with multiple outlet water connections leaving the water heater jacket that are required to be operated to achieve the rated input, temperature sensors must be installed for each outlet water connection leaving the water heater jacket or enclosure that is used during testing, in accordance with sections 2.3.1 and 2.3.2 of this appendix.

2.4. Piping Insulation. Insulate all the water piping external to the water heater jacket or enclosure, including piping that is installed by the manufacturer or shipped with the unit, for at least 4 ft of piping length from the connection at the appliance with material having an R-value not less than 4 °F·ft2·h/Btu. Ensure that the insulation does not contact any appliance surface except at the location where the pipe connections penetrate the appliance jacket or enclosure.

2.5. Temperature and Pressure Relief Valve Insulation. If the manufacturer has not provided a temperature and pressure relief valve, one shall be installed and insulated as specified in section 2.4 of this appendix. The temperature and pressure relief valve must be installed in the outlet water piping between the unit being tested and the outlet water valve.

2. 6. Energy Consumption. Install equipment that determines, within ± 1 percent, the quantity of electricity consumed by factory-supplied water heater components, and of the test loop recirculating pump, if used.

3. Test Conditions

3.1. Water Supply

3.1.1. Water Supply Pressure. The pressure of the water supply must be maintained between 40 psi and the maximum pressure specified by the manufacturer of the unit being tested. The accuracy of the pressure-measuring devices must be ± 1.0 psi.

3.1.2. Water Supply Temperature. During the steady-state verification period, the temperature of the supply water (TSWT) must be maintained at 70 °F ± 2 °F.

.2. Electrical Supply. Maintain the electrical supply voltage to within ± 5 percent of the voltage specified on the water heater nameplate. If a voltage range is specified on the nameplate, maintain the voltage to within ± 5 percent of the center of the voltage range specified on the nameplate.

3. 3. Ambient Room Temperature. Maintain the ambient room temperature at 75 °F ± 10 °F at all times during the steady-state verification period and the standby loss test. Measure the ambient room temperature at 1-minute intervals during these periods. Measure the ambient room temperature at the vertical mid-point of the water heater and approximately 2 feet from the water heater jacket or enclosure. Shield the sensor against radiation. Calculate the average ambient room temperature for the standby loss test. During the standby loss test, the ambient room temperature must not vary more than ± 5.0 °F at any reading from the average ambient room temperature.

3.4. Maximum Air Draft. During the steady-state verification period and the standby loss test, the water heater must be located in an area protected from drafts of more than 50 ft/min. Prior to beginning steady-state verification before the standby loss test, measure the air draft within three feet of the jacket or enclosure of the water heater to ensure this condition is met. Ensure that no other changes that would increase the air draft are made to the test set-up or conditions during the conduct of the test.

3.5. Primary Control

3.5.1. Thermostatically-Activated Water Heaters with an Internal Thermostat. Before starting the steady-state verification prior to the standby loss test, the thermostat setting must be obtained. Set the thermostat to ensure:

3.5.1.1. With supply water temperature as per section 3.1.2 of this appendix (i.e., 70 °F ± 2 °F) the water flow rate can be varied so that the outlet water temperature is constant at 70 °F ± 2 °F above the supply water temperature, while the heating element is operating at the rated input.

3.5.1.2. After the water supply is turned off and the thermostat reduces the electricity supply to the heating element to a minimum, the maximum heat exchanger outlet water temperature (TOHX) is 140 °F ± 5 °F.

3.5.1.3. If the water heater includes a built-in safety mechanism that prevents it from achieving a heat exchanger outlet water temperature of 140 °F ± 5 °F, adjust the thermostat to its maximum setting.

3.5.2. Flow-Activated Instantaneous Water Heaters and Thermostatically-Activated Instantaneous Water Heaters with an External Thermostat. Before starting the steady-state verification prior to the standby loss test energize the primary control such that it is always calling for heating and the heating element is operating at the rated input. Maintain the supply water temperature as per section 3.1.2 of this appendix (i.e., 70 °F ± 2 °F). Set the control so that the outlet water temperature (TOWT) is 140 °F ± 5 °F. If the water heater includes a built-in safety mechanism that prevents it from achieving a heat exchanger outlet water temperature of 140 °F ± 5 °F, adjust the control to its maximum setting.

3.6. For Units With Multiple Outlet Water Connections

3.6.1. For each connection leaving the water heater that is required for the unit to achieve the rated input, the outlet water temperature must not differ from that of any other outlet water connection by more than 2 °F during the steady-state verification period prior to the standby loss test.

3.6.2. Determine the outlet water temperature representative for the entire unit at every required measurement interval by calculating the average of the outlet water temperatures measured at each connection leaving the water heater jacket or enclosure that is used during testing. Use the outlet water temperature representative for the entire unit in all calculations for the standby loss test.

3.7. Data Collection Intervals. During the standby loss test, follow the data recording intervals specified in Table 3.1 of this appendix. Also, the electricity consumption over the course of the entire test must be measured and used in calculation of standby loss.

3.7.1. Steady-State Verification Period. Follow the data recording intervals specified in Table 3.1 of this appendix.

Table 3.1 - Data to be Recorded Before and During the Steady-State Verification Period

Item recorded Before
steady-state
verification
period
Every 1
minutea
Every 10
minutes
Air draft, ft/min X
Time, minutes/seconds X
Electricity Consumed, Btu X
Supply water temperature (TSWT), °F X
Inlet water temperature (TIWT), °F Xb
Outlet water temperature (TOWT), °F X
Ambient room temperature, °F X
Water flow rate, (gpm) X

3.7.2. Standby Loss Test. Follow the data recording intervals specified in Table 3.2 of this appendix. Additionally, the electricity consumption over the course of the entire test must be measured and used in calculation of standby loss.

Table 3.2 - Data to be Recorded Before and During the Standby Loss Test

Item recorded Before test Every 1
minutea
Air draft, ft/min X
Time, minutes/seconds X
Heat exchanger outlet water temperature, °F (TOHX) X
Ambient room temperature, °F X

4. Determination of Storage Volume. Determine the storage volume by subtracting the tare weight - measured while the system is dry and empty - from the weight of the system when filled with water and dividing the resulting net weight of water by the density of water at the measured water temperature. The volume of water contained in the water heater must be computed in gallons.

5. Standby Loss Test. Perform the steady-state verification period in accordance with section 5.1 of this appendix. For thermostatically-activated instantaneous water heaters with an internal thermostat, use section 5.2 of this appendix to conduct the standby loss test, and for flow-activated and/or thermostatically-activated instantaneous water heaters with an external thermostat (including remote thermostatically activated and/or flow-activated instantaneous water heaters), use section 5.3 of this appendix to conduct the standby loss test.

Set the primary control in accordance with section 3.5 of this appendix, such that the primary control is always calling for heat and the water heater is operating at its full rated input. Begin drawing water from the unit by opening the main supply and the outlet water valve, and adjust the water flow rate to achieve an outlet water temperature of 70 °F ± 2 °F above supply water temperature. At this time, begin recording the parameters specified in section 3.7.1 of this appendix. The steady-state verification period is complete when there is a continuous 30-minute period where the steady-state conditions specified in section 5.1 of this appendix are met, as confirmed by consecutive readings of the relevant parameters recorded at 1-minute intervals (except for electric power input rate, which is determined at 10-minute intervals, as specified in section 3.7.1 of this appendix).

5.1. Steady-State Conditions. The following conditions must be met at consecutive readings taken at 1-minute intervals (except for electricity input rate, for which measurements are taken at 10-minute intervals) to verify the water heater has achieved steady-state operation prior to conducting the standby loss test.

5.1.1. The water flow rate must be maintained within ± 0.25 gallons per minute (gpm) of the initial reading at the start of the steady-state verification period;

5.1.2. Electric power input rate must be maintained within 2 percent of the rated input certified by the manufacturer.

5.1.3. The supply water temperature (or inlet water temperature if a recirculating loop is used) must be maintained within ± 0.50 °F of the initial reading at the start of the steady-state verification period; and

5.1.4. The rise between the supply (or inlet if a recirculating loop is used) and outlet water temperatures is maintained within ± 0.50 °F of its initial value taken at the start of the steady-state verification period for units with rated input less than 500,000 Btu/h, and maintained within ± 1.00 °F of its initial value for units with rated input greater than or equal to 500,000 Btu/h.

5.2. Thermostatically-Activated Instantaneous Water Heaters with an Internal Thermostat. For water heaters that will experience cut-in based on a temperature-activated control that is internal to the water heater, use the following steps to conduct the standby loss test.

5.2.1. Immediately after the steady-state verification period, turn off the outlet water valve(s) (installed as per the provisions in section 2.2 of this appendix), and the water pump (if applicable) simultaneously and ensure that there is no flow of water through the water heater.

5. 2.2. After the first cut-out following the steady-state verification period, allow the water heater to remain in standby mode. Do not change any settings on the water heater at any point until measurements for the standby loss test are finished. Begin recording the applicable parameters specified in section 3.7.2 of this appendix.

5. 2.3. At the second cut-out, record the time and ambient room temperature, and begin measuring the electricity consumption. Record the initial heat exchanger outlet water temperature (TOHX) and initial ambient room temperature. For the remainder of the test, continue recording the applicable parameters specified in section 3.7.2 of this appendix.

5. 2.4. Stop the test after the first cut-out that occurs after 24 hours, or at 48 hours, whichever comes first.

5. 2.5. Immediately after conclusion of the standby loss test, record the total electrical energy consumption, the final ambient room temperature, the duration of the standby loss test, and if the test ends at 48 hours without a cut-out, the final heat exchanger outlet temperature, or if the test ends after a cut-out, the maximum heat exchanger outlet temperature that occurs after the cut-out. Calculate the average of the recorded values of the heat exchanger outlet water temperature and of the ambient air temperatures taken at each measurement interval, including the initial and final values.

5. 2.6. Standby Loss Calculation. Calculate the standby loss, expressed as a percentage (per hour) of the heat content of the stored water above room temperature, using the following equation:

Where,

ΔT3 = Average value of the heat exchanger outlet water temperature (TOHX) minus the average value of the ambient room temperature, expressed in °F

ΔT4 = Final heat exchanger outlet water temperature (TOHX) measured at the end of the test minus the initial heat exchanger outlet water temperature (TOHX) measured at the start of the test, expressed in °F

k = 8.25 Btu/gallon· °F, the nominal specific heat of water

Va = Volume of water contained in the water heater in gallons measured in accordance with section 4 of this appendix

Et = Thermal efficiency = 98 percent for electric water heaters with immersed heating elements

Ec = Electrical energy consumed by the water heater during the duration of the test in Btu

t = Total duration of the test in hours

S = Standby loss, the average hourly energy required to maintain the stored water temperature expressed as a percentage of the initial heat content of the stored water above room temperature

5.3. Flow-Activated and Thermostatically-Activated Instantaneous Water Heaters with an External Thermostat. For water heaters that are either flow-activated or thermostatically-activated with an external thermostat, use the following steps to conduct the standby loss test:

5.3.1. Immediately after the steady-state verification period, de-energize the primary control to end the call for heating. If the heating elements do not cut out, then turn off the electricity supply to the heating elements. After the heating elements have cut-out, or the electricity supply to the heating elements is turned off, begin recording the measurements as per the requirements in section 3.7.2 of this appendix.

5.3.1.1. If the unit does not have an integral pump purge functionality, then turn off the outlet water valve and water pump immediately after the main burners cut-out.

5.3.1.2. If the unit has an integral pump purge functionality, allow the pump purge operation to continue. After the pump purge operation is complete, immediately turn off the outlet water valve and water pump and continue recording the required parameters for the remainder of the test.

5.3.2. Recording Data

5.3.2.1. For units with pump purge functionality, record the initial heat exchanger outlet water temperature (TOHX), and ambient room temperature when the main heating element(s) cut-out or the electricity supply to the heating element(s) is turned off. After the pump purge operation is complete, record the time as t = 0 and the initial electricity meter reading. Continue to monitor and record the heat exchanger outlet water temperature (TOHX) and time elapsed from the start of the test as per the requirements in section 3.7.2 of this appendix.

5.3.2.2. For units not equipped with pump purge functionality, begin recording the measurements as per the requirements of section 3.7.2 of this appendix when the main heating element(s) cut-out or the electricity supply to the heating element(s) is turned off. Specifically, record the time as t = 0, and record the initial heat exchanger outlet water temperature (TOHX), ambient room temperature, and electricity meter readings. Continue to monitor and record the heat exchanger outlet water temperature (TOHX) and the time elapsed from the start of the test as per the requirements in section 3.7.2 of this appendix.

5.3.3. Stopping Criteria. Stop the test when one of the following occurs:

5.3.3.1. The heat exchanger outlet water temperature (TOHX) decreases by 35 °F from its value recorded after the main heating element(s) have cut-out, and the pump purge operation (if applicable) is complete; or

5.3.3.2. 24 hours have elapsed from the start of the test.

5. 3.4. At the end of the test, record the final heat exchanger outlet water temperature (TOHX), electricity consumed from time t = 0, and the time elapsed from the start of the test.

5.3.5. Standby Loss Calculation. Calculate the standby loss, expressed as a percentage (per hour) of the heat content of the stored water above room temperature, using the following equation:

Where,

ΔT1 = Heat exchanger outlet water temperature (TOHX) measured after the pump purge operation is complete (if the unit is integrated with pump purge functionality); or after the main heating element(s) cut-out (if the unit is not equipped with pump purge functionality) minus heat exchanger outlet water temperature (TOHX) measured at the end of the test, expressed in °F

ΔT2 = Heat exchanger outlet water temperature (TOHX) minus the ambient room temperature, both measured after the main heating element(s) cut-out at the start of the test, expressed in °F

k = 8.25 Btu/gallon· °F, the nominal specific heat of water

Va = Volume of water contained in the water heater in gallons measured in accordance with section 4 of this appendix

Et = Thermal efficiency = 98 percent for electric water heaters with immersed heating elements

Ec = Electrical energy consumed by the water heater during the duration of the test in Btu

t = Total duration of the test in hours

S = Standby loss, the average hourly energy required to maintain the stored water temperature expressed as a percentage of the initial heat content of the stored water above room temperature

[81 FR 79340, Nov. 10, 2016]

Appendix E to Subpart G of Part 431 - Uniform Test Method for the Measurement of Energy Efficiency of Commercial Heat Pump Water Heaters

Note: On and after November 6, 2017, manufacturers must make any representations with respect to energy use or efficiency of commercial heat pump water heaters in accordance with the results of testing pursuant to this appendix.

1. General. Determine the COPh for commercial heat pump water heaters (CHPWHs) using the test procedure set forth below. Certain sections below reference ANSI/ASHRAE 118.1-2012 (incorporated by reference; see § 431.105). Where the instructions contained below differ from those contained in ANSI/ASHRAE 118.1-2012, the sections in this appendix control.

2. Definitions and Symbols. The definitions and symbols are as listed in section 3 of ANSI/ASHRAE 118.1-2012.

3. Instrumentation. The instruments required for the test are as described in section 6 of ANSI/ASHRAE 118.1-2012 (except sections 6.3, 6.4, and 6.6).

4. Test Set-Up. Follow the provisions described in this section to install the CHPWH for testing. Use the test set-up and installation instructions set forth for Type IV and Type V equipment (as applicable), defined in sections 4.4 and 4.5 of ANSI/ASHRAE 118.1-2012 and in accordance with the sections below:

4. 1. Test set-up and installation instructions.

4.1.1. For air-source CHPWHs, set up the unit for testing as per section 7.1 and Figure 5a of ANSI/ASHRAE 118.1-2012 for CHPWHs without an integral storage tank, and as per Figure 6 in section 7.7.1 of ANSI/ASHRAE 118.1-2012 for CHPWHs with an integral storage tank.

4. 1.2. For direct geo-exchange CHPWHs, set up the unit for testing as per section 7.1 and Figure 5b of ASNI/ASHRAE 118.1-2012 for CHPWHs without an integral storage tank, and as per Figure 7 in section 7.7.2 of ANSI/ASHRAE 118.1-2012 for CHPWHs with an integral storage tank.

4. 1.3. For indoor water-source, ground-source closed-loop, and ground water-source CHPWHs, set up the unit for testing as per section 7.1 and Figure 5c of ANSI/ASHRAE 118.1-2012 for CHPWHs without an integral storage tank, and as per Figure 8 in section 7.7.3 of ANSI/ASHRAE 118.1-2012 for CHPWHs with an integral storage tank.

4. 2. Use the water piping instructions described in section 7.2 of ANSI/ASHRAE 118.1-2012 and the special instructions described in section 7.7.6 of ANSI/ASHRAE 118.1-2012. Insulate all the pipes used for connections with material having a thermal resistance of not less than 4 h· °F·ft2/Btu for a total piping length of not less than 4 feet from the water heater connection ports.

4.3. Install the thermocouples, including the room thermocouples, as per the instructions in sections 7.3.1, 7.3.2, and 7.3.3 (as applicable) of ANSI/ASHRAE 118.1-2012.

4.4. Section 7.6 of ANSI/ASHRAE 118.1-2012 must be used if the manufacturer neither submits nor specifies a water pump applicable for the unit for laboratory testing.

4.5. Install the temperature sensors at the locations specified in Figure 5a, 5b, 5c, 6, 7, or 8 of ANSI/ASHRAE 118.1-2012, as applicable as per section 4.1 of this appendix. The sensor shall be installed in such a manner that the sensing portion of the device is positioned within the water flow and as close as possible to the center line of the pipe. Follow the instructions provided in sections 7.7.7.1 and 7.7.7.2 of ANSI/ASHRAE 118.1-2012 to install the temperature and flow-sensing instruments.

4.6. Use the following evaporator side rating conditions as applicable for each category of CHPWHs. These conditions are also mentioned in Table 5.1 of this appendix:

4.6.1. For air-source CHPWHs, maintain the evaporator air entering dry-bulb temperature at 80.6 °F ± 1 °F and wet-bulb temperature at 71.2 °F ± 1 °F throughout the conduct of the test.

4.6.2. For direct geo-exchange CHPWHs, maintain the evaporator refrigerant temperature at 32 °F ± 1 °F.

4.6.3. For indoor water-source CHPWHs, maintain the evaporator entering water temperature at 68 °F ± 1 °F.

4.6.4. For ground water-source CHPWHs, maintain the evaporator entering water temperature at 50 °F ± 1 °F.

4.6.5. For ground-source closed-loop CHPWHs, maintain the evaporator entering water temperature at 32 °F ± 1 °F.

4.6.5.1. For ground-source closed-loop CHPWHs, the evaporator water must be mixed with 15-percent methanol by-weight to allow the solution to achieve the rating conditions required in section 4.6.5.

4.7. The CHPWH being tested must be installed as per the instructions specified in sections 4.1 to 4.6 (as applicable) of this appendix. For all other installation requirements, use section 7.7.4 of ANSI/ASHRAE 118.1-2012 to resolve any issues related to installation (other than what is specified in this test procedure) of the equipment for testing. Do not make any alterations to the equipment except as specified in this appendix for installation, testing, and the attachment of required test apparatus and instruments.

4. 8. Use Table 3 of ANSI/ASHRAE 118.1-2012 for measurement tolerances of various parameters.

4.9. If the CHPWH is equipped with a thermostat that is used to control the throttling valve of the equipment, then use the provisions in section 7.7.7.3 of ANSI/ASHRAE 118.1-2012 to set up the thermostat.

4.10. For CHPWHs equipped with an integral storage tank, supplemental heat inputs such as electric resistance elements must be disabled as per section 7.7.8 of ANSI/ASHRAE 118.1-2012.

4.11. Install instruments to measure the electricity supply to the equipment as specified in section 7.5 of ANSI/ASHRAE 118.1-2012.

5. Test Procedure

Test all CHPWHs that are not equipped with an integral storage tank as per the provisions described in ANSI/ASHRAE 118.1-2012 for “Type IV” equipment as defined in section 4.4 of ANSI/ASHRAE 118.1-2012. Test all CHPWHs that are equipped with an integral storage tank as per the provisions described in ANSI/ASHRAE 118.1-2012 for “Type V” equipment as defined in section 4.5 of ANSI/ASHRAE 118.1-2012. Tests for all CHPWHs must follow the steps described below.

5.1. Supply the CHPWH unit with electricity at the voltage specified by the manufacturer. Follow the provisions in section 8.2.1 of ANSI/ASHRAE 118.1-2012 to maintain the electricity supply at the required level.

5.1.1. For models with multiple voltages specified by the manufacturer, use the minimum voltage specified by the manufacturer to conduct the test. Maintain the voltage as per the limits specified in section 8.2.1 of ANSI/ASHRAE 118.1-2012. The test may be repeated at other voltages at the manufacturer's discretion.

5.2. Set the condenser supply water temperature and outlet water temperature per the following provisions and as set forth in Table 5.1 of this section:

Table 5.1 - Evaporator and Condenser Side Rating Conditions

Category of CHPWH Evaporator side rating conditions Condenser side rating conditions
Air-source commercial heat pump water heater Evaporator entering air conditions:
Dry bulb: 80.6 °F ± 1 °F
Wet bulb: 71.2 °F ± 1 °F
Entering water temperature: 70 °F ± 1 °F. Vary water flow rate (if needed) to achieve the outlet water temperature as specified in section 8.7.2 of ANSI/ASHRAE 118.1-2012.
If the required outlet water temperature as specified in section 8.7.2 of ANSI/ASHRAE 118.1-2012 is not met even after varying the flow rate, then change the condenser entering water temperature to 110 °F ± 1 °F. Vary flow rate to achieve the conditions in section 8.7.2 of ANSI/ASHRAE 118.1-2012.
Direct geo-exchange commercial heat pump water heater Evaporator refrigerant temperature: 32 °F ± 1 °F Entering water temperature: 110 °F ± 1 °F.
Indoor water-source commercial heat pump water heater Evaporator entering water temperature: 68 °F ± 1 °F Entering water temperature: 110 °F ± 1 °F.
Ground water-source commercial heat pump water heater Evaporator entering water temperature: 50 °F ± 1 °F Entering water temperature: 110 °F ± 1 °F.
Ground-source closed-loop commercial heat pump water heater Evaporator entering water temperature: 32 °F ± 1 °F Entering water temperature: 110 °F ± 1 °F.

5.2.1. For air-source CHPWHs:

5.2.1.1. Set the supply water temperature to 70 °F ± 1 °F. The water pressure must not exceed the maximum working pressure rating for the equipment under test.

5.2.1.2. Use the provisions in section 8.7.1 of ANSI/ASHRAE 118.1-2012 to set the tank thermostat for CHPWHs equipped with an integral storage tank.

5.2.1.3. Initiate operation at the rated pump flow rate and measure the outlet water temperature. If the outlet water temperature is maintained at 120 °F ± 5 °F with no variation in excess of 2 °F over a three-minute period, as required by section 8.7.2 of ANSI/ASHRAE 118.1-2012, skip to section 5.3 of this appendix.

5.2.1.4. If the outlet water temperature condition as specified in section 8.7.2 of ANSI/ASHRAE 118.1-2012 is not achieved, adjust the water flow rate over the range of the pump's capacity. If, after varying the water flow rate, the outlet water temperature is maintained at 120 °F ± 5 °F with no variation in excess of 2 °F over a three-minute period, as required by section 8.7.2 of ANSI/ASHRAE 118.1-2012, skip to section 5.3 of this appendix.

5.2.1.5. If, after adjusting the water flow rate within the range that is achievable by the pump, the outlet water temperature condition as specified in section 8.7.2 of ANSI/ASHRAE 118.1-2012 is still not achieved, then change the supply water temperature to 110 °F ± 1 °F and repeat the instructions from sections 5.2.1.2 and 5.2.1.4 of this appendix.

5.2.1. 6. If the outlet water temperature condition cannot be met, then a test procedure waiver is necessary to specify an alternative set of test conditions.

5.2.2. For direct geo-exchange, indoor water-source, ground-source closed-loop, and ground water-source CHPWHs use the following steps:

5.2.2.1. Set the condenser supply water temperature to 110 °F ± 1 °F. The water pressure must not exceed the maximum working pressure rating for the equipment under test.

5.2.2.2. Use the provisions in section 8.7.1 of ANSI/ASHRAE 118.1-2012 to set the tank thermostat for CHPWHs equipped with an integral storage tank.

5.2.2.3. Follow the steps specified in section 8.7.2 of ANSI/ASHRAE 118.1-2012 to obtain an outlet water temperature of 120 °F ± 5 °F with no variation in excess of 2 °F over a three-minute period.

5.3. Conduct the test as per section 9.1.1, “Full Input Rating,” of ANSI/ASHRAE 118.1-2012. The flow rate, “FR,” referred to in section 9.1.1 of ANSI/ASHRAE 118.1-2012 is the flow rate of water through the CHPWH expressed in gallons per minute obtained after following the steps in section 5.2 of this appendix. Use the evaporator side rating conditions specified in section 4.6 of this appendix to conduct the test as per section 9.1.1 of ANSI/ASHRAE 118.1-2012.

5.4. Calculate the COPh of the CHPWH according to section 10.3.1 of the ANSI/ASHRAE 118.1-2012 for the “Full Capacity Test Method.” For all calculations, time differences must be expressed in minutes.

[81 FR 79346, Nov. 10, 2016]

Subpart H - Automatic Commercial Ice Makers
Source:

70 FR 60415, Oct. 18, 2005, unless otherwise noted.

§ 431.131 Purpose and scope.

This subpart contains energy conservation requirements for commercial ice makers, pursuant to Part C of Title III of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act, as amended, 42 U.S.C. 6311-6317.

§ 431.132 Definitions concerning automatic commercial ice makers.

Automatic commercial ice maker means a factory-made assembly (not necessarily shipped in 1 package) that -

(1) Consists of a condensing unit and ice-making section operating as an integrated unit, with means for making and harvesting ice; and

(2) May include means for storing ice, dispensing ice, or storing and dispensing ice.

Basic model means all units of a given type of covered product (or class thereof) manufactured by one manufacturer, having the same primary energy source, and which have essentially identical electrical, physical, and functional (or hydraulic) characteristics that affect energy consumption, energy efficiency, water consumption, or water efficiency.

Batch type ice maker means an ice maker having alternate freezing and harvesting periods. This includes automatic commercial ice makers that produce cube type ice and other batch technologies. Referred to as cubes type ice maker in AHRI 810 (incorporated by reference, see § 431.133).

Continuous type ice maker means an ice maker that continually freezes and harvests ice at the same time.

Cube type ice means ice that is fairly uniform, hard, solid, usually clear, and generally weighs less than two ounces (60 grams) per piece, as distinguished from flake, crushed, or fragmented ice. Note that this conflicts and takes precedence over the definition established in AHRI 810 (incorporated by reference, see § 431.133), which indicates that “cube” does not reference a specific size or shape.

Energy use means the total energy consumed, stated in kilowatt hours per one-hundred pounds (kWh/100 lb) of ice stated in multiples of 0.1. For remote condensing (but not remote compressor) automatic commercial ice makers and remote condensing and remote compressor automatic commercial ice makers, total energy consumed shall include the energy use of the ice-making mechanism, the compressor, and the remote condenser or condensing unit.

Harvest rate means the amount of ice (at 32 degrees F) in pounds produced per 24 hours.

Ice hardness factor means the latent heat capacity of harvested ice, in British thermal units per pound of ice (Btu/lb), divided by 144 Btu/lb, expressed as a percent.

Ice-making head means automatic commercial ice makers that do not contain integral storage bins, but are generally designed to accommodate a variety of bin capacities. Storage bins entail additional energy use not included in the reported energy consumption figures for these units.

Maximum condenser water use means the maximum amount of water used by the condensing unit (if water-cooled), stated in gallons per 100 pounds (gal/100 lb) of ice, in multiples of 1.

Remote compressor means a type of automatic commercial ice maker in which the ice-making mechanism and compressor are in separate sections.

Remote condensing means a type of automatic commercial ice maker in which the ice-making mechanism and condenser or condensing unit are in separate sections.

Self-contained means a type of automatic commercial ice maker in which the ice-making mechanism and storage compartment are in an integral cabinet.

[70 FR 60415, Oct. 18, 2005, as amended at 71 FR 71371, Dec. 8, 2006; 76 FR 12503, Mar. 7, 2011; 77 FR 1613, Jan. 11, 2012]

Test Procedures
§ 431.133 Materials incorporated by reference.

(a) General. We incorporate by reference the following standards into Subpart H of Part 431. The material listed has been approved for incorporation by reference by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Any subsequent amendment to a standard by the standard-setting organization will not affect the DOE regulations unless and until amended by DOE. Material is incorporated as it exists on the date of the approval and a notice of any change in the material will be published in the Federal Register. All approved material is available for inspection at the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, 6th Floor, 950 L'Enfant Plaza SW., Washington, DC 20024, (202) 586-2945, or go to: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/appliance_standards/. Also, this material is available for inspection at National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of this material at NARA, call (202) 741-6030 or go to http://www.archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. Standards can be obtained from the sources listed below.

(b) AHRI. Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute, 2111 Wilson Blvd., Suite 500, Arlington, VA 22201, (703) 524-8800, , or http://www.ahrinet.org.

(1) AHRI Standard 810-2007 with Addendum 1, (“AHRI 810”), Performance Rating of Automatic Commercial Ice-Makers, March 2011; IBR approved for §§ 431.132 and 431.134.

(2) [Reserved]

(c) ASHRAE. American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc., 1791 Tullie Circle NE., Atlanta, GA 30329, (404) 636-8400, , or http://www.ashrae.org.

(1) ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 29-2009, (“ANSI/ASHRAE 29”), Method of Testing Automatic Ice Makers, (including Errata Sheets issued April 8, 2010 and April 21, 2010), approved January 28, 2009; IBR approved for § 431.134.

(2) [Reserved]

[77 FR 1613, Jan. 11, 2012]

§ 431.134 Uniform test methods for the measurement of energy and water consumption of automatic commercial ice makers.

(a) Scope. This section provides the test procedures for measuring, pursuant to EPCA, the energy use in kilowatt hours per 100 pounds of ice (kWh/100 lb ice) and the condenser water use in gallons per 100 pounds of ice (gal/100 lb ice) of automatic commercial ice makers with capacities between 50 and 4,000 pounds of ice per 24 hours.

(b) Testing and Calculations. Measure the energy use and the condenser water use of each covered product by conducting the test procedures set forth in AHRI 810, section 3, “Definitions,” section 4, “Test Requirements,” and section 5, “Rating Requirements” (incorporated by reference, see § 431.133). Where AHRI 810 references “ASHRAE Standard 29,” ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 29-2009 (incorporated by reference, see § 431.133) shall be used. All references to cube type ice makers in AHRI 810 apply to all batch type automatic commercial ice makers.

(1) For batch type automatic commercial ice makers, the energy use and condenser water use will be reported as measured in this paragraph (b), including the energy and water consumption, as applicable, of the ice-making mechanism, the compressor, and the condenser or condensing unit.

(2)

(i) For continuous type automatic commercial ice makers, determine the energy use and condenser water use by multiplying the energy consumption or condenser water use as measured in this paragraph (b) by the ice hardness adjustment factor, determined using the following equation:

(ii) Determine the ice hardness factor by following the procedure specified in the “Procedure for Determining Ice Quality” in section A.3 of normative annex A of ANSI/ASHRAE 29 (incorporated by reference, see § 431.133), except that the test shall be conducted at an ambient air temperature of 70 °F ±1 °F, with an initial water temperature of 90 °F ±1 °F, and weights shall be accurate to within ±2 percent of the quantity measured. The ice hardness factor is equivalent to the corrected net cooling effect per pound of ice, line 19 in ANSI/ASHRAE 29 Table A1, where the calorimeter constant used in line 18 shall be that determined in section A2 using seasoned, block ice.

[77 FR 1613, Jan. 11, 2012]

Energy Conservation Standards
§ 431.136 Energy conservation standards and their effective dates.

(a) All basic models of commercial ice makers must be tested for performance using the applicable DOE test procedure in § 431.134, be compliant with the applicable standards set forth in paragraphs (b) through (d) of this section, and be certified to the Department of Energy under 10 CFR part 429 of this chapter.

(b) Each cube type automatic commercial ice maker with capacities between 50 and 2,500 pounds per 24-hour period manufactured on or after January 1, 2010 and before January 28, 2018, shall meet the following standard levels:

Equipment type Type of cooling Harvest rate
lb ice/24 hours
Maximum
energy use
kWh/100 lb ice
Maximum
condenser
water use1
gal/100 lb ice
Ice-Making Head Water <500 7.8-0.0055H2 200-0.022H.
Ice-Making Head Water ≥500 and <1,436 5.58-0.0011H 200-0.022H.
Ice-Making Head Water ≥1,436 4.0 200-0.022H.
Ice-Making Head Air <450 10.26-0.0086H Not Applicable.
Ice-Making Head Air ≥450 6.89-0.0011H Not Applicable.
Remote Condensing (but not remote compressor) Air <1,000 8.85-0.0038H Not Applicable.
Remote Condensing (but not remote compressor) Air ≥1,000 5.1 Not Applicable.
Remote Condensing and Remote Compressor Air <934 8.85-0.0038H Not Applicable.
Remote Condensing (but not remote compressor) Air ≥934 5.3 Not Applicable.
Self-Contained Water <200 11.40-0.019H 191-0.0315H.
Self-Contained Water ≥200 7.6 191-0.0315H.
Self-Contained Air <175 18.0-0.0469H Not Applicable.
Self-Contained Air ≥175 9.8 Not Applicable.

(c) Each batch type automatic commercial ice maker with capacities between 50 and 4,000 pounds per 24-hour period manufactured on or after January 28, 2018, shall meet the following standard levels:

Equipment type Type of cooling Harvest rate
lb ice/24 hours
Maximum
energy use
kilowatt-hours
(kWh)/100 lb ice1
Maximum
condenser
water use
gal/100 lb ice2
Ice-Making Head Water < 300 6.88-0.0055H 200-0.022H.
Ice-Making Head Water ≥300 and <850 5.80-0.00191H 200-0.022H.
Ice-Making Head Water ≥850 and <1,500 4.42-0.00028H 200-0.022H.
Ice-Making Head Water ≥1,500 and <2,500 4.0 200-0.022H.
Ice-Making Head Water ≥2,500 and <4,000 4.0 145.
Ice-Making Head Air < 300 10-0.01233H NA.
Ice-Making Head Air ≥ 300 and < 800 7.05-0.0025H NA.
Ice-Making Head Air ≥ 800 and < 1,500 5.55-0.00063H NA.
Ice-Making Head Air ≥ 1500 and < 4,000 4.61 NA.
Remote Condensing (but not remote compressor) Air < 988 7.97-0.00342H NA.
Remote Condensing (but not remote compressor) Air ≥ 988 and < 4,000 4.59 NA.
Remote Condensing and Remote Compressor Air < 930 7.97-0.00342H NA.
Remote Condensing and Remote Compressor Air ≥ 930 and < 4,000 4.79 NA.
Self-Contained Water < 200 9.5-0.019H 191-0.0315H.
Self-Contained Water ≥ 200 and < 2,500 5.7 191-0.0315H.
Self-Contained Water ≥ 2,500 and < 4,000 5.7 112.
Self-Contained Air < 110 14.79-0.0469H NA.
Self-Contained Air ≥ 110 and < 200 12.42-0.02533H NA.
Self-Contained Air ≥ 200 and < 4,000 7.35 NA.

(d) Each continuous type automatic commercial ice maker with capacities between 50 and 4,000 pounds per 24-hour period manufactured on or after January 28, 2018, shall meet the following standard levels:

Equipment type Type of cooling Harvest rate
lb ice/24 hours
Maximum
energy use
kWh/100 lb ice1
Maximum
condenser
water use
gal/100 lb ice2
Ice-Making Head Water <801 6.48-0.00267H 180-0.0198H.
Ice-Making Head Water ≥801 and <2,500 4.34 180-0.0198H.
Ice-Making Head Water ≥2,500 and <4,000 4.34 130.5.
Ice-Making Head Air <310 9.19-0.00629H NA.
Ice-Making Head Air ≥310 and <820 8.23-0.0032H NA.
Ice-Making Head Air ≥820 and <4,000 5.61 NA.
Remote Condensing (but not remote compressor) Air <800 9.7-0.0058H NA.
Remote Condensing (but not remote compressor) Air ≥800 and <4,000 5.06 NA.
Remote Condensing and Remote Compressor Air <800 9.9-0.0058H NA.
≥800 and <4,000 5.26 NA.
Self-Contained Water <900 7.6-0.00302H 153-0.0252H.
Self-Contained Water ≥900 and <2,500 4.88 153-0.0252H.
Self-Contained Water ≥2,500 and <4,000 4.88 90.
Self-Contained Air <200 14.22-0.03H NA.
Self-Contained Air ≥200 and <700 9.47-0.00624H NA.
Self-Contained Air ≥700 and <4,000 5.1 NA.

[80 FR 4754, Jan. 28, 2015]

Subpart I - Commercial Clothes Washers
Source:

70 FR 60416, Oct. 18, 2005, unless otherwise noted.

§ 431.151 Purpose and scope.

This subpart contains energy conservation requirements for commercial clothes washers, pursuant to Part C of Title III of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act, as amended, 42 U.S.C. 6311-6317.

§ 431.152 Definitions concerning commercial clothes washers.

Basic model means all units of a given type of covered product (or class thereof) manufactured by one manufacturer, having the same primary energy source, and which have essentially identical electrical, physical, and functional (or hydraulic) characteristics that affect energy consumption, energy efficiency, water consumption, or water efficiency.

Commercial clothes washer means a soft-mounted front-loading or soft-mounted top-loading clothes washer that -

(1) Has a clothes container compartment that -

(i) For horizontal-axis clothes washers, is not more than 3.5 cubic feet; and

(ii) For vertical-axis clothes washers, is not more than 4.0 cubic feet; and

(2) Is designed for use in -

(i) Applications in which the occupants of more than one household will be using the clothes washer, such as multi-family housing common areas and coin laundries; or

(ii) Other commercial applications.

IWF means integrated water factor, in gallons per cubic feet per cycle (gal/cu ft/cycle), as determined in section 4.2.13 of Appendix J2 to subpart B of 10 CFR part 430.

MEF means modified energy factor, in cubic feet per kilowatt hour per cycle (cu ft/kWh/cycle), as determined in section 4.4 of Appendix J1 to subpart B of part 430.

MEFJ2 means modified energy factor, in cu ft/kWh/cycle, as determined in section 4.5 of Appendix J2 to subpart B of part 430.

WF means water factor, in gal/cu ft/cycle, as determined in section 4.2.3 of Appendix J1 to subpart B of part 430.

[70 FR 60416, Oct. 18, 2005, as amended at 76 FR 12504, Mar. 7, 2011; 79 FR 71630, Dec. 3, 2014]

Test Procedures
§ 431.154 Test procedures.

The test procedures for clothes washers in appendix J1 to subpart B of part 430 of this chapter must be used to test commercial clothes washers to determine compliance with the energy conservation standards at § 431.156(a). The test procedures for clothes washers in appendix J2 to subpart B of part 430 of this chapter must be used to determine compliance with the energy conservation standards at § 431.156(b).

[81 FR 20529, Apr. 8, 2016]

Energy Conservation Standards
§ 431.156 Energy and water conservation standards and effective dates.

(a) Each commercial clothes washer manufactured on or after January 8, 2013, and before January 1, 2018, shall have a modified energy factor no less than and a water factor no greater than:

Equipment class Modified energy factor (MEF),
cu. ft./kWh/cycle
Water factor (WF),
gal./cu. ft./cycle
Top-Loading 1.60 8.5
Front-Loading 2.00 5.5

(b) Each commercial clothes washer manufactured on or after January 1, 2018 shall have a modified energy factor no less than and an integrated water factor no greater than:

Equipment class Modified energy factor (MEFJ2),
cu. ft./kWh/cycle
Integrated Water
factor (IWF),
gal./cu. ft./cycle
Top-Loading 1.35 8.8
Front-Loading 2.00 4.1

[76 FR 69123, Nov. 8, 2011, as amended at 79 FR 74541, Dec. 15, 2014; 81 FR 20529, Apr. 8, 2016]

Subpart J [Reserved]
§§ 431.171-431.176 [Reserved]
Subpart K - Distribution Transformers
Source:

70 FR 60416, Oct. 18, 2005, unless otherwise noted.

§ 431.191 Purpose and scope.

This subpart contains energy conservation requirements for distribution transformers, pursuant to Parts B and C of Title III of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act, as amended, 42 U.S.C. 6291-6317.

[71 FR 24995, Apr. 27, 2006]

§ 431.192 Definitions.

The following definitions apply for purposes of this subpart:

Autotransformer means a transformer that:

(1) Has one physical winding that consists of a series winding part and a common winding part;

(2) Has no isolation between its primary and secondary circuits; and

(3) During step-down operation, has a primary voltage that is equal to the total of the series and common winding voltages, and a secondary voltage that is equal to the common winding voltage.

Basic model means a group of models of distribution transformers manufactured by a single manufacturer, that have the same insulation type (i.e., liquid-immersed or dry-type), have the same number of phases (i.e., single or three), have the same standard kVA rating, and do not have any differentiating electrical, physical or functional features that affect energy consumption. Differences in voltage and differences in basic impulse insulation level (BIL) rating are examples of differentiating electrical features that affect energy consumption.

Distribution transformer means a transformer that -

(1) Has an input voltage of 34.5 kV or less;

(2) Has an output voltage of 600 V or less;

(3) Is rated for operation at a frequency of 60 Hz; and

(4) Has a capacity of 10 kVA to 2500 kVA for liquid-immersed units and 15 kVA to 2500 kVA for dry-type units; but

(5) The term “distribution transformer” does not include a transformer that is an -

(i) Autotransformer;

(ii) Drive (isolation) transformer;

(iii) Grounding transformer;

(iv) Machine-tool (control) transformer;

(v) Nonventilated transformer;

(vi) Rectifier transformer;

(vii) Regulating transformer;

(viii) Sealed transformer;

(ix) Special-impedance transformer;

(x) Testing transformer;

(xi) Transformer with tap range of 20 percent or more;

(xii) Uninterruptible power supply transformer; or

(xiii) Welding transformer.

Drive (isolation) transformer means a transformer that:

(1) Isolates an electric motor from the line;

(2) Accommodates the added loads of drive-created harmonics; and

(3) Is designed to withstand the additional mechanical stresses resulting from an alternating current adjustable frequency motor drive or a direct current motor drive.

Efficiency means the ratio of the useful power output to the total power input.

Excitation current or no-load current means the current that flows in any winding used to excite the transformer when all other windings are open-circuited.

Grounding transformer means a three-phase transformer intended primarily to provide a neutral point for system-grounding purposes, either by means of:

(1) A grounded wye primary winding and a delta secondary winding; or

(2) A transformer with its primary winding in a zig-zag winding arrangement, and with no secondary winding.

Liquid-immersed distribution transformer means a distribution transformer in which the core and coil assembly is immersed in an insulating liquid.

Load loss means, for a distribution transformer, those losses incident to a specified load carried by the transformer, including losses in the windings as well as stray losses in the conducting parts of the transformer.

Low-voltage dry-type distribution transformer means a distribution transformer that -

(1) Has an input voltage of 600 volts or less;

(2) Is air-cooled; and

(3) Does not use oil as a coolant.

Machine-tool (control) transformer means a transformer that is equipped with a fuse or other over-current protection device, and is generally used for the operation of a solenoid, contactor, relay, portable tool, or localized lighting.

Medium-voltage dry-type distribution transformer means a distribution transformer in which the core and coil assembly is immersed in a gaseous or dry-compound insulating medium, and which has a rated primary voltage between 601 V and 34.5 kV.

Mining distribution transformer means a medium-voltage dry-type distribution transformer that is built only for installation in an underground mine or surface mine, inside equipment for use in an underground mine or surface mine, on-board equipment for use in an underground mine or surface mine, or for equipment used for digging, drilling, or tunneling underground or above ground, and that has a nameplate which identifies the transformer as being for this use only.

No-load loss means those losses that are incident to the excitation of the transformer.

Nonventilated transformer means a transformer constructed so as to prevent external air circulation through the coils of the transformer while operating at zero gauge pressure.

Phase angle means the angle between two phasors, where the two phasors represent progressions of periodic waves of either:

(1) Two voltages;

(2) Two currents; or

(3) A voltage and a current of an alternating current circuit.

Phase angle correction means the adjustment (correction) of measurement data to negate the effects of phase angle error.

Phase angle error means incorrect displacement of the phase angle, introduced by the components of the test equipment.

Rectifier transformer means a transformer that operates at the fundamental frequency of an alternating-current system and that is designed to have one or more output windings connected to a rectifier.

Reference temperature means 20 °C for no-load loss, 55 °C for load loss of liquid-immersed distribution transformers at 50 percent load, and 75 °C for load loss of both low-voltage and medium-voltage dry-type distribution transformers, at 35 percent load and 50 percent load, respectively. It is the temperature at which the transformer losses must be determined, and to which such losses must be corrected if testing is done at a different point. (These temperatures are specified in the test method in appendix A to this part.)

Regulating transformer means a transformer that varies the voltage, the phase angle, or both voltage and phase angle, of an output circuit and compensates for fluctuation of load and input voltage, phase angle or both voltage and phase angle.

Sealed transformer means a transformer designed to remain hermetically sealed under specified conditions of temperature and pressure.

Special-impedance transformer means any transformer built to operate at an impedance outside of the normal impedance range for that transformer's kVA rating. The normal impedance range for each kVA rating for liquid-immersed and dry-type transformers is shown in Tables 1 and 2, respectively.

Table 1 - Normal Impedance Ranges for Liquid-Immersed Transformers

Single-phase transformers Three-phase transformers
kVA Impedance
(%)
kVA Impedance
(%)
10 1.0-4.5 15 1.0-4.5
15 1.0-4.5 30 1.0-4.5
25 1.0-4.5 45 1.0-4.5
37.5 1.0-4.5 75 1.0-5.0
50 1.5-4.5 112.5 1.2-6.0
75 1.5-4.5 150 1.2-6.0
100 1.5-4.5 225 1.2-6.0
167 1.5-4.5 300 1.2-6.0
250 1.5-6.0 500 1.5-7.0
333 1.5-6.0 750 5.0-7.5
500 1.5-7.0 1000 5.0-7.5
667 5.0-7.5 1500 5.0-7.5
833 5.0-7.5 2000 5.0-7.5
2500 5.0-7.5

Table 2 - Normal Impedance Ranges for Dry-Type Transformers

Single-phase transformers Three-phase transformers
kVA Impedance
(%)
kVA Impedance
(%)
15 1.5-6.0 15 1.5-6.0
25 1.5-6.0 30 1.5-6.0
37.5 1.5-6.0 45 1.5-6.0
50 1.5-6.0 75 1.5-6.0
75 2.0-7.0 112.5 1.5-6.0
100 2.0-7.0 150 1.5-6.0
167 2.5-8.0 225 3.0-7.0
250 3.5-8.0 300 3.0-7.0
333 3.5-8.0 500 4.5-8.0
500 3.5-8.0 750 5.0-8.0
667 5.0-8.0 1000 5.0-8.0
833 5.0-8.0 1500 5.0-8.0
2000 5.0-8.0
2500 5.0-8.0

Temperature correction means the mathematical correction(s) of measurement data, obtained when a transformer is tested at a temperature that is different from the reference temperature, to the value(s) that would have been obtained if the transformer had been tested at the reference temperature.

Test current means the current of the electrical power supplied to the transformer under test.

Test frequency means the frequency of the electrical power supplied to the transformer under test.

Test voltage means the voltage of the electrical power supplied to the transformer under test.

Testing transformer means a transformer used in a circuit to produce a specific voltage or current for the purpose of testing electrical equipment.

Total loss means the sum of the no-load loss and the load loss for a transformer.

Transformer means a device consisting of 2 or more coils of insulated wire that transfers alternating current by electromagnetic induction from 1 coil to another to change the original voltage or current value.

Transformer with tap range of 20 percent or more means a transformer with multiple voltage taps, the highest of which equals at least 20 percent more than the lowest, computed based on the sum of the deviations of the voltages of these taps from the transformer's nominal voltage.

Uninterruptible power supply transformer means a transformer that is used within an uninterruptible power system, which in turn supplies power to loads that are sensitive to power failure, power sags, over voltage, switching transients, line noise, and other power quality factors.

Waveform correction means the adjustment(s) (mathematical correction(s)) of measurement data obtained with a test voltage that is non-sinusoidal, to a value(s) that would have been obtained with a sinusoidal voltage.

Welding transformer means a transformer designed for use in arc welding equipment or resistance welding equipment.

[70 FR 60416, Oct. 18, 2005, as amended at 71 FR 24995, Apr. 27, 2006; 71 FR 60662, Oct. 16, 2006; 72 FR 58239, Oct. 12, 2007; 78 FR 23433, Apr. 18, 2013]

Test Procedures
§ 431.193 Test procedures for measuring energy consumption of distribution transformers.

The test procedures for measuring the energy efficiency of distribution transformers for purposes of EPCA are specified in appendix A to this subpart.

[71 FR 24997, Apr. 27, 2006]

Energy Conservation Standards
§ 431.196 Energy conservation standards and their effective dates.

(a) Low-Voltage Dry-Type Distribution Transformers.

(1) The efficiency of a low-voltage, dry-type distribution transformer manufactured on or after January 1, 2007, but before January 1, 2016, shall be no less than that required for the applicable kVA rating in the table below. Low-voltage dry-type distribution transformers with kVA ratings not appearing in the table shall have their minimum efficiency level determined by linear interpolation of the kVA and efficiency values immediately above and below that kVA rating.

Single-phase Three-phase
kVA % kVA %
15 97.7 15 97.0
25 98.0 30 97.5
37.5 98.2 45 97.7
50 98.3 75 98.0
75 98.5 112.5 98.2
100 98.6 150 98.3
167 98.7 225 98.5
250 98.8 300 98.6
333 98.9 500 98.7
750 98.8
1000 98.9

(2) The efficiency of a low-voltage dry-type distribution transformer manufactured on or after January 1, 2016, shall be no less than that required for their kVA rating in the table below. Low-voltage dry-type distribution transformers with kVA ratings not appearing in the table shall have their minimum efficiency level determined by linear interpolation of the kVA and efficiency values immediately above and below that kVA rating.

Single-phase Three-phase
kVA Efficiency
(%)
kVA Efficiency
(%)
15 97.70 15 97.89
25 98.00 30 98.23
37.5 98.20 45 98.40
50 98.30 75 98.60
75 98.50 112.5 98.74
100 98.60 150 98.83
167 98.70 225 98.94
250 98.80 300 99.02
333 98.90 500 99.14
750 99.23
1000 99.28

(b) Liquid-Immersed Distribution Transformers.

(1) The efficiency of a liquid-immersed distribution transformer manufactured on or after January 1, 2010, but before January 1, 2016, shall be no less than that required for their kVA rating in the table below. Liquid-immersed distribution transformers with kVA ratings not appearing in the table shall have their minimum efficiency level determined by linear interpolation of the kVA and efficiency values immediately above and below that kVA rating.

Single-phase Three-phase
kVA Efficiency
(%)
kVA Efficiency
(%)
10 98.62 15 98.36
15 98.76 30 98.62
25 98.91 45 98.76
37.5 99.01 75 98.91
50 99.08 112.5 99.01
75 99.17 150 99.08
100 99.23 225 99.17
167 99.25 300 99.23
250 99.32 500 99.25
333 99.36 750 99.32
500 99.42 1000 99.36
667 99.46 1500 99.42
833 99.49 2000 99.46
2500 99.49

(2) The efficiency of a liquid-immersed distribution transformer manufactured on or after January 1, 2016, shall be no less than that required for their kVA rating in the table below. Liquid-immersed distribution transformers with kVA ratings not appearing in the table shall have their minimum efficiency level determined by linear interpolation of the kVA and efficiency values immediately above and below that kVA rating.

Single-phase Three-phase
kVA Efficiency
(%)
kVA Efficiency
(%)
10 98.70 15 98.65
15 98.82 30 98.83
25 98.95 45 98.92
37.5 99.05 75 99.03
50 99.11 112.5 99.11
75 99.19 150 99.16
100 99.25 225 99.23
167 99.33 300 99.27
250 99.39 500 99.35
333 99.43 750 99.40
500 99.49 1000 99.43
667 99.52 1500 99.48
833 99.55 2000 99.51
2500 99.53

(c) Medium-Voltage Dry-Type Distribution Transformers.

(1) The efficiency of a medium-voltage dry-type distribution transformer manufactured on or after January 1, 2010, but before January 1, 2016, shall be no less than that required for their kVA and BIL rating in the table below. Medium-voltage dry-type distribution transformers with kVA ratings not appearing in the table shall have their minimum efficiency level determined by linear interpolation of the kVA and efficiency values immediately above and below that kVA rating.

Single-phase Three-phase
kVA BIL* kVA BIL
20-45 kV 46-95 kV ≥96 kV 20-45 kV 46-95 kV ≥96 kV
Efficiency
(%)
Efficiency
(%)
Efficiency
(%)
Efficiency
(%)
Efficiency
(%)
Efficiency
(%)
15 98.10 97.86 15 97.50 97.18
25 98.33 98.12 30 97.90 97.63
37.5 98.49 98.30 45 98.10 97.86
50 98.60 98.42 75 98.33 98.12
75 98.73 98.57 98.53 112.5 98.49 98.30
100 98.82 98.67 98.63 150 98.60 98.42
167 98.96 98.83 98.80 225 98.73 98.57 98.53
250 99.07 98.95 98.91 300 98.82 98.67 98.63
333 99.14 99.03 98.99 500 98.96 98.83 98.80
500 99.22 99.12 99.09 750 99.07 98.95 98.91
667 99.27 99.18 99.15 1000 99.14 99.03 98.99
833 99.31 99.23 99.20 1500 99.22 99.12 99.09
2000 99.27 99.18 99.15
2500 99.31 99.23 99.20

(2) The efficiency of a medium- voltage dry-type distribution transformer manufactured on or after January 1, 2016, shall be no less than that required for their kVA and BIL rating in the table below. Medium-voltage dry-type distribution transformers with kVA ratings not appearing in the table shall have their minimum efficiency level determined by linear interpolation of the kVA and efficiency values immediately above and below that kVA rating.

Single-phase Three-phase
kVA BIL* kVA BIL
20-45 kV 46-95 kV ≥96 kV 20-45 kV 46-95 kV ≥96 kV
Efficiency
(%)
Efficiency
(%)
Efficiency
(%)
Efficiency
(%)
Efficiency
(%)
Efficiency
(%)
15 98.10 97.86 15 97.50 97.18
25 98.33 98.12 30 97.90 97.63
37.5 98.49 98.30 45 98.10 97.86
50 98.60 98.42 75 98.33 98.13
75 98.73 98.57 98.53 112.5 98.52 98.36
100 98.82 98.67 98.63 150 98.65 98.51
167 98.96 98.83 98.80 225 98.82 98.69 98.57
250 99.07 98.95 98.91 300 98.93 98.81 98.69
333 99.14 99.03 98.99 500 99.09 98.99 98.89
500 99.22 99.12 99.09 750 99.21 99.12 99.02
667 99.27 99.18 99.15 1000 99.28 99.20 99.11
833 99.31 99.23 99.20 1500 99.37 99.30 99.21
2000 99.43 99.36 99.28
2500 99.47 99.41 99.33

(d) Mining Distribution Transformers. [Reserved]

[78 FR 23433, Apr. 18, 2013]

Compliance and Enforcement
Source:

71 FR 24997, Apr. 27, 2006, unless otherwise noted.

Appendix A to Subpart K of Part 431 - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Distribution Transformers

1.0 Definitions.

The definitions contained in §§ 431.2 and 431.192 are applicable to this appendix A.

2.0 Accuracy Requirements.

(a) Equipment and methods for loss measurement shall be sufficiently accurate that measurement error will be limited to the values shown in Table 2.1.

Table 2.1 - Test System Accuracy Requirements for Each Measured Quantity

Measured quantity Test system
accuracy
Power Losses ±3.0%
Voltage ±0.5%
Current ±0.5%
Resistance ±0.5%
Temperature ±1.0 °C

(b) Only instrument transformers meeting the 0.3 metering accuracy class, or better, may be used under this test method.

3.0 Resistance Measurements

3.1 General Considerations

(a) Measure or establish the winding temperature at the time of the winding resistance measurement.

(b) Measure the direct current resistance (Rdc) of transformer windings by one of the methods outlined in section 3.3. The methods of section 3.5 must be used to correct load losses to the applicable reference temperature from the temperature at which they are measured. Observe precautions while taking measurements, such as those in section 3.4, in order to maintain measurement uncertainty limits specified in Table 2.1.

3.2 Temperature Determination of Windings and Pre-conditions for Resistance Measurement.

Make temperature measurements in protected areas where the air temperature is stable and there are no drafts. Determine the winding temperature (Tdc) for liquid-immersed and dry-type distribution transformers by the methods described in sections 3.2.1 and 3.2.2, respectively.

3.2.1 Liquid-Immersed Distribution Transformers.

3.2.1.1 Methods

Record the winding temperature (Tdc) of liquid-immersed transformers as the average of either of the following:

(a) The measurements from two temperature sensing devices (for example, thermocouples) applied to the outside of the transformer tank and thermally insulated from the surrounding environment, with one located at the level of the oil and the other located near the tank bottom or at the lower radiator header if applicable; or

(b) The measurements from two temperature sensing devices immersed in the transformer liquid, with one located directly above the winding and other located directly below the winding.

3.2.1.2 Conditions

Make this determination under either of the following conditions:

(a) The windings have been under insulating liquid with no excitation and no current in the windings for four hours before the dc resistance is measured; or

(b) The temperature of the insulating liquid has stabilized, and the difference between the top and bottom temperature does not exceed 5 °C.

3.2.2 Dry-Type Distribution Transformers.

Record the winding temperature (Tdc) of dry-type transformers as either of the following:

(a) For ventilated dry-type units, use the average of readings of four or more thermometers, thermocouples, or other suitable temperature sensors inserted within the coils. Place the sensing points of the measuring devices as close as possible to the winding conductors. For sealed units, such as epoxy-coated or epoxy-encapsulated units, use the average of four or more temperature sensors located on the enclosure and/or cover, as close to different parts of the winding assemblies as possible; or

(b) For both ventilated and sealed units, use the ambient temperature of the test area, under the following conditions:

(1) All internal temperatures measured by the internal temperature sensors must not differ from the test area ambient temperature by more than 2 °C.

(2) Enclosure surface temperatures for sealed units must not differ from the test area ambient temperature by more than 2 °C.

(3) Test area ambient temperature should not have changed by more than 3 °C for 3 hours before the test.

(4) Neither voltage nor current has been applied to the unit under test for 24 hours. In addition, increase this initial 24 hour period by any added amount of time necessary for the temperature of the transformer windings to stabilize at the level of the ambient temperature. However, this additional amount of time need not exceed 24 hours.

3.3 Resistance Measurement Methods.

Make resistance measurements using either the resistance bridge method, the voltmeter-ammeter method or a resistance meter. In each instance when this Uniform Test Method is used to test more than one unit of a basic model to determine the efficiency of that basic model, the resistance of the units being tested may be determined from making resistance measurements on only one of the units.

3.3.1 Resistance Bridge Methods.

If the resistance bridge method is selected, use either the Wheatstone or Kelvin bridge circuit (or the equivalent of either).

3.3.1.1 Wheatstone Bridge

(a) This bridge is best suited for measuring resistances larger than ten ohms. A schematic diagram of a Wheatstone bridge with a representative transformer under test is shown in Figure 3.1.

Where:

Rdc is the resistance of the transformer winding being measured,

Rs is a standard resistor having the resistance Rs,

Ra, Rb are two precision resistors with resistance values Ra and Rb , respectively; at least one resistor must have a provision for resistance adjustment,

Rt is a resistor for reducing the time constant of the circuit,

D is a null detector, which may be either a micro ammeter or microvoltmeter or equivalent instrument for observing that no signal is present when the bridge is balanced, and

Vdc is a source of dc voltage for supplying the power to the Wheatstone Bridge.

(b) In the measurement process, turn on the source (Vdc), and adjust the resistance ratio (Ra/Rb) to produce zero signal at the detector (D). Determine the winding resistance by using equation 3-1 as follows:

3.3.1.2 Kelvin Bridge

(a) This bridge separates the resistance of the connecting conductors to the transformer winding being measured from the resistance of the winding, and therefore is best suited for measuring resistances of ten ohms and smaller. A schematic diagram of a Kelvin bridge with a representative transformer under test is shown in Figure 3.2.

(b) The Kelvin Bridge has seven of the same type of components as in the Wheatstone Bridge. It has two more resistors than the Wheatstone bridge, Ra1 and Rb1. At least one of these resistors must have adjustable resistance. In the measurement process, the source is turned on, two resistance ratios (Ra/Rb) and (Ra1/Rb1) are adjusted to be equal, and then the two ratios are adjusted together to balance the bridge producing zero signal at the detector. Determine the winding resistance by using equation 3-2 as follows:

as with the Wheatstone bridge, with an additional condition that:

(c) The Kelvin bridge provides two sets of leads, current-carrying and voltage-sensing, to the transformer terminals and the standard resistor, thus eliminating voltage drops from the measurement in the current-carrying leads as represented by Rd.

3.3.2 Voltmeter-Ammeter Method.

(a) Employ the voltmeter-ammeter method only if the rated current of the winding is greater than one ampere and the test current is limited to 15 percent of the winding current. Connect the transformer winding under test to the circuit shown in Figure 3.3.

Where:

A is an ammeter or a voltmeter-shunt combination for measuring the current (Imdc) in the transformer winding,

V is a voltmeter with sensitivity in the millivolt range for measuring the voltage (Vmdc) applied to the transformer winding,

Rdc is the resistance of the transformer winding being measured,

Rt is a resistor for reducing the time constant of the circuit, and

Vdc is a source of dc voltage for supplying power to the measuring circuit.

(b) To perform the measurement, turn on the source to produce current no larger than 15 percent of the rated current for the winding. Wait until the current and voltage readings have stabilized and then take simultaneous readings of voltage and current. Determine the winding resistance Rdc by using equation 3-4 as follows:

Where:

Vmdc is the voltage measured by the voltmeter V, and

Imdc is the current measured by the ammeter A.

(c) As shown in Figure 3.3, separate current and voltage leads must be brought to the transformer terminals. (This eliminates the errors due to lead and contact resistance.)

3.3.3 Resistance Meters.

Resistance meters may be based on voltmeter-ammeter, or resistance bridge, or some other operating principle. Any meter used to measure a transformer's winding resistance must have specifications for resistance range, current range, and ability to measure highly inductive resistors that cover the characteristics of the transformer being tested. Also the meter's specifications for accuracy must meet the applicable criteria of Table 2.1 in section 2.0.

3.4 Precautions in Measuring Winding Resistance.

3.4.1 Required actions.

The following guidelines must be observed when making resistance measurements:

(a) Use separate current and voltage leads when measuring small (<10 ohms) resistance.

(b) Use null detectors in bridge circuits, and measuring instruments in voltmeter-ammeter circuits, that have sensitivity and resolution sufficient to enable observation of at least 0.1 percent change in the measured resistance.

(c) Maintain the dc test current at or below 15 percent of the rated winding current.

(d) Inclusion of a stabilizing resistor Rt (see section 3.4.2) will require higher source voltage.

(e) Disconnect the null detector (if a bridge circuit is used) and voltmeter from the circuit before the current is switched off, and switch off current by a suitable insulated switch.

3.4.2 Guideline for Time Constant.

(a) The following guideline is suggested for the tester as a means to facilitate the measurement of resistance in accordance with the accuracy requirements of section 2.0:

(b) The accurate reading of resistance Rdc may be facilitated by shortening the time constant. This is done by introducing a resistor Rt in series with the winding under test in both the bridge and voltmeter-ammeter circuits as shown in Figures 3.1 to 3.3. The relationship for the time constant is:

Where:

Tc is the time constant in seconds,

Ltc is the total magnetizing and leakage inductance of the winding under test, in henries, and

Rtc is the total resistance in ohms, consisting of Rt in series with the winding resistance Rdc and the resistance Rs of the standard resistor in the bridge circuit.

(c) Because Rtc is in the denominator of the expression for the time constant, increasing the resistance Rtc will decrease the time constant. If the time constant in a given test circuit is too long for the resistance readings to be stable, then a higher resistance can be substituted for the existing Rtc, and successive replacements can be made until adequate stability is reached.

3.5 Conversion of Resistance Measurements.

(a) Resistance measurements must be corrected, from the temperature at which the winding resistance measurements were made, to the reference temperature. As specified in these test procedures, the reference temperature for liquid-immersed transformers loaded at 50 percent of the rated load is 55 °C. For medium-voltage, dry-type transformers loaded at 50 percent of the rated load, and for low-voltage, dry-type transformers loaded at 35 percent of the rated load, the reference temperature is 75 °C.

(b) Correct the measured resistance to the resistance at the reference temperature using equation 3-6 as follows:

Where:

Rts is the resistance at the reference temperature, Ts,

Rdc is the measured resistance at temperature, Tdc,

Ts is the reference temperature in °C,

Tdc is the temperature at which resistance was measured in °C, and

Tk is 234.5 °C for copper or 225 °C for aluminum.

4.0 Loss Measurement

4.1 General Considerations.

The efficiency of a transformer is computed from the total transformer losses, which are determined from the measured value of the no-load loss and load loss power components. Each of these two power loss components is measured separately using test sets that are identical, except that shorting straps are added for the load-loss test. The measured quantities will need correction for instrumentation losses and may need corrections for known phase angle errors in measuring equipment and for the waveform distortion in the test voltage. Any power loss not measured at the applicable reference temperature must be adjusted to that reference temperature. The measured load loss must also be adjusted to a specified output loading level if not measured at the specified output loading level. Test distribution transformers designed for harmonic currents using a sinusoidal waveform (k = 1).

4.2 Measurement of Power Losses.

4.2.1 No-Load Loss.

Measure the no-load loss and apply corrections as described in section 4.4, using the appropriate test set as described in section 4.3.

4.2.2 Load Loss.

Measure the load loss and apply corrections as described in section 4.5, using the appropriate test set as described in section 4.3.

4.3 Test Sets.

(a) The same test set may be used for both the no-load loss and load loss measurements provided the range of the test set encompasses the test requirements of both tests. Calibrate the test set to national standards to meet the tolerances in Table 2.1 in section 2.0. In addition, the wattmeter, current measuring system and voltage measuring system must be calibrated separately if the overall test set calibration is outside the tolerance as specified in section 2.0 or the individual phase angle error exceeds the values specified in section 4.5.3.

(b) A test set based on the wattmeter-voltmeter-ammeter principle may be used to measure the power loss and the applied voltage and current of a transformer where the transformer's test current and voltage are within the measurement capability of the measuring instruments. Current and voltage transformers, known collectively as instrument transformers, or other scaling devices such as resistive or capacitive dividers for voltage, may be used in the above circumstance, and must be used together with instruments to measure current, voltage, or power where the current or voltage of the transformer under test exceeds the measurement capability of such instruments. Thus, a test set may include a combination of measuring instruments and instrument transformers (or other scaling devices), so long as the current or voltage of the transformer under test does not exceed the measurement capability of any of the instruments.

4.3.1 Single-Phase Test Sets.

Use these for testing single-phase distribution transformers.

4.3.1.1 Without Instrument Transformers.

(a) A single-phase test set without an instrument transformer is shown in Figure 4.1.

Where:

W is a wattmeter used to measure Pnm and Plm, the no-load and load loss power, respectively,

Vrms is a true root-mean-square (rms) voltmeter used to measure Vr(nm) and Vlm, the rms test voltages in no-load and load loss measurements, respectively,

Vav is an average sensing voltmeter, calibrated to indicate rms voltage for sinusoidal waveforms and used to measure Va(nm), the average voltage in no-load loss measurements,

A is an rms ammeter used to measure test current, especially Ilm, the load loss current, and

(SC) is a conductor for providing a short-circuit across the output windings for the load loss measurements.

(b) Either the primary or the secondary winding can be connected to the test set. However, more compatible voltage and current levels for the measuring instruments are available if for no-load loss measurements the secondary (low voltage) winding is connected to the test set, and for load loss measurements the primary winding is connected to the test set. Use the average-sensing voltmeter, Vav, only in no-load loss measurements.

4.3.1.2 With Instrument Transformers.

A single-phase test set with instrument transformers is shown in Figure 4.2. This circuit has the same four measuring instruments as that in Figure 4.1. The current and voltage transformers, designated as (CT) and (VT), respectively, are added.

4.3.2 Three-Phase Test Sets.

Use these for testing three-phase distribution transformers. Use in a four-wire, three-wattmeter test circuit.

4.3.2.1 Without Instrument Transformers.

(a) A three-phase test set without instrument transformers is shown in Figure 4.3. This test set is essentially the same circuit shown in Figure 4.1 repeated three times, and the instruments are individual devices as shown. As an alternative, the entire instrumentation system of a three-phase test set without transformers may consist of a multi-function analyzer.

(b) Either group of windings, the primary or the secondary, can be connected in wye or delta configuration. If both groups of windings are connected in the wye configuration for the no-load test, the neutral of the winding connected to the test set must be connected to the neutral of the source to provide a return path for the neutral current.

(c) In the no-load loss measurement, the voltage on the winding must be measured. Therefore a provision must be made to switch the voltmeters for line-to-neutral measurements for wye-connected windings and for line-to-line measurements for delta-connected windings.

4.3.2.2 With Instrument Transformers.

A three-phase test set with instrument transformers is shown in Figure 4.4. This test set is essentially the same circuit shown in Figure 4.2 repeated three times. Provision must be made to switch the voltmeters for line-to-neutral and line-to-line measurements as in section 4.3.2.1. The voltage sensors (“coils”) of the wattmeters must always be connected in the line-to-neutral configuration.

4.3.2.3 Test Set Neutrals.

If the power source in the test circuit is wye-connected, ground the neutral. If the power source in the test circuit is delta-connected, use a grounding transformer to obtain neutral and ground for the test.

4.4 No-Load Losses: Measurement and Calculations.

4.4.1 General Considerations.

Measurement corrections are permitted but not required for instrumentation losses and for losses from auxiliary devices. Measurement corrections are required:

(a) When the waveform of the applied voltage is non-sinusoidal; and

(b) When the core temperature or liquid temperature is outside the 20 °C ±10 °C range.

4.4.2 No-Load Loss Test.

(a) The purpose of the no-load loss test is to measure no-load losses at a specified excitation voltage and a specified frequency. The no-load loss determination must be based on a sine-wave voltage corrected to the reference temperature. Connect either of the transformer windings, primary or secondary, to the appropriate test set of Figures 4.1 to 4.4, giving consideration to section 4.4.2(a)(2). Leave the unconnected winding(s) open circuited. Apply the rated voltage at rated frequency, as measured by the average-sensing voltmeter, to the transformer. Take the readings of the wattmeter(s) and the average-sensing and true rms voltmeters. Observe the following precautions:

(1) Voltmeter connections. When correcting to a sine-wave basis using the average-voltmeter method, the voltmeter connections must be such that the waveform applied to the voltmeters is the same as the waveform across the energized windings.

(2) Energized windings. Energize either the high voltage or the low voltage winding of the transformer under test.

(3) Voltage and frequency. The no-load loss test must be conducted with rated voltage impressed across the transformer terminals using a voltage source at a frequency equal to the rated frequency of the transformer under test.

(b) Adjust the voltage to the specified value as indicated by the average-sensing voltmeter. Record the values of rms voltage, rms current, electrical power, and average voltage as close to simultaneously as possible. For a three-phase transformer, take all of the readings on one phase before proceeding to the next, and record the average of the three rms voltmeter readings as the rms voltage value.

Note:

When the tester uses a power supply that is not synchronized with an electric utility grid, such as a dc/ac motor-generator set, check the frequency and maintain it within ±0.5 percent of the rated frequency of the transformer under test. A power source that is directly connected to, or synchronized with, an electric utility grid need not be monitored for frequency.

4.4.3 Corrections.

4.4.3.1 Correction for Instrumentation Losses.

Measured losses attributable to the voltmeters and wattmeter voltage circuit, and to voltage transformers if they are used, may be deducted from the total no-load losses measured during testing.

4.4.3.2 Correction for Non-Sinusoidal Applied Voltage.

(a) The measured value of no-load loss must be corrected to a sinusoidal voltage, except when waveform distortion in the test voltage causes the magnitude of the correction to be less than 1 percent. In such a case, no correction is required.

(b) To make a correction where the distortion requires a correction of 5 percent or less, use equation 4-1. If the distortion requires a correction to be greater than 5 percent, improve the test voltage and re-test. Repeat until the distortion requires a correction of 5 percent or less.

(c) Determine the no-load losses of the transformer corrected for sine-wave basis from the measured value by using equation 4-1 as follows:

Where:

Pncl is the no-load loss corrected to a sine-wave basis at the temperature (Tnm) at which no-load loss is measured,

Pnm is the measured no-load loss at temperature Tnm,

P1 is the per unit hysteresis loss,

P2 is the per unit eddy-current loss,

P1 + P2 = 1,

Vr(nm) is the test voltage measured by rms voltmeter, and

Va(nm) is the test voltage measured by average-voltage voltmeter.

(d) The two loss components (P1 and P2) are assumed equal in value, each assigned a value of 0.5 per unit, unless the actual measurement-based values of hysteresis and eddy-current losses are available (in per unit form), in which case the actual measurements apply.

4.4.3.3 Correction of No-Load Loss to Reference Temperature.

After correcting the measured no-load loss for waveform distortion, correct the loss to the reference temperature of 20 °C. If the no-load loss measurements were made between 10 °C and 30 °C, this correction is not required. If the correction to reference temperature is applied, then the core temperature of the transformer during no-load loss measurement (Tnm) must be determined within ±10 °C of the true average core temperature. Correct the no-load loss to the reference temperature by using equation 4-2 as follows:

Where:

Pnc is the no-load losses corrected for waveform distortion and then to the reference temperature of 20 °C,

Pnc1 is the no-load losses, corrected for waveform distortion, at temperature Tnm,

Tnm is the core temperature during the measurement of no-load losses, and

Tnr is the reference temperature, 20 °C.

4.5 Load Losses: Measurement and Calculations.

4.5.1 General Considerations.

(a) The load losses of a transformer are those losses incident to a specified load carried by the transformer. Load losses consist of ohmic loss in the windings due to the load current and stray losses due to the eddy currents induced by the leakage flux in the windings, core clamps, magnetic shields, tank walls, and other conducting parts. The ohmic loss of a transformer varies directly with temperature, whereas the stray losses vary inversely with temperature.

(b) For a transformer with a tap changer, conduct the test at the rated current and rated-voltage tap position. For a transformer that has a configuration of windings which allows for more than one nominal rated voltage, determine its load losses either in the winding configuration in which the highest losses occur or in each winding configuration in which the transformer can operate.

4.5.2 Tests for Measuring Load Losses.

(a) Connect the transformer with either the high-voltage or low-voltage windings to the appropriate test set. Then short-circuit the winding that was not connected to the test set. Apply a voltage at the rated frequency (of the transformer under test) to the connected windings to produce the rated current in the transformer. Take the readings of the wattmeter(s), the ammeters(s), and rms voltmeter(s).

(b) Regardless of the test set selected, the following preparatory requirements must be satisfied for accurate test results:

(1) Determine the temperature of the windings using the applicable method in section 3.2.1 or section 3.2.2.

(2) The conductors used to short-circuit the windings must have a cross-sectional area equal to, or greater than, the corresponding transformer leads, or, if the tester uses a different method to short-circuit the windings, the losses in the short-circuiting conductor assembly must be less than 10 percent of the transformer's load losses.

(3) When the tester uses a power supply that is not synchronized with an electric utility grid, such as a dc/ac motor-generator set, follow the provisions of the “Note” in section 4.4.2.

4.5.3 Corrections.

4.5.3.1 Correction for Losses from Instrumentation and Auxiliary Devices.

4.5.3.1.1 Instrumentation Losses.

Measured losses attributable to the voltmeters, wattmeter voltage circuit and short-circuiting conductor (SC), and to the voltage transformers if they are used, may be deducted from the total load losses measured during testing.

4.5.3.1.2 Losses from Auxiliary Devices.

Measured losses attributable to auxiliary devices (e.g., circuit breakers, fuses, switches) installed in the transformer, if any, that are not part of the winding and core assembly, may be excluded from load losses measured during testing. To exclude these losses, either (1) measure transformer losses without the auxiliary devices by removing or by-passing them, or (2) measure transformer losses with the auxiliary devices connected, determine the losses associated with the auxiliary devices, and deduct these losses from the load losses measured during testing.

4.5.3.2 Correction for Phase Angle Errors.

(a) Corrections for phase angle errors are not required if the instrumentation is calibrated over the entire range of power factors and phase angle errors. Otherwise, determine whether to correct for phase angle errors from the magnitude of the normalized per unit correction, βn, obtained by using equation 4-3 as follows:

(b) The correction must be applied if βn is outside the limits of ±0.01. If βn is within the limits of ±0.01, the correction is permitted but not required.

(c) If the correction for phase angle errors is to be applied, first examine the total system phase angle (βw − βv + βc). Where the total system phase angle is equal to or less than ±12 milliradians (±41 minutes), use either equation 4-4 or 4-5 to correct the measured load loss power for phase angle errors, and where the total system phase angle exceeds ±12 milliradians (±41 minutes) use equation 4-5, as follows:

(d) The symbols in this section (4.5.3.2) have the following meanings:

Plc1 is the corrected wattmeter reading for phase angle errors,

Plm is the actual wattmeter reading,

Vlm is the measured voltage at the transformer winding,

Ilm is the measured rms current in the transformer winding,

is the measured phase angle between Vlm and Ilm,

βw is the phase angle error (in radians) of the wattmeter; the error is positive if the phase angle between the voltage and current phasors as sensed by the wattmeter is smaller than the true phase angle, thus effectively increasing the measured power,

βv is the phase angle error (in radians) of the voltage transformer; the error is positive if the secondary voltage leads the primary voltage, and

βc is the phase angle error (in radians) of the current transformer; the error is positive if the secondary current leads the primary current.

(e) The instrumentation phase angle errors used in the correction equations must be specific for the test conditions involved.

4.5.3.3 Temperature Correction of Load Loss.

(a) When the measurement of load loss is made at a temperature Tlm that is different from the reference temperature, use the procedure summarized in the equations 4-6 to 4-10 to correct the measured load loss to the reference temperature. The symbols used in these equations are defined at the end of this section.

(b) Calculate the ohmic loss (Pe) by using equation 4-6 as follows:

(c) Obtain the stray loss by subtracting the calculated ohmic loss from the measured load loss, by using equation 4-7 as follows:

(d) Correct the ohmic and stray losses to the reference temperature for the load loss by using equations 4-8 and 4-9, respectively, as follows:

(e) Add the ohmic and stray losses, corrected to the reference temperature, to give the load loss, Plc2, at the reference temperature, by using equation 4-10 as follows:

(f) The symbols in this section (4.5.3.3) have the following meanings:

Ilm(p) is the primary current in amperes,

Ilm(s) is the secondary current in amperes,

Pe is the ohmic loss in the transformer in watts at the temperature Tlm,

Pe(p) is the ohmic loss in watts in the primary winding at the temperature Tlm,

Pe(s) is the ohmic loss in watts in the secondary winding at the temperature Tlm,

Per is the ohmic loss in watts corrected to the reference temperature,

Plc1 is the measured load loss in watts, corrected for phase angle error, at the temperature Tlm,

Plc2 is the load loss at the reference temperature,

Ps is the stray loss in watts at the temperature Tlm,

Psr is the stray loss in watts corrected to the reference temperature,

Rdc(p) is the measured dc primary winding resistance in ohms,

Rdc(s) is the measured dc secondary winding resistance in ohms,

Tk is the critical temperature in degrees Celsius for the material of the transformer windings. Where copper is used in both primary and secondary windings, Tk is 234.5 °C; where aluminum is used in both primary and secondary windings, Tk is 225 °C; where both copper and aluminum are used in the same transformer, the value of 229 °C is used for Tk,

Tk(p) is the critical temperature in degrees Celsius for the material of the primary winding: 234.5 °C if copper and 225 °C if aluminum,

Tk(s) is the critical temperature in degrees Celsius for the material of the secondary winding: 234.5 °C if copper and 225 °C if aluminum,

Tlm is the temperature in degrees Celsius at which the load loss is measured,

Tlr is the reference temperature for the load loss in degrees Celsius,

Tdc is the temperature in degrees Celsius at which the resistance values are measured, and

N1/N2 is the ratio of the number of turns in the primary winding (N1) to the number of turns in the secondary winding (N2); for a primary winding with taps, N1 is the number of turns used when the voltage applied to the primary winding is the rated primary voltage.

5.0 Determining the Efficiency Value of the Transformer

This section presents the equations to use in determining the efficiency value of the transformer at the required reference conditions and at the specified loading level. The details of measurements are described in sections 3.0 and 4.0. For a transformer that has a configuration of windings which allows for more than one nominal rated voltage, determine its efficiency either at the voltage at which the highest losses occur or at each voltage at which the transformer is rated to operate.

5.1 Output Loading Level Adjustment.

If the output loading level for energy efficiency is different from the level at which the load loss power measurements were made, then adjust the corrected load loss power, Plc2, by using equation 5-1 as follows:

Where:

Plc is the adjusted load loss power to the specified energy efficiency load level,

Plc2 is as calculated in section 4.5.3.3,

Por is the rated transformer apparent power (name plate),

Pos is the specified energy efficiency load level, where Pos = PorL, and

L is the per unit load level, e.g., if the load level is 50 percent then “L” will be 0.5.

5.2 Total Loss Power Calculation.

Calculate the corrected total loss power by using equation 5-2 as follows:

Where:

Pts is the corrected total loss power adjusted for the transformer output loading specified by the standard,

Pnc is as calculated in section 4.4.3.3, and

Plc is as calculated in section 5.1.

5.3 Energy Efficiency Calculation.

Calculate efficiency (η) in percent at specified energy efficiency load level, Pos, by using equation 5-3 as follows:

Where:

Pos is as described and calculated in section 5.1, and

Pts is as described and calculated in section 5.2.

5.4 Significant Figures in Power Loss and Efficiency Data.

In measured and calculated data, retain enough significant figures to provide at least 1 percent resolution in power loss data and 0.01 percent resolution in efficiency data.

6.0 Test Equipment Calibration and Certification

Maintain and calibrate test equipment and measuring instruments, maintain calibration records, and perform other test and measurement quality assurance procedures according to the following sections. The calibration of the test set must confirm the accuracy of the test set to that specified in section 2.0, Table 2.1.

6.1 Test Equipment.

The party performing the tests shall control, calibrate and maintain measuring and test equipment, whether or not it owns the equipment, has the equipment on loan, or the equipment is provided by another party. Equipment shall be used in a manner which assures that measurement uncertainty is known and is consistent with the required measurement capability.

6.2 Calibration and Certification.

The party performing the tests must:

(a) Identify the measurements to be made, the accuracy required (section 2.0) and select the appropriate measurement and test equipment;

(b) At prescribed intervals, or prior to use, identify, check and calibrate, if needed, all measuring and test equipment systems or devices that affect test accuracy, against certified equipment having a known valid relationship to nationally recognized standards; where no such standards exist, the basis used for calibration must be documented;

(c) Establish, document and maintain calibration procedures, including details of equipment type, identification number, location, frequency of checks, check method, acceptance criteria and action to be taken when results are unsatisfactory;

(d) Ensure that the measuring and test equipment is capable of the accuracy and precision necessary, taking into account the voltage, current and power factor of the transformer under test;

(e) Identify measuring and test equipment with a suitable indicator or approved identification record to show the calibration status;

(f) Maintain calibration records for measuring and test equipment;

(g) Assess and document the validity of previous test results when measuring and test equipment is found to be out of calibration;

(h) Ensure that the environmental conditions are suitable for the calibrations, measurements and tests being carried out;

(i) Ensure that the handling, preservation and storage of measuring and test equipment is such that the accuracy and fitness for use is maintained; and

(j) Safeguard measuring and test facilities, including both test hardware and test software, from adjustments which would invalidate the calibration setting.

[71 FR 24999, Apr. 27, 2006; 71 FR 60662, Oct. 16, 2006]

Subpart L - Illuminated Exit Signs
Source:

70 FR 60417, Oct. 18, 2005, unless otherwise noted.

§ 431.201 Purpose and scope.

This subpart contains energy conservation requirements for illuminated exit signs, pursuant to Part B of Title III of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act, as amended, 42 U.S.C. 6291-6309.

§ 431.202 Definitions concerning illuminated exit signs.

Basic model means all units of a given type of covered product (or class thereof) manufactured by one manufacturer, having the same primary energy source, and which have essentially identical electrical, physical, and functional (or hydraulic) characteristics that affect energy consumption, energy efficiency, water consumption, or water efficiency.

Face means an illuminated side of an illuminated exit sign.

Illuminated exit sign means a sign that -

(1) Is designed to be permanently fixed in place to identify an exit; and

(2) Consists of an electrically powered integral light source that -

(i) Illuminates the legend “EXIT” and any directional indicators; and

(ii) Provides contrast between the legend, any directional indicators, and the background.

Input power demand means the amount of power required to continuously illuminate an exit sign model, measured in watts (W). For exit sign models with rechargeable batteries, input power demand shall be measured with batteries at full charge.

[70 FR 60417, Oct. 18, 2005, as amended at 71 FR 71372, Dec. 8, 2006; 76 FR 12504, Mar. 7, 2011]

Test Procedures
§ 431.203 Materials incorporated by reference.

(a) General. The Department incorporates by reference the following test procedures into subpart L of part 431. The Director of the Federal Register has approved the material listed in paragraph (b) of this section for incorporation by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Any subsequent amendment to this material by the standard-setting organization will not affect the DOE test procedures unless and until DOE amends its test procedures. The Department incorporates the material as it exists on the date of the approval by the Federal Register and a notice of any change in the material will be published in the Federal Register.

(b) Test procedure incorporated by reference. Environmental Protection Agency “ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Exit Signs,” Version 2.0 issued January 1, 1999.

(c) Availability of reference -

(1) Inspection of test procedure. The test procedure incorporated by reference are available for inspection at:

(i) National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of this material at NARA, call (202) 741-6030, or go to: http://www.archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html.

(ii) U.S. Department of Energy, Forrestal Building, Room 1J-018 (Resource Room of the Building Technologies Program), 1000 Independence Avenue, SW., Washington, DC 20585-0121, (202) 586-9127, between 9 a.m. and 4 p.m., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays.

(2) Obtaining copies of the standard. Copies of the Environmental Protection Agency “ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Exit Signs,” Version 2.0, may be obtained from the Environmental Protection Agency, Ariel Rios Building, 1200 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW., Washington, DC 20460, (202) 272-0167 or athttp://www.epa.gov.

[71 FR 71373, Dec. 8, 2006]

§ 431.204 Uniform test method for the measurement of energy consumption of illuminated exit signs.

(a) Scope. This section provides the test procedure for measuring, pursuant to EPCA, the input power demand of illuminated exit signs. For purposes of this part 431 and EPCA, the test procedure for measuring the input power demand of illuminated exit signs shall be the test procedure specified in § 431.203(b).

(b) Testing and Calculations. Determine the energy efficiency of each covered product by conducting the test procedure, set forth in the Environmental Protection Agency's “ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Exit Signs,” Version 2.0, section 4 (Test Criteria), “Conditions for testing” and “Input power measurement.” (Incorporated by reference, see § 431.203)

[71 FR 71373, Dec. 8, 2006]

Energy Conservation Standards
§ 431.206 Energy conservation standards and their effective dates.

An illuminated exit sign manufactured on or after January 1, 2006, shall have an input power demand of 5 watts or less per face.

Subpart M - Traffic Signal Modules and Pedestrian Modules
Source:

70 FR 60417, Oct. 18, 2005, unless otherwise noted.

§ 431.221 Purpose and scope.

This subpart contains energy conservation requirements for traffic signal modules and pedestrian modules, pursuant to Part B of Title III of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act, as amended, 42 U.S.C. 6291-6309.

§ 431.222 Definitions concerning traffic signal modules and pedestrian modules.

Basic model means all units of a given type of covered product (or class thereof) manufactured by one manufacturer, having the same primary energy source, and which have essentially identical electrical, physical, and functional (or hydraulic) characteristics that affect energy consumption, energy efficiency, water consumption, or water efficiency.

Maximum wattage means the power consumed by the module after being operated for 60 minutes while mounted in a temperature testing chamber so that the lensed portion of the module is outside the chamber, all portions of the module behind the lens are within the chamber at a temperature of 74 °C and the air temperature in front of the lens is maintained at a minimum of 49 °C.

Nominal wattage means the power consumed by the module when it is operated within a chamber at a temperature of 25 °C after the signal has been operated for 60 minutes.

Pedestrian module means a light signal used to convey movement information to pedestrians.

Traffic signal module means a standard 8-inch (200 mm) or 12-inch (300 mm) traffic signal indication that -

(1) Consists of a light source, a lens, and all other parts necessary for operation; and

(2) Communicates movement messages to drivers through red, amber, and green colors.

[70 FR 60417, Oct. 18, 2005, as amended at 71 FR 71373, Dec. 8, 2006; 76 FR 12504, Mar. 7, 2011]

Test Procedures
§ 431.223 Materials incorporated by reference.

(a) General. The Department incorporates by reference the following test procedures into subpart M of part 431. The Director of the Federal Register has approved the material listed in paragraph (b) of this section for incorporation by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Any subsequent amendment to this material by the standard-setting organization will not affect the DOE test procedures unless and until DOE amends its test procedures. The Department incorporates the material as it exists on the date of the approval by the Federal Register and a notice of any change in the material will be published in the Federal Register.

(b) List of test procedures incorporated by reference.

(1) Environmental Protection Agency, “ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Traffic Signals,” Version 1.1 issued February 4, 2003.

(2) Institute of Transportation Engineers (ITE), “Vehicle Traffic Control Signal Heads: Light Emitting Diode (LED) Circular Signal Supplement,” June 27, 2005.

(c) Availability of references -

(1) Inspection of test procedures. The test procedures incorporated by reference are available for inspection at:

(i) National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of this material at NARA, call (202) 741-6030, or go to: http://www.archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html.

(ii) U.S. Department of Energy, Forrestal Building, Room 1J-018 (Resource Room of the Building Technologies Program), 1000 Independence Avenue, SW., Washington, DC 20585-0121, (202) 586-9127, between 9 a.m. and 4 p.m., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays.

(2) Obtaining copies of standards. Standards incorporated by reference may be obtained from the following sources:

(i) Copies of the Environmental Protection Agency “ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Traffic Signals,” Version 1.1, may be obtained from the Environmental Protection Agency, Ariel Rios Building, 1200 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW., Washington, DC 20460, (202) 272-0167 or at http://www.epa.gov.

(ii) Institute of Transportation Engineers, 1099 14th Street, NW., Suite 300 West, Washington, DC 20005-3438, (202) 289-0222, or .

[71 FR 71373, Dec. 8, 2006]

§ 431.224 Uniform test method for the measurement of energy consumption for traffic signal modules and pedestrian modules.

(a) Scope. This section provides the test procedures for measuring, pursuant to EPCA, the maximum wattage and nominal wattage of traffic signal modules and pedestrian modules. For purposes of 10 CFR part 431 and EPCA, the test procedures for measuring the maximum wattage and nominal wattage of traffic signal modules and pedestrian modules shall be the test procedures specified in § 431.223(b).

(b) Testing and Calculations. Determine the nominal wattage and maximum wattage of each covered traffic signal module or pedestrian module by conducting the test procedure set forth in Environmental Protection Agency, “ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Traffic Signals,” Version 1.1, section 1, “Definitions,” and section 4, “Test Criteria.” (Incorporated by reference, see § 431.223) Use a wattmeter having an accuracy of ±1% to measure the nominal wattage and maximum wattage of a red and green traffic signal module, and a pedestrian module when conducting the photometric and colormetric tests as specified by the testing procedures in VTCSH 2005.

[71 FR 71373, Dec. 8, 2006]

Energy Conservation Standards
§ 431.226 Energy conservation standards and their effective dates.

Any traffic signal module or pedestrian module manufactured on or after January 1, 2006, shall meet both of the following requirements:

(a) Have a nominal wattage and maximum wattage no greater than:

Maximum wattage
(at 74 °C)
Nominal
wattage
(at 25 °C)
Traffic Signal Module Type:
12″ Red Ball 17 11
8″ Red Ball 13 8
12″ Red Arrow 12 9
12″ Green Ball 15 15
8″ Green Ball 12 12
12″ Green Arrow 11 11
Pedestrian Module Type:
Combination Walking Man/Hand 16 13
Walking Man 12