(a) Any Food and Drug Administration record that is otherwise exempt from public disclosure pursuant to subpart D of this part is available for public disclosure to the extent that it contains data or information that have previously been disclosed in a lawful manner to any member of the public, other than an employee or consultant or pursuant to other commercial arrangements with appropriate safeguards for secrecy.
(1) For purposes of this section, an individual shall be deemed to be a consultant only if disclosure of the information was necessary in order to perform that specific consulting service and the purpose of the disclosure was solely to obtain that service. The number of consultants who have received such information shall have been limited to the number reasonably needed to perform that particular consulting service.
(2) For purposes of this section, other commercial arrangements shall include licenses, contracts, and similar legal relationships between business associates.
(3) For purposes of this section, data and information disclosed to clinical investigators or members of institutional review committees, whether required by regulations of the Food and Drug Administration, or made voluntarily, if accompanied by appropriate safeguards to assure secrecy and otherwise in accordance with this section, are not deemed to have been previously disclosed to any member of the public within the meaning of paragraph (a) of this section.
(b) Any statement relating to prior public disclosure is subject to the False Reports to the Government Act, 18 U.S.C. 1001.