(1) Each State, in consultation with its LEAs, must implement a system of high-quality, yearly student academic assessments that include, at a minimum, academic assessments in mathematics, reading/language arts, and science.
(i) The State may also measure the achievement of students in other academic subjects in which the State has adopted challenging State academic standards.
(ii) If a State has developed assessments in other subjects for all students, the State must include students participating under this subpart in those assessments.
(b) The assessments required under this section must:
(i) Except as provided in §§ 200.3, 200.5(b), and 200.6(c) and section 1204 of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, as amended by the Every Student Succeeds Act (hereinafter “the Act”), be the same assessments used to measure the achievement of all students; and
(A) Students with status as a migratory child.
(B) Students with status as a homeless child or youth.
(C) Students with status as a child in foster care.
(D) Students with status as a student with a parent who is a member of the armed forces on active duty or serves on full-time National Guard duty;
(i) Be designed to be valid and accessible for use by all students, including students with disabilities and English learners; and
(ii) Be developed, to the extent practicable, using the principles of universal design for learning. For the purposes of this section, “universal design for learning” means a scientifically valid framework for guiding educational practice that -
(A) Provides flexibility in the ways information is presented, in the ways students respond or demonstrate knowledge and skills, and in the ways students are engaged; and
(B) Reduces barriers in instruction, provides appropriate accommodations, supports, and challenges, and maintains high achievement expectations for all students, including students with disabilities and English learners;
(A) Be aligned with challenging academic content standards and aligned academic achievement standards (hereinafter “challenging State academic standards”) as defined in section 1111(b)(1)(A) of the Act; and
(B) Provide coherent and timely information about student attainment of those standards and whether a student is performing at the grade in which the student is enrolled; and
(1) Be aligned with the challenging State academic content standards; and
(2) Address the depth and breadth of those standards; and
(1) Measure student performance based on challenging State academic achievement standards that are aligned with entrance requirements for credit-bearing coursework in the system of public higher education in the State and relevant State career and technical education standards consistent with section 1111(b)(1)(D) of the Act; or
(2) With respect to alternate assessments for students with the most significant cognitive disabilities, measure student performance based on alternate academic achievement standards defined by the State consistent with section 1111(b)(1)(E) of the Act that reflect professional judgment as to the highest possible standards achievable by such students to ensure that a student who meets the alternate academic achievement standards is on track to pursue postsecondary education or competitive integrated employment, consistent with the purposes of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, as amended by the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act, as in effect on July 22, 2014;
(i) Be valid, reliable, and fair for the purposes for which the assessments are used; and
(ii) Be consistent with relevant, nationally recognized professional and technical testing standards;
(5) Be supported by evidence that -
(i) The assessments are of adequate technical quality -
(A) For each purpose required under the Act; and
(B) Consistent with the requirements of this section; and
(ii) For each assessment administered to meet the requirements of this subpart, is made available to the public, including on the State's Web site;
(6) Be administered in accordance with the frequency described in § 200.5(a);
(7) Involve multiple up-to-date measures of student academic achievement, including measures that assess higher-order thinking skills - such as critical thinking, reasoning, analysis, complex problem solving, effective communication, and understanding of challenging content - as defined by the State. These measures may -
(i) Include valid and reliable measures of student academic growth at all achievement levels to help ensure that the assessment results could be used to improve student instruction; and
(ii) Be partially delivered in the form of portfolios, projects, or extended performance tasks;
(8) Objectively measure academic achievement, knowledge, and skills without evaluating or assessing personal or family beliefs and attitudes, except that this provision does not preclude the use of -
(i) Constructed-response, short answer, or essay questions; or
(ii) Items that require a student to analyze a passage of text or to express opinions;
(10) At the State's discretion, be administered through -
(i) A single summative assessment; or
(ii) Multiple statewide interim assessments during the course of the academic year that result in a single summative score that provides valid, reliable, and transparent information on student achievement and, at the State's discretion, student growth, consistent with paragraph (b)(4) of this section;
(i) Consistent with sections 1111(b)(2)(B)(xi) and 1111(h)(1)(C)(ii) of the Act, enable results to be disaggregated within each State, LEA, and school by -
(B) Each major racial and ethnic group;
(C) Status as an English learner as defined in section 8101(20) of the Act;
(D) Status as a migratory child as defined in section 1309(3) of the Act;
(E) Children with disabilities as defined in section 602(3) of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) as compared to all other students;
(F) Economically disadvantaged students as compared to students who are not economically disadvantaged;
(G) Status as a homeless child or youth as defined in section 725(2) of title VII, subtitle B of the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act, as amended;
(H) Status as a child in foster care. “Foster care” means 24-hour substitute care for children placed away from their parents and for whom the agency under title IV-E of the Social Security Act has placement and care responsibility. This includes, but is not limited to, placements in foster family homes, foster homes of relatives, group homes, emergency shelters, residential facilities, child care institutions, and preadoptive homes. A child is in foster care in accordance with this definition regardless of whether the foster care facility is licensed and payments are made by the State, tribal, or local agency for the care of the child, whether adoption subsidy payments are being made prior to the finalization of an adoption, or whether there is Federal matching of any payments that are made; and
(ii) Disaggregation is not required in the case of a State, LEA, or school in which the number of students in a subgroup is insufficient to yield statistically reliable information or the results would reveal personally identifiable information about an individual student.
(12) Produce individual student reports consistent with § 200.8(a); and
(13) Enable itemized score analyses to be produced and reported to LEAs and schools consistent with § 200.8(b).
(1) At its discretion, a State may administer the assessments required under this section in the form of computer-adaptive assessments if such assessments meet the requirements of section 1111(b)(2)(J) of the Act and this section. A computer-adaptive assessment -
(i) Must, except as provided in § 200.6(c)(7)(iii), measure a student's academic proficiency based on the challenging State academic standards for the grade in which the student is enrolled and growth toward those standards; and
(ii) May measure a student's academic proficiency and growth using items above or below the student's grade level.
(2) If a State administers a computer-adaptive assessment, the determination under paragraph (b)(3)(i)(B) of this section of a student's academic proficiency for the grade in which the student is enrolled must be reported on all reports required by § 200.8 and section 1111(h) of the Act.
(d) A State must submit evidence for peer review under section 1111(a)(4) of the Act that its assessments under this section and §§ 200.3, 200.4, 200.5(b), 200.6(c), 200.6(f), 200.6(h), and 200.6(j) meet all applicable requirements.
(e) Information provided to parents under section 1111(b)(2) of the Act must -
(1) Be in an understandable and uniform format;
(2) Be, to the extent practicable, written in a language that parents can understand or, if it is not practicable to provide written translations to a parent with limited English proficiency, be orally translated for such parent; and
(3) Be, upon request by a parent who is an individual with a disability as defined by the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), as amended, provided in an alternative format accessible to that parent.
(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 1810-0576)
[81 FR 88931, Dec. 8, 2016]