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Title 40

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Title 40

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Editorial codification of the general and permanent rules published in the Federal Register.

PART 264 - STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES
Authority:

42 U.S.C. 6905, 6912(a), 6924, 6925, and 6939g.

Source:

45 FR 33221, May 19, 1980, unless otherwise noted.

Subpart A - General
§ 264.1 Purpose, scope and applicability.

(a) The purpose of this part is to establish minimum national standards which define the acceptable management of hazardous waste.

(b) The standards in this part apply to owners and operators of all facilities which treat, store, or dispose of hazardous waste, except as specifically provided otherwise in this part or part 261 of this chapter.

(c) The requirements of this part apply to a person disposing of hazardous waste by means of ocean disposal subject to a permit issued under the Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act only to the extent they are included in a RCRA permit by rule granted to such a person under part 270 of this chapter.

[Comment: These part 264 regulations do apply to the treatment or storage of hazardous waste before it is loaded onto an ocean vessel for incineration or disposal at sea.]

(d) The requirements of this part apply to a person disposing of hazardous waste by means of underground injection subject to a permit issued under an Underground Injection Control (UIC) program approved or promulgated under the Safe Drinking Water Act only to the extent they are required by § 144.14 of this chapter.

[Comment: These part 264 regulations do apply to the above-ground treatment or storage of hazardous waste before it is injected underground.]

(e) The requirements of this part apply to the owner or operator of a POTW which treats, stores, or disposes of hazardous waste only to the extent they are included in a RCRA permit by rule granted to such a person under part 270 of this chapter.

(f) The requirements of this part do not apply to a person who treats, stores, or disposes of hazardous waste in a State with a RCRA hazardous waste program authorized under subpart A of part 271 of this chapter, or in a State authorized under subpart B of part 271 of this chapter for the component or components of Phase II interim authorization which correspond to the person's treatment, storage or disposal processes; except that this part will apply:

(1) As stated in paragraph (d) of this section, if the authorized State RCRA program does not cover disposal of hazardous waste by means of underground injection; and

(2) To a person who treats, stores or disposes of hazardous waste in a State authorized under subpart A of part 271 of this chapter, at a facility which was not covered by standards under this part when the State obtained authorization, and for which EPA promulgates standards under this part after the State is authorized. This paragraph will only apply until the State is authorized to permit such facilities under subpart A of part 271 of this chapter.

(3) To a person who treats, stores, or disposes of hazardous waste in a State which is authorized under subpart A or B of part 271 of this chapter if the State has not been authorized to carry out the requirements and prohibitions applicable to the treatment, storage, or disposal of hazardous waste at his facility which are imposed pursuant to the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984. The requirements and prohibitions that are applicable until a State receives authorization to carry them out include all Federal program requirements identified in § 271.1(j).

(g) The requirements of this part do not apply to:

(1) The owner or operator of a facility permitted, licensed, or registered by a state to manage municipal or industrial solid waste, if the only hazardous waste the facility treats, stores, or disposes of is excluded from regulation under this part by § 262.14 of this chapter;

(2) The owner or operator of a facility managing recyclable materials described in § 261.6 (a)(2), (3), and (4) of this chapter (except to the extent they are referred to in part 279 or subparts C, F, G, or H of part 266 of this chapter).

(3) A generator accumulating waste on site in compliance with §§ 262.14, 262.15, 262.16, or 262.17 of this chapter.

(4) A farmer disposing of waste pesticides from his own use in compliance with § 262.70 of this chapter; or

(5) The owner or operator of a totally enclosed treatment facility, as defined in § 260.10.

(6) The owner or operator of an elementary neutralization unit or a wastewater treatment unit as defined in § 260.10 of this chapter, provided that if the owner or operator is diluting hazardous ignitable (D001) wastes (other than the D001 High TOC Subcategory defined in § 268.40 of this chapter, Table Treatment Standards for Hazardous Wastes), or reactive (D003) waste, to remove the characteristic before land disposal, the owner/operator must comply with the requirements set out in § 264.17(b).

(7) [Reserved]

(8)

(i) Except as provided in paragraph (g)(8)(ii) of this section, a person engaged in treatment or containment activities during immediate response to any of the following situations:

(A) A discharge of a hazardous waste;

(B) An imminent and substantial threat of a discharge of hazardous waste;

(C) A discharge of a material which, when discharged, becomes a hazardous waste.

(D) An immediate threat to human health, public safety, property, or the environment, from the known or suspected presence of military munitions, other explosive material, or an explosive device, as determined by an explosive or munitions emergency response specialist as defined in 40 CFR 260.10.

(ii) An owner or operator of a facility otherwise regulated by this part must comply with all applicable requirements of subparts C and D.

(iii) Any person who is covered by paragraph (g)(8)(i) of this section and who continues or initiates hazardous waste treatment or containment activities after the immediate response is over is subject to all applicable requirements of this part and parts 122 through 124 of this chapter for those activities.

(iv) In the case of an explosives or munitions emergency response, if a Federal, State, Tribal or local official acting within the scope of his or her official responsibilities, or an explosives or munitions emergency response specialist, determines that immediate removal of the material or waste is necessary to protect human health or the environment, that official or specialist may authorize the removal of the material or waste by transporters who do not have EPA identification numbers and without the preparation of a manifest. In the case of emergencies involving military munitions, the responding military emergency response specialist's organizational unit must retain records for three years identifying the dates of the response, the responsible persons responding, the type and description of material addressed, and its disposition.

(9) A transporter storing manifested shipments of hazardous waste in containers meeting the requirements of 40 CFR 262.30 at a transfer facility for a period of ten days or less.

(10) The addition of absorbent material to waste in a container (as defined in § 260.10 of this chapter) or the addition of waste to absorbent material in a container, provided that these actions occur at the time waste is first placed in the container; and §§ 264.17(b), 264.171, and 264.172 are complied with.

(11) Universal waste handlers and universal waste transporters (as defined in 40 CFR 260.10) handling the wastes listed below. These handlers are subject to regulation under 40 CFR part 273, when handling the below listed universal wastes.

(i) Batteries as described in 40 CFR 273.2;

(ii) Pesticides as described in § 273.3 of this chapter;

(iii) Mercury-containing equipment as described in § 273.4 of this chapter;

(iv) Lamps as described in § 273.5 of this chapter; and

(v) Aerosol cans as described in § 273.6 of this chapter.

(12) A New York State Utility central collection facility consolidating hazardous waste in accordance with 40 CFR 262.90.

(13) Reverse distributors accumulating potentially creditable hazardous waste pharmaceuticals and evaluated hazardous waste pharmaceuticals, as defined in § 266.500. Reverse distributors are subject to regulation under 40 CFR part 266 subpart P in lieu of this part for the accumulation of potentially creditable hazardous waste pharmaceuticals and evaluated hazardous waste pharmaceuticals.

(h) The requirements of this part apply to owners or operators of all facilities which treat, store, or dispose of hazardous wastes referred to in part 268.

(i) Section 266.205 of this chapter identifies when the requirements of this part apply to the storage of military munitions classified as solid waste under § 266.202 of this chapter. The treatment and disposal of hazardous waste military munitions are subject to the applicable permitting, procedural, and technical standards in 40 CFR parts 260 through 270.

(j) The requirements of subparts B, C, and D of this part and § 264.101 do not apply to remediation waste management sites. (However, some remediation waste management sites may be a part of a facility that is subject to a traditional RCRA permit because the facility is also treating, storing or disposing of hazardous wastes that are not remediation wastes. In these cases, Subparts B, C, and D of this part, and § 264.101 do apply to the facility subject to the traditional RCRA permit.) Instead of the requirements of subparts B, C, and D of this part, owners or operators of remediation waste management sites must:

(1) Obtain an EPA identification number by applying to the Administrator using EPA Form 8700-12;

(2) Obtain a detailed chemical and physical analysis of a representative sample of the hazardous remediation wastes to be managed at the site. At a minimum, the analysis must contain all of the information which must be known to treat, store or dispose of the waste according to this part and part 268 of this chapter, and must be kept accurate and up to date;

(3) Prevent people who are unaware of the danger from entering, and minimize the possibility for unauthorized people or livestock to enter onto the active portion of the remediation waste management site, unless the owner or operator can demonstrate to the Director that:

(i) Physical contact with the waste, structures, or equipment within the active portion of the remediation waste management site will not injure people or livestock who may enter the active portion of the remediation waste management site; and

(ii) Disturbance of the waste or equipment by people or livestock who enter onto the active portion of the remediation waste management site, will not cause a violation of the requirements of this part;

(4) Inspect the remediation waste management site for malfunctions, deterioration, operator errors, and discharges that may be causing, or may lead to, a release of hazardous waste constituents to the environment, or a threat to human health. The owner or operator must conduct these inspections often enough to identify problems in time to correct them before they harm human health or the environment, and must remedy the problem before it leads to a human health or environmental hazard. Where a hazard is imminent or has already occurred, the owner/operator must take remedial action immediately;

(5) Provide personnel with classroom or on-the-job training on how to perform their duties in a way that ensures the remediation waste management site complies with the requirements of this part, and on how to respond effectively to emergencies;

(6) Take precautions to prevent accidental ignition or reaction of ignitable or reactive waste, and prevent threats to human health and the environment from ignitable, reactive and incompatible waste;

(7) For remediation waste management sites subject to regulation under subparts I through O and subpart X of this part, the owner/operator must design, construct, operate, and maintain a unit within a 100-year floodplain to prevent washout of any hazardous waste by a 100-year flood, unless the owner/operator can meet the demonstration of § 264.18(b);

(8) Not place any non-containerized or bulk liquid hazardous waste in any salt dome formation, salt bed formation, underground mine or cave;

(9) Develop and maintain a construction quality assurance program for all surface impoundments, waste piles and landfill units that are required to comply with §§ 264.221(c) and (d), 264.251(c) and (d), and 264.301(c) and (d) at the remediation waste management site, according to the requirements of § 264.19;

(10) Develop and maintain procedures to prevent accidents and a contingency and emergency plan to control accidents that occur. These procedures must address proper design, construction, maintenance, and operation of remediation waste management units at the site. The goal of the plan must be to minimize the possibility of, and the hazards from a fire, explosion, or any unplanned sudden or non-sudden release of hazardous waste or hazardous waste constituents to air, soil, or surface water that could threaten human health or the environment. The plan must explain specifically how to treat, store and dispose of the hazardous remediation waste in question, and must be implemented immediately whenever a fire, explosion, or release of hazardous waste or hazardous waste constituents which could threaten human health or the environment;

(11) Designate at least one employee, either on the facility premises or on call (that is, available to respond to an emergency by reaching the facility quickly), to coordinate all emergency response measures. This emergency coordinator must be thoroughly familiar with all aspects of the facility's contingency plan, all operations and activities at the facility, the location and characteristics of waste handled, the location of all records within the facility, and the facility layout. In addition, this person must have the authority to commit the resources needed to carry out the contingency plan;

(12) Develop, maintain and implement a plan to meet the requirements in paragraphs (j)(2) through (j)(6) and (j)(9) through (j)(10) of this section; and

(13) Maintain records documenting compliance with paragraphs (j)(1) through (j)(12) of this section.

[45 FR 33221, May 19, 1980]

§ 264.2 [Reserved]
§ 264.3 Relationship to interim status standards.

A facility owner or operator who has fully complied with the requirements for interim status - as defined in section 3005(e) of RCRA and regulations under § 270.70 of this chapter - must comply with the regulations specified in part 265 of this chapter in lieu of the regulations in this part, until final administrative disposition of his permit application is made, except as provided under 40 CFR part 264 subpart S.

[Comment: As stated in section 3005(a) of RCRA, after the effective date of regulations under that section, i.e., parts 270 and 124 of this chapter, the treatment, storage, or disposal of hazardous waste is prohibited except in accordance with a permit. Section 3005(e) of RCRA provides for the continued operation of an existing facility which meets certain conditions until final administrative disposition of the owner's or operator's permit application is made.]

[45 FR 33221, May 19, 1980, as amended at 48 FR 14294, Apr. 1, 1983; 58 FR 8683, Feb. 16, 1993]

§ 264.4 Imminent hazard action.

Notwithstanding any other provisions of these regulations, enforcement actions may be brought pursuant to section 7003 of RCRA.

[45 FR 33221, May 19, 1980, as amended at 71 FR 40272, July 14, 2006]

Subpart B - General Facility Standards
§ 264.10 Applicability.

(a) The regulations in this subpart apply to owners and operators of all hazardous waste facilities, except as provided in § 264.1 and in paragraph (b) of this section.

(b) Section 264.18(b) applies only to facilities subject to regulation under subparts I through O and subpart X of this part.

[46 FR 2848, Jan. 12, 1981, as amended at 52 FR 46963, Dec. 10, 1987]

§ 264.11 Identification number.

Every facility owner or operator must apply to EPA for an EPA identification number in accordance with the EPA notification procedures (45 FR 12746).

[45 FR 33221, May 19, 1980, as amended at 50 FR 4514, Jan. 31, 1985]

§ 264.12 Required notices.

(a) The owner or operator of a facility that is arranging or has arranged to receive hazardous waste subject to 40 CFR part 262, subpart H from a foreign source must submit the following required notices:

(1) As per 40 CFR 262.84(b), for imports where the competent authority of the country of export does not require the foreign exporter to submit to it a notification proposing export and obtain consent from EPA and the competent authorities for the countries of transit, such owner or operator of the facility, if acting as the importer, must provide notification of the proposed transboundary movement in English to EPA using the allowable methods listed in 40 CFR 262.84(b)(1) at least 60 days before the first shipment is expected to depart the country of export. The notification may cover up to one year of shipments of wastes having similar physical and chemical characteristics, the same United Nations classification, the same RCRA waste codes and OECD waste codes, and being sent from the same foreign exporter.

(2) As per 40 CFR 262.84(d)(2)(xv), a copy of the movement document bearing all required signatures within three (3) working days of receipt of the shipment to the foreign exporter; to the competent authorities of the countries of export and transit that control the shipment as an export and transit shipment of hazardous waste respectively; and on or after the electronic import-export reporting compliance date, to EPA electronically using EPA's Waste Import Export Tracking System (WIETS), or its successor system. The original of the signed movement document must be maintained at the facility for at least three (3) years. The owner or operator of a facility may satisfy this recordkeeping requirement by retaining electronically submitted documents in the facility's account on EPA's Waste Import Export Tracking System (WIETS), or its successor system, provided that copies are readily available for viewing and production if requested by any EPA or authorized state inspector. No owner or operator of a facility may be held liable for the inability to produce the documents for inspection under this section if the owner or operator of a facility can demonstrate that the inability to produce the document is due exclusively to technical difficulty with EPA's Waste Import Export Tracking System (WIETS), or its successor system for which the owner or operator of a facility bears no responsibility.

(3) As per 40 CFR 262.84(f)(4), if the facility has physical control of the waste and it must be sent to an alternate facility or returned to the country of export, such owner or operator of the facility must inform EPA, using the allowable methods listed in 40 CFR 262.84(b)(1) of the need to return or arrange alternate management of the shipment.

(4) As per 40 CFR 262.84(g), such owner or operator shall:

(i) Send copies of the signed and dated confirmation of recovery or disposal, as soon as possible, but no later than thirty days after completing recovery or disposal on the waste in the shipment and no later than one calendar year following receipt of the waste, to the foreign exporter, to the competent authority of the country of export that controls the shipment as an export of hazardous waste, and for shipments recycled or disposed of on or after the electronic import-export reporting compliance date, to EPA electronically using EPA's Waste Import Export Tracking System (WIETS), or its successor system.

(ii) If the facility performed any of recovery operations R12, R13, or RC16, or disposal operations D13 through D15, or DC17, promptly send copies of the confirmation of recovery or disposal that it receives from the final recovery or disposal facility within one year of shipment delivery to the final recovery or disposal facility that performed one of recovery operations R1 through R11, or RC16, or one of disposal operations D1 through D12, or DC15 to DC16, to the competent authority of the country of export that controls the shipment as an export of hazardous waste, and on or after the electronic import-export reporting compliance date, to EPA electronically using EPA's Waste Import Export Tracking System (WIETS), or its successor system. The recovery and disposal operations in this paragraph are defined in 40 CFR 262.81.

(b) The owner or operator of a facility that receives hazardous waste from an off-site source (except where the owner or operator is also the generator) must inform the generator in writing that he has the appropriate permit(s) for, and will accept, the waste the generator is shipping. The owner or operator must keep a copy of this written notice as part of the operating record.

(c) Before transferring ownership or operation of a facility during its operating life, or of a disposal facility during the post-closure care period, the owner or operator must notify the new owner or operator in writing of the requirements of this part and part 270 of this chapter.

[Comment: An owner's or operator's failure to notify the new owner or operator of the requirements of this part in no way relieves the new owner or operator of his obligation to comply with all applicable requirements.]

[45 FR 33221, May 19, 1980, as amended at 48 FR 14294, Apr. 1, 1983; 50 FR 4514, Jan. 31, 1985; 61 FR 16315, Apr. 12, 1996; 75 FR 1260, Jan. 8, 2010; 81 FR 85725, Nov. 28, 2016]

§ 264.13 General waste analysis.

(a)

(1) Before an owner or operator treats, stores, or disposes of any hazardous wastes, or nonhazardous wastes if applicable under § 264.113(d), he must obtain a detailed chemical and physical analysis of a representative sample of the wastes. At a minimum, the analysis must contain all the information which must be known to treat, store, or dispose of the waste in accordance with this part and part 268 of this chapter.

(2) The analysis may include data developed under part 261 of this chapter, and existing published or documented data on the hazardous waste or on hazardous waste generated from similar processes.

[1: For example, the facility's records of analyses performed on the waste before the effective date of these regulations, or studies conducted on hazardous waste generated from processes similar to that which generated the waste to be managed at the facility, may be included in the data base required to comply with paragraph (a)(1) of this section. The owner or operator of an off-site facility may arrange for the generator of the hazardous waste to supply part of the information required by paragraph (a)(1) of this section, except as otherwise specified in 40 CFR 268.7 (b) and (c). If the generator does not supply the information, and the owner or operator chooses to accept a hazardous waste, the owner or operator is responsible for obtaining the information required to comply with this section.]

(3) The analysis must be repeated as necessary to ensure that it is accurate and up to date. At a minimum, the analysis must be repeated:

(i) When the owner or operator is notified, or has reason to believe, that the process or operation generating the hazardous wastes, or non-hazardous wastes if applicable under § 264.113(d), has changed; and

(ii) For off-site facilities, when the results of the inspection required in paragraph (a)(4) of this section indicate that the hazardous waste received at the facility does not match the waste designated on the accompanying manifest or shipping paper.

(4) The owner or operator of an off-site facility must inspect and, if necessary, analyze each hazardous waste movement received at the facility to determine whether it matches the identity of the waste specified on the accompanying manifest or shipping paper.

(b) The owner or operator must develop and follow a written waste analysis plan which describes the procedures which he will carry out to comply with paragraph (a) of this section. He must keep this plan at the facility. At a minimum, the plan must specify:

(1) The parameters for which each hazardous waste, or non-hazardous waste if applicable under § 264.113(d), will be analyzed and the rationale for the selection of these parameters (i.e., how analysis for these parameters will provide sufficient information on the waste's properties to comply with paragraph (a) of this section);

(2) The test methods which will be used to test for these parameters;

(3) The sampling method which will be used to obtain a representative sample of the waste to be analyzed. A representative sample may be obtained using either:

(i) One of the sampling methods described in appendix I of part 261 of this chapter; or

(ii) An equivalent sampling method.

[Comment: See § 260.21 of this chapter for related discussion.]

(4) The frequency with which the initial analysis of the waste will be reviewed or repeated to ensure that the analysis is accurate and up to date; and

(5) For off-site facilities, the waste analyses that hazardous waste generators have agreed to supply.

(6) Where applicable, the methods that will be used to meet the additional waste analysis requirements for specific waste management methods as specified in §§ 264.17, 264.314, 264.341, 264.1034(d), 264.1063(d), 264.1083, and 268.7 of this chapter.

(7) For surface impoundments exempted from land disposal restrictions under § 268.4(a), the procedures and schedules for:

(i) The sampling of impoundment contents;

(ii) The analysis of test data; and,

(iii) The annual removal of residues which are not delisted under § 260.22 of this chapter or which exhibit a characteristic of hazardous waste and either:

(A) Do not meet applicable treatment standards of part 268, subpart D; or

(B) Where no treatment standards have been established:

(1) Such residues are prohibited from land disposal under § 268.32 or RCRA section 3004(d); or

(2) Such residues are prohibited from land disposal under § 268.33(f).

(8) For owners and operators seeking an exemption to the air emission standards of subpart CC in accordance with § 264.1082 -

(i) If direct measurement is used for the waste determination, the procedures and schedules for waste sampling and analysis, and the results of the analysis of test data to verify the exemption.

(ii) If knowledge of the waste is used for the waste determination, any information prepared by the facility owner or operator or by the generator of the hazardous waste, if the waste is received from off-site, that is used as the basis for knowledge of the waste.

(c) For off-site facilities, the waste analysis plan required in paragraph (b) of this section must also specify the procedures which will be used to in-spect and, if necessary, analyze each movement of hazardous waste received at the facility to ensure that it matches the identity of the waste designated on the accompanying manifest or shipping paper. At a minimum, the plan must describe:

(1) The procedures which will be used to determine the identity of each movement of waste managed at the facility; and

(2) The sampling method which will be used to obtain a representative sample of the waste to be identified, if the identification method includes sampling.

(3) The procedures that the owner or operator of an off-site landfill receiving containerized hazardous waste will use to determine whether a hazardous waste generator or treater has added a biodegradable sorbent to the waste in the container.

[Comment: Part 270 of this chapter requires that the waste analysis plan be submitted with part B of the permit application.]

[45 FR 33221, May 19, 1980, as amended at 46 FR 2848, Jan. 12, 1981; 50 FR 4514, Jan. 31, 1985; 51 FR 40637, Nov. 7, 1986; 53 FR 31211, Aug. 17, 1988; 54 FR 33394, Aug. 14, 1989; 55 FR 22685, June 1, 1990; 55 FR 25494, June 21, 1990; 57 FR 8088, Mar. 6, 1992; 57 FR 54460, Nov. 18, 1992; 59 FR 62926, Dec. 6, 1994; 61 FR 4911, Feb. 9, 1996; 71 FR 40272, July 14, 2006]

§ 264.14 Security.

(a) The owner or operator must prevent the unknowing entry, and minimize the possibility for the unauthorized entry, of persons or livestock onto the active portion of his facility, unless he can demonstrate to the Regional Administrator that:

(1) Physical contact with the waste, structures, or equipment within the active portion of the facility will not injure unknowing or unauthorized persons or livestock which may enter the active portion of a facility; and

(2) Disturbance of the waste or equipment, by the unknowing or unauthorized entry of persons or livestock onto the active portion of a facility, will not cause a violation of the requirements of this part.

[Comment: Part 270 of this chapter requires that an owner or operator who wishes to make the demonstration referred to above must do so with part B of the permit application.]

(b) Unless the owner or operator has made a successful demonstration under paragraphs (a) (1) and (2) of this section, a facility must have:

(1) A 24-hour surveillance system (e.g., television monitoring or surveillance by guards or facility personnel) which continuously monitors and controls entry onto the active portion of the facility; or

(2)

(i) An artificial or natural barrier (e.g., a fence in good repair or a fence combined with a cliff), which completely surrounds the active portion of the facility; and

(ii) A means to control entry, at all times, through the gates or other entrances to the active portion of the facility (e.g., an attendant, television monitors, locked entrance, or controlled roadway access to the facility).

[Comment: The requirements of paragraph (b) of this section are satisfied if the facility or plant within which the active portion is located itself has a surveillance system, or a barrier and a means to control entry, which complies with the requirements of paragraph (b) (1) or (2) of this section.]

(c) Unless the owner or operator has made a successful demonstration under paragraphs (a) (1) and (2) of this section, a sign with the legend, “Danger - Unauthorized Personnel Keep Out”, must be posted at each entrance to the active portion of a facility, and at other locations, in sufficient numbers to be seen from any approach to this active portion. The legend must be written in English and in any other language predominant in the area surrounding the facility (e.g., facilities in counties bordering the Canadian province of Quebec must post signs in French; facilities in counties bordering Mexico must post signs in Spanish), and must be legible from a distance of at least 25 feet. Existing signs with a legend other than “Danger - Unauthorized Personnel Keep Out” may be used if the legend on the sign indicates that only authorized personnel are allowed to enter the active portion, and that entry onto the active portion can be dangerous.

[Comment: See § 264.117(b) for discussion of security requirements at disposal facilities during the post-closure care period.]

[45 FR 33221, May 19, 1980, as amended at 46 FR 2848, Jan. 12, 1981; 48 FR 14294, Apr. 1, 1983; 50 FR 4514, Jan. 31, 1985]

§ 264.15 General inspection requirements.

(a) The owner or operator must inspect his facility for malfunctions and deterioration, operator errors, and discharges which may be causing - or may lead to -

(1) release of hazardous waste constituents to the environment or

(2) a threat to human health. The owner or operator must conduct these inspections often enough to identify problems in time to correct them before they harm human health or the environment.

(b)

(1) The owner or operator must develop and follow a written schedule for inspecting monitoring equipment, safety and emergency equipment, security devices, and operating and structural equipment (such as dikes and sump pumps) that are important to preventing, detecting, or responding to environmental or human health hazards.

(2) He must keep this schedule at the facility.

(3) The schedule must identify the types of problems (e.g., malfunctions or deterioration) which are to be looked for during the inspection (e.g., inoperative sump pump, leaking fitting, eroding dike, etc.).

(4) The frequency of inspection may vary for the items on the schedule. However, the frequency should be based on the rate of deterioration of the equipment and the probability of an environmental or human health incident if the deterioration, malfunction, or operator error goes undetected between inspections. Areas subject to spills, such as loading and unloading areas, must be inspected daily when in use. At a minimum, the inspection schedule must include the items and frequencies called for in §§ 264.174, 264.193, 264.195, 264.226, 264.254, 264.278, 264.303, 264.347, 264.602, 264.1033, 264.1052, 264.1053, 264.1058, and 264.1083 through 264.1089, where applicable. Part 270 of this chapter requires the inspection schedule to be submitted with part B of the permit application. EPA will evaluate the schedule along with the rest of the application to ensure that it adequately protects human health and the environment. As part of this review, EPA may modify or amend the schedule as may be necessary.

(5) Performance Track member facilities that choose to reduce their inspection frequency must:

(i) Submit a request for a Class I permit modification with prior approval to the Director. The modification request must identify the facility as a member of the National Environmental Performance Track Program and identify the management units for reduced inspections and the proposed frequency of inspections. The modification request must also specify, in writing, that the reduced inspection frequency will apply for as long as the facility is a Performance Track member facility, and that within seven calendar days of ceasing to be a Performance Track member, the facility will revert to the non-Performance Track inspection frequency. Inspections must be conducted at least once each month.

(ii) Within 60 days, the Director will notify the Performance Track member facility, in writing, if the request is approved, denied, or if an extension to the 60-day deadline is needed. This notice must be placed in the facility's operating record. The Performance Track member facility should consider the application approved if the Director does not: deny the application; or notify the Performance Track member facility of an extension to the 60-day deadline. In these situations, the Performance Track member facility must adhere to the revised inspection schedule outlined in its request for a Class 1 permit modification and keep a copy of the application in the facility's operating record.

(iii) Any Performance Track member facility that discontinues their membership or is terminated from the program must immediately notify the Director of their change in status. The facility must place in its operating record a dated copy of this notification and revert back to the non-Performance Track inspection frequencies within seven calendar days.

(c) The owner or operator must remedy any deterioration or malfunction of equipment or structures which the inspection reveals on a schedule which ensures that the problem does not lead to an environmental or human health hazard. Where a hazard is imminent or has already occurred, remedial action must be taken immediately.

(d) The owner or operator must record inspections in an inspection log or summary. He must keep these records for at least three years from the date of inspection. At a minimum, these records must include the date and time of the inspection, the name of the inspector, a notation of the observations made, and the date and nature of any repairs or other remedial actions.

[45 FR 33221, May 19, 1980, as amended at 48 FR 14294, Apr. 1, 1983; 50 FR 4514, Jan. 31, 1985; 57 FR 3486, Jan. 29, 1992; 59 FR 62926, Dec. 6, 1994; 62 FR 64656, Dec. 8, 1997; 71 FR 16903, Apr. 4, 2006; 81 FR 85826, Nov. 28, 2016]

§ 264.16 Personnel training.

(a)

(1) Facility personnel must successfully complete a program of classroom instruction or on-the-job training that teaches them to perform their duties in a way that ensures the facility's compliance with the requirements of this part. The owner or operator must ensure that this program includes all the elements described in the document required under paragraph (d)(3) of this section.

[Comment: Part 270 of this chapter requires that owners and operators submit with part B of the RCRA permit application, an outline of the training program used (or to be used) at the facility and a brief description of how the training program is designed to meet actual job tasks.]

(2) This program must be directed by a person trained in hazardous waste management procedures, and must include instruction which teaches facility personnel hazardous waste management procedures (including contingency plan implementation) relevant to the positions in which they are employed.

(3) At a minimum, the training program must be designed to ensure that facility personnel are able to respond effectively to emergencies by familiarizing them with emergency procedures, emergency equipment, and emergency systems, including, where applicable:

(i) Procedures for using, inspecting, repairing, and replacing facility emergency and monitoring equipment;

(ii) Key parameters for automatic waste feed cut-off systems;

(iii) Communications or alarm systems;

(iv) Response to fires or explosions;

(v) Response to ground-water contamination incidents; and

(vi) Shutdown of operations.

(4) For facility employees that receive emergency response training pursuant to Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) regulations 29 CFR 1910.120(p)(8) and 1910.120(q), the facility is not required to provide separate emergency response training pursuant to this section, provided that the overall facility training meets all the requirements of this section.

(b) Facility personnel must successfully complete the program required in paragraph (a) of this section within six months after the effective date of these regulations or six months after the date of their employment or assignment to a facility, or to a new position at a facility, whichever is later. Employees hired after the effective date of these regulations must not work in unsupervised positions until they have completed the training requirements of paragraph (a) of this section.

(c) Facility personnel must take part in an annual review of the initial training required in paragraph (a) of this section.

(d) The owner or operator must maintain the following documents and records at the facility:

(1) The job title for each position at the facility related to hazardous waste management, and the name of the employee filling each job;

(2) A written job description for each position listed under paragraph (d)(1) of this section. This description may be consistent in its degree of specificity with descriptions for other similar positions in the same company location or bargaining unit, but must include the requisite skill, education, or other qualifications, and duties of employees assigned to each position;

(3) A written description of the type and amount of both introductory and continuing training that will be given to each person filling a position listed under paragraph (d)(1) of this section;

(4) Records that document that the training or job experience required under paragraphs (a), (b), and (c) of this section has been given to, and completed by, facility personnel.

(e) Training records on current personnel must be kept until closure of the facility; training records on former employees must be kept for at least three years from the date the employee last worked at the facility. Personnel training records may accompany personnel transferred within the same company.

[45 FR 33221, May 19, 1980, as amended at 46 FR 2848, Jan. 12, 1981; 48 FR 14294, Apr. 1, 1983; 50 FR 4514, Jan. 31, 1985; 71 FR 16903, Apr. 4, 2006]

§ 264.17 General requirements for ignitable, reactive, or incompatible wastes.

(a) The owner or operator must take precautions to prevent accidental ignition or reaction of ignitable or reactive waste. This waste must be separated and protected from sources of ignition or reaction including but not limited to: open flames, smoking, cutting and welding, hot surfaces, frictional heat, sparks (static, electrical, or mechanical), spontaneous ignition (e.g., from heat-producing chemical reactions), and radiant heat. While ignitable or reactive waste is being handled, the owner or operator must confine smoking and open flame to specially designated locations. “No Smoking” signs must be conspicuously placed wherever there is a hazard from ignitable or reactive waste.

(b) Where specifically required by other sections of this part, the owner or operator of a facility that treats, stores or disposes ignitable or reactive waste, or mixes incompatible waste or incompatible wastes and other materials, must take precautions to prevent reactions which:

(1) Generate extreme heat or pressure, fire or explosions, or violent reactions;

(2) Produce uncontrolled toxic mists, fumes, dusts, or gases in sufficient quantities to threaten human health or the environment;

(3) Produce uncontrolled flammable fumes or gases in sufficient quantities to pose a risk of fire or explosions;

(4) Damage the structural integrity of the device or facility;

(5) Through other like means threaten human health or the environment.

(c) When required to comply with paragraph (a) or (b) of this section, the owner or operator must document that compliance. This documentation may be based on references to published scientific or engineering literature, data from trial tests (e.g., bench scale or pilot scale tests), waste analyses (as specified in § 264.13), or the results of the treatment of similar wastes by similar treatment processes and under similar operating conditions.

[46 FR 2848, Jan. 12, 1981, as amended at 50 FR 4514, Jan. 31, 1985; 71 FR 40272, July 14, 2006]

§ 264.18 Location standards.

(a) Seismic considerations.

(1) Portions of new facilities where treatment, storage, or disposal of hazardous waste will be conducted must not be located within 61 meters (200 feet) of a fault which has had displacement in Holocene time.

(2) As used in paragraph (a)(1) of this section:

(i) “Fault” means a fracture along which rocks on one side have been displaced with respect to those on the other side.

(ii) “Displacement” means the relative movement of any two sides of a fault measured in any direction.

(iii) “Holocene” means the most recent epoch of the Quaternary period, extending from the end of the Pleistocene to the present.

[Comment: Procedures for demonstrating compliance with this standard in part B of the permit application are specified in § 270.14(b)(11). Facilities which are located in political jurisdictions other than those listed in appendix VI of this part, are assumed to be in compliance with this requirement.]

(b) Floodplains.

(1) A facility located in a 100-year floodplain must be designed, constructed, operated, and maintained to prevent washout or any hazardous waste by a 100-year flood, unless the owner or operator can demonstrate to the Regional Administrator's satisfaction that:

(i) Procedures are in effect which will cause the waste to be removed safely, before flood waters can reach the facility, to a location where the wastes will not be vulnerable to flood waters; or

(ii) For existing surface impoundments, waste piles, land treatment units, landfills, and miscellaneous units, no adverse effects on human health or the environment will result if washout occurs, considering:

(A) The volume and physical and chemical characteristics of the waste in the facility;

(B) The concentration of hazardous constituents that would potentially affect surface waters as a result of washout;

(C) The impact of such concentrations on the current or potential uses of and water quality standards established for the affected surface waters; and

(D) The impact of hazardous constituents on the sediments of affected surface waters or the soils of the 100- year floodplain that could result from washout.

[Comment: The location where wastes are moved must be a facility which is either permitted by EPA under part 270 of this chapter, authorized to manage hazardous waste by a State with a hazardous waste management program authorized under part 271 of this chapter, or in interim status under parts 270 and 265 of this chapter.]

(2) As used in paragraph (b)(1) of this section:

(i) “100-year floodplain” means any land area which is subject to a one percent or greater chance of flooding in any given year from any source.

(ii) “Washout” means the movement of hazardous waste from the active portion of the facility as a result of flooding.

(iii) “100-year flood” means a flood that has a one percent chance of being equalled or exceeded in any given year.

[Comment: (1) Requirements pertaining to other Federal laws which affect the location and permitting of facilities are found in § 270.3 of this chapter. For details relative to these laws, see EPA's manual for SEA (special environmental area) requirements for hazardous waste facility permits. Though EPA is responsible for complying with these requirements, applicants are advised to consider them in planning the location of a facility to help prevent subsequent project delays.]

(c) Salt dome formations, salt bed formations, underground mines and caves. The placement of any noncontainerized or bulk liquid hazardous waste in any salt dome formation, salt bed formation, underground mine or cave is prohibited, except for the Department of Energy Waste Isolation Pilot Project in New Mexico.

[46 FR 2848, Jan. 12, 1981, as amended at 47 FR 32350, July 26, 1982; 48 FR 14294, Apr. 1, 1983; 48 FR 30115, June 30, 1983; 50 FR 4514, Jan. 31, 1985; 50 FR 28746, July 15, 1985; 52 FR 46963, Dec. 10, 1987; 71 FR 40272, July 14, 2006]

§ 264.19 Construction quality assurance program.

(a) CQA program.

(1) A construction quality assurance (CQA) program is required for all surface impoundment, waste pile, and landfill units that are required to comply with §§ 264.221 (c) and (d), 264.251 (c) and (d), and 264.301 (c) and (d). The program must ensure that the constructed unit meets or exceeds all design criteria and specifications in the permit. The program must be developed and implemented under the direction of a CQA officer who is a registered professional engineer.

(2) The CQA program must address the following physical components, where applicable:

(i) Foundations;

(ii) Dikes;

(iii) Low-permeability soil liners;

(iv) Geomembranes (flexible membrane liners);

(v) Leachate collection and removal systems and leak detection systems; and

(vi) Final cover systems.

(b) Written CQA plan. The owner or operator of units subject to the CQA program under paragraph (a) of this section must develop and implement a written CQA plan. The plan must identify steps that will be used to monitor and document the quality of materials and the condition and manner of their installation. The CQA plan must include:

(1) Identification of applicable units, and a description of how they will be constructed.

(2) Identification of key personnel in the development and implementation of the CQA plan, and CQA officer qualifications.

(3) A description of inspection and sampling activities for all unit components identified in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, including observations and tests that will be used before, during, and after construction to ensure that the construction materials and the installed unit components meet the design specifications. The description must cover: Sampling size and locations; frequency of testing; data evaluation procedures; acceptance and rejection criteria for construction materials; plans for implementing corrective measures; and data or other information to be recorded and retained in the operating record under § 264.73.

(c) Contents of program.

(1) The CQA program must include observations, inspections, tests, and measurements sufficient to ensure:

(i) Structural stability and integrity of all components of the unit identified in paragraph (a)(2) of this section;

(ii) Proper construction of all components of the liners, leachate collection and removal system, leak detection system, and final cover system, according to permit specifications and good engineering practices, and proper installation of all components (e.g., pipes) according to design specifications;

(iii) Conformity of all materials used with design and other material specifications under §§ 264.221, 264.251, and 264.301.

(2) The CQA program shall include test fills for compacted soil liners, using the same compaction methods as in the full scale unit, to ensure that the liners are constructed to meet the hydraulic conductivity requirements of §§ 264.221(c)(1)(i)(B), 264.251(c)(1)(i)(B), and 264.301(c)(1)(i)(B) in the field. Compliance with the hydraulic conductivity requirements must be verified by using in-situ testing on the constructed test fill. The Regional Administrator may accept an alternative demonstration, in lieu of a test fill, where data are sufficient to show that a constructed soil liner will meet the hydraulic conductivity requirements of §§ 264.221(c)(1)(i)(B), 264.251(c)(1)(i)(B), and 264.301(c)(1)(i)(B) in the field.

(d) Certification. Waste shall not be received in a unit subject to § 264.19 until the owner or operator has submitted to the Regional Administrator by certified mail or hand delivery a certification signed by the CQA officer that the approved CQA plan has been successfully carried out and that the unit meets the requirements of §§ 264.221 (c) or (d), 264.251 (c) or (d), or 264.301 (c) or (d); and the procedure in § 270.30(l)(2)(ii) of this chapter has been completed. Documentation supporting the CQA officer's certification must be furnished to the Regional Administrator upon request.

[57 FR 3486, Jan. 29, 1992]

Subpart C - Preparedness and Prevention
§ 264.30 Applicability.

The regulations in this subpart apply to owners and operators of all hazardous waste facilities, except as § 264.1 provides otherwise.

§ 264.31 Design and operation of facility.

Facilities must be designed, constructed, maintained, and operated to minimize the possibility of a fire, explosion, or any unplanned sudden or non-sudden release of hazardous waste or hazardous waste constituents to air, soil, or surface water which could threaten human health or the environment.

§ 264.32 Required equipment.

All facilities must be equipped with the following, unless it can be demonstrated to the Regional Administrator that none of the hazards posed by waste handled at the facility could require a particular kind of equipment specified below:

(a) An internal communications or alarm system capable of providing immediate emergency instruction (voice or signal) to facility personnel;

(b) A device, such as a telephone (immediately available at the scene of operations) or a hand-held two-way radio, capable of summoning emergency assistance from local police departments, fire departments, or State or local emergency response teams;

(c) Portable fire extinguishers, fire control equipment (including special extinguishing equipment, such as that using foam, inert gas, or dry chemicals), spill control equipment, and decontamination equipment; and

(d) Water at adequate volume and pressure to supply water hose streams, or foam producing equipment, or automatic sprinklers, or water spray systems.

[Comment: Part 270 of this chapter requires that an owner or operator who wishes to make the demonstration referred to above must do so with part B of the permit application.]

[45 FR 33221, May 19, 1980, as amended at 48 FR 14294, Apr. 1, 1983]

§ 264.33 Testing and maintenance of equipment.

All facility communications or alarm systems, fire protection equipment, spill control equipment, and decontamination equipment, where required, must be tested and maintained as necessary to assure its proper operation in time of emergency.

§ 264.34 Access to communications or alarm system.

(a) Whenever hazardous waste is being poured, mixed, spread, or otherwise handled, all personnel involved in the operation must have immediate access to an internal alarm or emergency communication device, either directly or through visual or voice contact with another employee, unless the Regional Administrator has ruled that such a device is not required under § 264.32.

(b) If there is ever just one employee on the premises while the facility is operating, he must have immediate access to a device, such as a telephone (immediately available at the scene of operation) or a hand-held two-way radio, capable of summoning external emergency assistance, unless the Regional Administrator has ruled that such a device is not required under § 264.32.

§ 264.35 Required aisle space.

The owner or operator must maintain aisle space to allow the unobstructed movement of personnel, fire protection equipment, spill control equipment, and decontamination equipment to any area of facility operation in an emergency, unless it can be demonstrated to the Regional Administrator that aisle space is not needed for any of these purposes.

[Comment: Part 270 of this chapter requires that an owner or operator who wishes to make the demonstration referred to above must do so with part B of the permit application.]

[45 FR 33221, May 19, 1980, as amended at 48 FR 14294, Apr. 1, 1983]

§ 264.36 [Reserved]
§ 264.37 Arrangements with local authorities.

(a) The owner or operator must attempt to make the following arrangements, as appropriate for the type of waste handled at his facility and the potential need for the services of these organizations:

(1) Arrangements to familiarize police, fire departments, and emergency response teams with the layout of the facility, properties of hazardous waste handled at the facility and associated hazards, places where facility personnel would normally be working, entrances to and roads inside the facility, and possible evacuation routes;

(2) Where more than one police and fire department might respond to an emergency, agreements designating primary emergency authority to a specific police and a specific fire department, and agreements with any others to provide support to the primary emergency authority;

(3) Agreements with State emergency response teams, emergency response contractors, and equipment suppliers; and

(4) Arrangements to familiarize local hospitals with the properties of hazardous waste handled at the facility and the types of injuries or illnesses which could result from fires, explosions, or releases at the facility.

(b) Where State or local authorities decline to enter into such arrangements, the owner or operator must document the refusal in the operating record.

Subpart D - Contingency Plan and Emergency Procedures
§ 264.50 Applicability.

The regulations in this subpart apply to owners and operators of all hazardous waste facilities, except as § 264.1 provides otherwise.

§ 264.51 Purpose and implementation of contingency plan.

(a) Each owner or operator must have a contingency plan for his facility. The contingency plan must be designed to minimize hazards to human health or the environment from fires, explosions, or any unplanned sudden or non-sudden release of hazardous waste or hazardous waste constituents to air, soil, or surface water.

(b) The provisions of the plan must be carried out immediately whenever there is a fire, explosion, or release of hazardous waste or hazardous waste constituents which could threaten human health or the environment.

[45 FR 33221, May 19, 1980, as amended at 50 FR 4514, Jan. 31, 1985]

§ 264.52 Content of contingency plan.

(a) The contingency plan must describe the actions facility personnel must take to comply with §§ 264.51 and 264.56 in response to fires, explosions, or any unplanned sudden or non-sudden release of hazardous waste or hazardous waste constituents to air, soil, or surface water at the facility.

(b) If the owner or operator has already prepared a Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasures (SPCC) Plan in accordance with part 112 of this chapter, or some other emergency or contingency plan, he need only amend that plan to incorporate hazardous waste management provisions that are sufficient to comply with the requirements of this part. The owner or operator may develop one contingency plan which meets all regulatory requirements. EPA recommends that the plan be based on the National Response Team's Integrated Contingency Plan Guidance (“One Plan”). When modifications are made to non-RCRA provisions in an integrated contingency plan, the changes do not trigger the need for a RCRA permit modification.

(c) The plan must describe arrangements agreed to by local police departments, fire departments, hospitals, contractors, and State and local emergency response teams to coordinate emergency services, pursuant to § 264.37.

(d) The plan must list names, addresses, and phone numbers (office and home) of all persons qualified to act as emergency coordinator (see § 264.55), and this list must be kept up to date. Where more than one person is listed, one must be named as primary emergency coordinator and others must be listed in the order in which they will assume responsibility as alternates. For new facilities, this information must be supplied to the Regional Administrator at the time of certification, rather than at the time of permit application.

(e) The plan must include a list of all emergency equipment at the facility (such as fire extinguishing systems, spill control equipment, communications and alarm systems (internal and external), and decontamination equipment), where this equipment is required. This list must be kept up to date. In addition, the plan must include the location and a physical description of each item on the list, and a brief outline of its capabilities.

(f) The plan must include an evacuation plan for facility personnel where there is a possibility that evacuation could be necessary. This plan must describe signal(s) to be used to begin evacuation, evacuation routes, and alternate evacuation routes (in cases where the primary routes could be blocked by releases of hazardous waste or fires).

[45 FR 33221, May 19, 1980, as amended at 46 FR 27480, May 20, 1981; 50 FR 4514, Jan. 31, 1985; 71 FR 16903, Apr. 4, 2006; 75 FR 13005, Mar. 18, 2010]

§ 264.53 Copies of contingency plan.

A copy of the contingency plan and all revisions to the plan must be:

(a) Maintained at the facility; and

(b) Submitted to all local police departments, fire departments, hospitals, and State and local emergency response teams that may be called upon to provide emergency services.

[Comment: The contingency plan must be submitted to the Regional Administrator with Part B of the permit application under part 270, of this chapter and, after modification or approval, will become a condition of any permit issued.]

[45 FR 33221, May 19, 1980, as amended at 48 FR 30115, June 30, 1983; 50 FR 4514, Jan. 31, 1985]

§ 264.54 Amendment of contingency plan.

The contingency plan must be reviewed, and immediately amended, if necessary, whenever:

(a) The facility permit is revised;

(b) The plan fails in an emergency;

(c) The facility changes - in its design, construction, operation, maintenance, or other circumstances - in a way that materially increases the potential for fires, explosions, or releases of hazardous waste or hazardous waste constituents, or changes the response necessary in an emergency;

(d) The list of emergency coordinators changes; or

(e) The list of emergency equipment changes.

[45 FR 33221, May 19, 1980, as amended at 50 FR 4514, Jan. 31, 1985; 53 FR 37935, Sept. 28, 1988]

§ 264.55 Emergency coordinator.

At all times, there must be at least one employee either on the facility premises or on call (i.e., available to respond to an emergency by reaching the facility within a short period of time) with the responsibility for coordinating all emergency response measures. This emergency coordinator must be thoroughly familiar with all aspects of the facility's contingency plan, all operations and activities at the facility, the location and characteristics of waste handled, the location of all records within the facility, and the facility layout. In addition, this person must have the authority to commit the resources needed to carry out the contingency plan.

[Comment: The emergency coordinator's responsibilities are more fully spelled out in § 264.56. Applicable responsibilities for the emergency coordinator vary, depending on factors such as type and variety of waste(s) handled by the facility, and type and complexity of the facility.]

§ 264.56 Emergency procedures.

(a) Whenever there is an imminent or actual emergency situation, the emergency coordinator (or his designee when the emergency coordinator is on call) must immediately:

(1) Activate internal facility alarms or communication systems, where applicable, to notify all facility personnel; and

(2) Notify appropriate State or local agencies with designated response roles if their help is needed.

(b) Whenever there is a release, fire, or explosion, the emergency coordinator must immediately identify the character, exact source, amount, and areal extent of any released materials. He may do this by observation or review of facility records or manifests, and, if necessary, by chemical analysis.

(c) Concurrently, the emergency coordinator must assess possible hazards to human health or the environment that may result from the release, fire, or explosion. This assessment must consider both direct and indirect effects of the release, fire, or explosion (e.g., the effects of any toxic, irritating, or asphyxiating gases that are generated, or the effects of any hazardous surface water run-off from water or chemical agents used to control fire and heat-induced explosions).

(d) If the emergency coordinator determines that the facility has had a release, fire, or explosion which could threaten human health, or the environment, outside the facility, he must report his findings as follows:

(1) If his assessment indicates that evacuation of local areas may be advisable, he must immediately notify appropriate local authorities. He must be available to help appropriate officials decide whether local areas should be evacuated; and

(2) He must immediately notify either the government official designated as the on-scene coordinator for that geographical area, or the National Response Center (using their 24-hour toll free number 800/424-8802). The report must include:

(i) Name and telephone number of reporter;

(ii) Name and address of facility;

(iii) Time and type of incident (e.g., release, fire);

(iv) Name and quantity of material(s) involved, to the extent known;

(v) The extent of injuries, if any; and

(vi) The possible hazards to human health, or the environment, outside the facility.

(e) During an emergency, the emergency coordinator must take all reasonable measures necessary to ensure that fires, explosions, and releases do not occur, recur, or spread to other hazardous waste at the facility. These measures must include, where applicable, stopping processes and operations, collecting and containing release waste, and removing or isolating containers.

(f) If the facility stops operations in response to a fire, explosion, or release, the emergency coordinator must monitor for leaks, pressure buildup, gas generation, or ruptures in valves, pipes, or other equipment, wherever this is appropriate.

(g) Immediately after an emergency, the emergency coordinator must provide for treating, storing, or disposing of recovered waste, contaminated soil or surface water, or any other material that results from a release, fire, or explosion at the facility.

[Comment: Unless the owner or operator can demonstrate, in accordance with § 261.3(c) or (d) of this chapter, that the recovered material is not a hazardous waste, the owner or operator becomes a generator of hazardous waste and must manage it in accordance with all applicable requirements of parts 262, 263, and 264 of this chapter.]

(h) The emergency coordinator must ensure that, in the affected area(s) of the facility:

(1) No waste that may be incompatible with the released material is treated, stored, or disposed of until cleanup procedures are completed; and

(2) All emergency equipment listed in the contingency plan is cleaned and fit for its intended use before operations are resumed.

(i) The owner or operator must note in the operating record the time, date, and details of any incident that requires implementing the contingency plan. Within 15 days after the incident, he must submit a written report on the incident to the Regional Administrator. The report must include:

(1) Name, address, and telephone number of the owner or operator;

(2) Name, address, and telephone number of the facility;

(3) Date, time, and type of incident (e.g., fire, explosion);

(4) Name and quantity of material(s) involved;

(5) The extent of injuries, if any;

(6) An assessment of actual or potential hazards to human health or the environment, where this is applicable; and

(7) Estimated quantity and disposition of recovered material that resulted from the incident.

[45 FR 33221, May 19, 1980, as amended at 50 FR 4514, Jan. 31, 1985; 71 FR 16903, Apr. 4, 2006; 75 FR 13005, Mar. 18, 2010]

Subpart E - Manifest System, Recordkeeping, and Reporting
§ 264.70 Applicability.

(a) The regulations in this subpart apply to owners and operators of both on-site and off-site facilities, except as § 264.1 provides otherwise. Sections 264.71, 264.72, and 264.76 do not apply to owners and operators of on-site facilities that do not receive any hazardous waste from off-site sources, nor to owners and operators of off-site facilities with respect to waste military munitions exempted from manifest requirements under 40 CFR 266.203(a). Section 264.73(b) only applies to permittees who treat, store, or dispose of hazardous wastes on-site where such wastes were generated.

(b) The revised Manifest form and procedures in 40 CFR 260.10, 261.7, 264.70, 264.71. 264.72, and 264.76, shall not apply until September 5, 2006. The Manifest form and procedures in 40 CFR 260.10, 261.7, 264.70, 264.71. 264.72, and 264.76, contained in the 40 CFR, parts 260 to 265, edition revised as of July 1, 2004, shall be applicable until September 5, 2006.

[70 FR 10821, Mar. 4, 2005]

§ 264.71 Use of manifest system.

(a)

(1) If a facility receives hazardous waste accompanied by a manifest, the owner, operator or his/her agent must sign and date the manifest as indicated in paragraph (a)(2) of this section to certify that the hazardous waste covered by the manifest was received, that the hazardous waste was received except as noted in the discrepancy space of the manifest, or that the hazardous waste was rejected as noted in the manifest discrepancy space.

(2) If the facility receives a hazardous waste shipment accompanied by a manifest, the owner, operator, or his agent must:

(i) Sign and date each copy of the manifest;

(ii) Note any discrepancies (as defined in § 264.72(a)) on each copy of the manifest;

(iii) Immediately give the transporter at least one copy of the manifest;

(iv) Within 30 days of delivery, send a copy (Page 2) of the manifest to the generator;

(v) Paper manifest submission requirements are:

(A) Options for compliance on June 30, 2018. Beginning on June 30, 2018, send the top copy (Page 1) of any paper manifest and any paper continuation sheet to the e-Manifest system for purposes of data entry and processing, or in lieu of submitting the paper copy to EPA, the owner or operator may transmit to the EPA system an image file of Page 1 of the manifest and any continuation sheet, or both a data file and image file corresponding to Page 1 of the manifest and any continuation sheet, within 30 days of the date of delivery. Submissions of copies to the e-Manifest system shall be made at the mailing address or electronic mail/submission address specified at the e-Manifest program website's directory of services. Beginning on June 30, 2021, EPA will not accept mailed paper manifests from facilities for processing in e-Manifest.

(B) Options for compliance on June 30, 2021. Beginning on June 30, 2021, the requirement to submit the top copy (Page 1) of the paper manifest and any paper continuation sheet to the e-Manifest system for purposes of data entry and processing may be met by the owner or operator only by transmitting to the EPA system an image file of Page 1 of the manifest and any continuation sheet, or by transmitting to the EPA system both a data file and the image file corresponding to Page 1 of the manifest and any continuation sheet, within 30 days of the date of delivery. Submissions of copies to the e-Manifest system shall be made to the electronic mail/submission address specified at the e-Manifest program website's directory of services; and

(vi) Retain at the facility a copy of each manifest for at least three years from the date of delivery.

(3) The owner or operator of a facility receiving hazardous waste subject to 40 CFR part 262, subpart H from a foreign source must:

(i) Additionally list the relevant consent number from consent documentation supplied by EPA to the facility for each waste listed on the manifest, matched to the relevant list number for the waste from block 9b. If additional space is needed, the owner or operator should use a Continuation Sheet(s) (EPA Form 8700-22A); and

(ii) Send a copy of the manifest within thirty (30) days of delivery to EPA using the addresses listed in 40 CFR 262.82(e) until the facility can submit such a copy to the e-Manifest system per paragraph (a)(2)(v) of this section.

(b) If a facility receives, from a rail or water (bulk shipment) transporter, hazardous waste which is accompanied by a shipping paper containing all the information required on the manifest (excluding the EPA identification numbers, generator's certification, and signatures), the owner or operator, or his agent, must:

(1) Sign and date each copy of the manifest or shipping paper (if the manifest has not been received) to certify that the hazardous waste covered by the manifest or shipping paper was received;

(2) Note any significant discrepancies (as defined in § 264.72(a)) in the manifest or shipping paper (if the manifest has not been received) on each copy of the manifest or shipping paper.

[Comment: The Agency does not intend that the owner or operator of a facility whose procedures under § 264.13(c) include waste analysis must perform that analysis before signing the shipping paper and giving it to the transporter. Section 264.72(b), however, requires reporting an unreconciled discrepancy discovered during later analysis.]

(3) Immediately give the rail or water (bulk shipment) transporter at least one copy of the manifest or shipping paper (if the manifest has not been received);

(4) Within 30 days after the delivery, send a copy of the signed and dated manifest or a signed and dated copy of the shipping paper (if the manifest has not been received within 30 days after delivery) to the generator; and

[Comment: Section 262.23(c) of this chapter requires the generator to send three copies of the manifest to the facility when hazardous waste is sent by rail or water (bulk shipment).]

(5) Retain at the facility a copy of the manifest and shipping paper (if signed in lieu of the manifest at the time of delivery) for at least three years from the date of delivery.

(c) Whenever a shipment of hazardous waste is initiated from a facility, the owner or operator of that facility must comply with the requirements of part 262 of this chapter. The provisions of §§ 262.15, 262.16, and 262.17 of this chapter are applicable to the on-site accumulation of hazardous wastes by generators. Therefore, the provisions of §§ 262.15, 262.16, and 262.17 of this chapter only apply to owners or operators who are shipping hazardous waste which they generated at that facility or operating as a large quantity generator consolidating hazardous waste from very small quantity generators under § 262.17(f).

(d) As per 40 CFR 262.84(d)(2)(xv), within three (3) working days of the receipt of a shipment subject to 40 CFR part 262, subpart H, the owner or operator of a facility must provide a copy of the movement document bearing all required signatures to the foreign exporter; to the competent authorities of the countries of export and transit that control the shipment as an export and transit of hazardous waste respectively; and on or after the electronic import-export reporting compliance date, to EPA electronically using EPA's Waste Import Export Tracking System (WIETS), or its successor system. The original copy of the movement document must be maintained at the facility for at least three (3) years from the date of signature. The owner or operator of a facility may satisfy this recordkeeping requirement by retaining electronically submitted documents in the facility's account on EPA's Waste Import Export Tracking System (WIETS), or its successor system, provided that copies are readily available for viewing and production if requested by any EPA or authorized state inspector. No owner or operator of a facility may be held liable for the inability to produce the documents for inspection under this section if the owner or operator of a facility can demonstrate that the inability to produce the document is due exclusively to technical difficulty with EPA's Waste Import Export Tracking System (WIETS), or its successor system, for which the owner or operator of a facility bears no responsibility.

(e) A facility must determine whether the consignment state for a shipment regulates any additional wastes (beyond those regulated Federally) as hazardous wastes under its state hazardous waste program. Facilities must also determine whether the consignment state or generator state requires the facility to submit any copies of the manifest to these states.

(f) Legal equivalence to paper manifests. Electronic manifests that are obtained, completed, and transmitted in accordance with § 262.20(a)(3) of this chapter, and used in accordance with this section in lieu of the paper manifest form are the legal equivalent of paper manifest forms bearing handwritten signatures, and satisfy for all purposes any requirement in these regulations to obtain, complete, sign, provide, use, or retain a manifest.

(1) Any requirement in these regulations for the owner or operator of a facility to sign a manifest or manifest certification by hand, or to obtain a handwritten signature, is satisfied by signing with or obtaining a valid and enforceable electronic signature within the meaning of 40 CFR 262.25.

(2) Any requirement in these regulations to give, provide, send, forward, or to return to another person a copy of the manifest is satisfied when a copy of an electronic manifest is transmitted to the other person.

(3) Any requirement in these regulations for a manifest to accompany a hazardous waste shipment is satisfied when a copy of an electronic manifest is accessible during transportation and forwarded to the person or persons who are scheduled to receive delivery of the waste shipment.

(4) Any requirement in these regulations for an owner or operator to keep or retain a copy of each manifest is satisfied by the retention of the facility's electronic manifest copies in its account on the e-Manifest system, provided that such copies are readily available for viewing and production if requested by any EPA or authorized state inspector.

(5) No owner or operator may be held liable for the inability to produce an electronic manifest for inspection under this section if the owner or operator can demonstrate that the inability to produce the electronic manifest is due exclusively to a technical difficulty with the electronic manifest system for which the owner or operator bears no responsibility.

(g) An owner or operator may participate in the electronic manifest system either by accessing the electronic manifest system from the owner's or operator's electronic equipment, or by accessing the electronic manifest system from portable equipment brought to the owner's or operator's site by the transporter who delivers the waste shipment to the facility.

(h) Special procedures applicable to replacement manifests. If a facility receives hazardous waste that is accompanied by a paper replacement manifest for a manifest that was originated electronically, the following procedures apply to the delivery of the hazardous waste by the final transporter:

(1) Upon delivery of the hazardous waste to the designated facility, the owner or operator must sign and date each copy of the paper replacement manifest by hand in Item 20 (Designated Facility Certification of Receipt) and note any discrepancies in Item 18 (Discrepancy Indication Space) of the paper replacement manifest,

(2) The owner or operator of the facility must give back to the final transporter one copy of the paper replacement manifest,

(3) Within 30 days of delivery of the waste to the designated facility, the owner or operator of the facility must send one signed and dated copy of the paper replacement manifest to the generator, and send an additional signed and dated copy of the paper replacement manifest to the electronic manifest system, and

(4) The owner or operator of the facility must retain at the facility one copy of the paper replacement manifest for at least three years from the date of delivery.

(i) Special procedures applicable to electronic signature methods undergoing tests. If an owner or operator using an electronic manifest signs this manifest electronically using an electronic signature method which is undergoing pilot or demonstration tests aimed at demonstrating the practicality or legal dependability of the signature method, then the owner or operator shall also sign with an ink signature the facility's certification of receipt or discrepancies on the printed copy of the manifest provided by the transporter. Upon executing its ink signature on this printed copy, the owner or operator shall retain this original copy among its records for at least 3 years from the date of delivery of the waste.

(j) Imposition of user fee for manifest submissions.

(1) As prescribed in § 264.1311, and determined in § 264.1312, an owner or operator who is a user of the electronic manifest system shall be assessed a user fee by EPA for the submission and processing of each electronic and paper manifest. EPA shall update the schedule of user fees and publish them to the user community, as provided in § 264.1313.

(2) An owner or operator subject to user fees under this section shall make user fee payments in accordance with the requirements of § 264.1314, subject to the informal fee dispute resolution process of § 264.1316, and subject to the sanctions for delinquent payments under § 264.1315.

(k) Electronic manifest signatures. Electronic manifest signatures shall meet the criteria described in § 262.25 of this chapter.

(l) Post-receipt manifest data corrections. After facilities have certified to the receipt of hazardous wastes by signing Item 20 of the manifest, any post-receipt data corrections may be submitted at any time by any interested person (e.g., waste handler) shown on the manifest.

(1) Interested persons must make all corrections to manifest data by electronic submission, either by directly entering corrected data to the web based service provided in e-Manifest for such corrections, or by an upload of a data file containing data corrections relating to one or more previously submitted manifests.

(2) Each correction submission must include the following information:

(i) The Manifest Tracking Number and date of receipt by the facility of the original manifest(s) for which data are being corrected;

(ii) The item number(s) of the original manifest that is the subject of the submitted correction(s); and

(iii) For each item number with corrected data, the data previously entered and the corresponding data as corrected by the correction submission.

(3) Each correction submission shall include a statement that the person submitting the corrections certifies that to the best of his or her knowledge or belief, the corrections that are included in the submission will cause the information reported about the previously received hazardous wastes to be true, accurate, and complete:

(i) The certification statement must be executed with a valid electronic signature; and

(ii) A batch upload of data corrections may be submitted under one certification statement.

(4) Upon receipt by the system of any correction submission, other interested persons shown on the manifest will be provided electronic notice of the submitter's corrections.

(5) Other interested persons shown on the manifest may respond to the submitter's corrections with comments to the submitter, or by submitting another correction to the system, certified by the respondent as specified in paragraph (l)(3) of this section, and with notice of the corrections to other interested persons shown on the manifest.

[45 FR 33221, May 19, 1980, as amended at 45 FR 86970, 86974, Dec. 31, 1980; 61 FR 16315, Apr. 12, 1996; 70 FR 10821, Mar. 4, 2005; 75 FR 1260, Jan. 8, 2010; 79 FR 7560, Feb. 7, 2014; 81 FR 85726, 85826, Nov. 28, 2016; 83 FR 453, Jan. 3, 2018]

§ 264.72 Manifest discrepancies.

(a) Manifest discrepancies are:

(1) Significant differences (as defined by paragraph (b) of this section) between the quantity or type of hazardous waste designated on the manifest or shipping paper, and the quantity and type of hazardous waste a facility actually receives;

(2) Rejected wastes, which may be a full or partial shipment of hazardous waste that the TSDF cannot accept; or

(3) Container residues, which are residues that exceed the quantity limits for “empty” containers set forth in 40 CFR 261.7(b).

(b) Significant differences in quantity are: For bulk waste, variations greater than 10 percent in weight; for batch waste, any variation in piece count, such as a discrepancy of one drum in a truckload. Significant differences in type are obvious differences which can be discovered by inspection or waste analysis, such as waste solvent substituted for waste acid, or toxic constituents not reported on the manifest or shipping paper.

(c) Upon discovering a significant difference in quantity or type, the owner or operator must attempt to reconcile the discrepancy with the waste generator or transporter (e.g., with telephone conversations). If the discrepancy is not resolved within 15 days after receiving the waste, the owner or operator must immediately submit to the Regional Administrator a letter describing the discrepancy and attempts to reconcile it, and a copy of the manifest or shipping paper at issue.

(d)

(1) Upon rejecting waste or identifying a container residue that exceeds the quantity limits for “empty” containers set forth in 40 CFR 261.7(b), the facility must consult with the generator prior to forwarding the waste to another facility that can manage the waste. If it is impossible to locate an alternative facility that can receive the waste, the facility may return the rejected waste or residue to the generator. The facility must send the waste to the alternative facility or to the generator within 60 days of the rejection or the container residue identification.

(2) While the facility is making arrangements for forwarding rejected wastes or residues to another facility under this section, it must ensure that either the delivering transporter retains custody of the waste, or, the facility must provide for secure, temporary custody of the waste, pending delivery of the waste to the first transporter designated on the manifest prepared under paragraph (e) or (f) of this section.

(e) Except as provided in paragraph (e)(7) of this section, for full or partial load rejections and residues that are to be sent off-site to an alternate facility, the facility is required to prepare a new manifest in accordance with § 262.20(a) of this chapter and the following instructions:

(1) Write the generator's U.S. EPA ID number in Item 1 of the new manifest. Write the generator's name and mailing address in Item 5 of the new manifest. If the mailing address is different from the generator's site address, then write the generator's site address in the designated space for Item 5.

(2) Write the name of the alternate designated facility and the facility's U.S. EPA ID number in the designated facility block (Item 8) of the new manifest.

(3) Copy the manifest tracking number found in Item 4 of the old manifest to the Special Handling and Additional Information Block of the new manifest, and indicate that the shipment is a residue or rejected waste from the previous shipment.

(4) Copy the manifest tracking number found in Item 4 of the new manifest to the manifest reference number line in the Discrepancy Block of the old manifest (Item 18a).

(5) Write the DOT description for the rejected load or the residue in Item 9 (U.S. DOT Description) of the new manifest and write the container types, quantity, and volume(s) of waste.

(6) Sign the Generator's/Offeror's Certification to certify, as the offeror of the shipment, that the waste has been properly packaged, marked and labeled and is in proper condition for transportation, and mail a signed copy of the manifest to the generator identified in Item 5 of the new manifest.

(7) For full load rejections that are made while the transporter remains present at the facility, the facility may forward the rejected shipment to the alternate facility by completing Item 18b of the original manifest and supplying the information on the next destination facility in the Alternate Facility space. The facility must retain a copy of this manifest for its records, and then give the remaining copies of the manifest to the transporter to accompany the shipment. If the original manifest is not used, then the facility must use a new manifest and comply with paragraphs (e)(1), (2), (3), (4), (5), and (6) of this section.

(f) Except as provided in paragraph (f)(7) of this section, for rejected wastes and residues that must be sent back to the generator, the facility is required to prepare a new manifest in accordance with § 262.20(a) of this chapter and the following instructions:

(1) Write the facility's U.S. EPA ID number in Item 1 of the new manifest. Write the facility's name and mailing address in Item 5 of the new manifest. If the mailing address is different from the facility's site address, then write the facility's site address in the designated space for Item 5 of the new manifest.

(2) Write the name of the initial generator and the generator's U.S. EPA ID number in the designated facility block (Item 8) of the new manifest.

(3) Copy the manifest tracking number found in Item 4 of the old manifest to the Special Handling and Additional Information Block of the new manifest, and indicate that the shipment is a residue or rejected waste from the previous shipment.

(4) Copy the manifest tracking number found in Item 4 of the new manifest to the manifest reference number line in the Discrepancy Block of the old manifest (Item 18a).

(5) Write the DOT description for the rejected load or the residue in Item 9 (U.S. DOT Description) of the new manifest and write the container types, quantity, and volume(s) of waste.

(6) Sign the Generator's/Offeror's Certification to certify, as offeror of the shipment, that the waste has been properly packaged, marked and labeled and is in proper condition for transportation.

(7) For full load rejections that are made while the transporter remains at the facility, the facility may return the shipment to the generator with the original manifest by completing Item 18a and 18b of the manifest and supplying the generator's information in the Alternate Facility space. The facility must retain a copy for its records and then give the remaining copies of the manifest to the transporter to accompany the shipment. If the original manifest is not used, then the facility must use a new manifest and comply with paragraphs (f)(1), (2), (3), (4), (5), (6), and (8) of this section.

(8) For full or partial load rejections and container residues contained in non-empty containers that are returned to the generator, the facility must also comply with the exception reporting requirements in § 262.42(a).

(g) If a facility rejects a waste or identifies a container residue that exceeds the quantity limits for “empty” containers set forth in 40 CFR 261.7(b) after it has signed, dated, and returned a copy of the manifest to the delivering transporter or to the generator, the facility must amend its copy of the manifest to indicate the rejected wastes or residues in the discrepancy space of the amended manifest. The facility must also copy the manifest tracking number from Item 4 of the new manifest to the Discrepancy space of the amended manifest, and must re-sign and date the manifest to certify to the information as amended. The facility must retain the amended manifest for at least three years from the date of amendment, and must within 30 days, send a copy of the amended manifest to the transporter and generator that received copies prior to their being amended.

[70 FR 10822, Mar. 4, 2005, as amended at 70 FR 35041, June 16, 2005; 75 FR 13005, Mar. 18, 2010]

§ 264.73 Operating record.

(a) The owner or operator must keep a written operating record at his facility.

(b) The following information must be recorded, as it becomes available, and maintained in the operating record for three years unless noted as follows:

(1) A description and the quantity of each hazardous waste received, and the method(s) and date(s) of its treatment, storage, or disposal at the facility as required by appendix I of this part. This information must be maintained in the operating record until closure of the facility;

(2) The location of each hazardous waste within the facility and the quantity at each location. For disposal facilities, the location and quantity of each hazardous waste must be recorded on a map or diagram that shows each cell or disposal area. For all facilities, this information must include cross-references to manifest document numbers if the waste was accompanied by a manifest. This information must be maintained in the operating record until closure of the facility.

[Comment: See § 264.119 for related requirements.]

(3) Records and results of waste analyses and waste determinations performed as specified in §§ 264.13, 264.17, 264.314, 264.341, 264.1034, 264.1063, 264.1083, 268.4(a), and 268.7 of this chapter.

(4) Summary reports and details of all incidents that require implementing the contingency plan as specified in § 264.56(j);

(5) Records and results of inspections as required by § 264.15(d) (except these data need be kept only three years);

(6) Monitoring, testing or analytical data, and corrective action where required by subpart F of this part and §§ 264.19, 264.191, 264.193, 264.195, 264.222, 264.223, 264.226, 264.252-264.254, 264.276, 264.278, 264.280, 264.302-264.304, 264.309, 264.602, 264.1034(c)-264.1034(f), 264.1035, 264.1063(d)-264.1063(i), 264.1064, and 264.1082 through 264.1090 of this part. Maintain in the operating record for three years, except for records and results pertaining to ground-water monitoring and cleanup which must be maintained in the operating record until closure of the facility.

(7) For off-site facilities, notices to generators as specified in § 264.12(b); and

(8) All closure cost estimates under § 264.142, and for disposal facilities, all post-closure cost estimates under § 264.144 of this part. This information must be maintained in the operating record until closure of the facility.

(9) A certification by the permittee no less often than annually, that the permittee has a program in place to reduce the volume and toxicity of hazardous waste that he generates to the degree determined by the permittee to be economically practicable; and the proposed method of treatment, storage or disposal is that practicable method currently available to the permittee which minimizes the present and future threat to human health and the environment.

(10) Records of the quantities and date of placement for each shipment of hazardous waste placed in land disposal units under an extension to the effective date of any land disposal restriction granted pursuant to § 268.5 of this chapter, a petition pursuant to § 268.6 of this chapter, or a certification under § 268.8 of this chapter, and the applicable notice required by a generator under § 268.7(a) of this chapter. This information must be maintained in the operating record until closure of the facility.

(11) For an off-site treatment facility, a copy of the notice, and the certification and demonstration, if applicable, required by the generator or the owner or operator under § 268.7 or § 268.8;

(12) For an on-site treatment facility, the information contained in the notice (except the manifest number), and the certification and demonstration if applicable, required by the generator or the owner or operator under § 268.7 or § 268.8;

(13) For an off-site land disposal facility, a copy of the notice, and the certification and demonstration if applicable, required by the generator or the owner or operator of a treatment facility under §§ 268.7 and 268.8, whichever is applicable; and

(14) For an on-site land disposal facility, the information contained in the notice required by the generator or owner or operator of a treatment facility under § 268.7, except for the manifest number, and the certification and demonstration if applicable, required under § 268.8, whichever is applicable.

(15) For an off-site storage facility, a copy of the notice, and the certification and demonstration if applicable, required by the generator or the owner or operator under § 268.7 or § 268.8; and

(16) For an on-site storage facility, the information contained in the notice (except the manifest number), and the certification and demonstration if applicable, required by the generator or the owner or operator under § 268.7 or § 268.8.

(17) Any records required under § 264.1(j)(13).

(18) Monitoring, testing or analytical data where required by § 264.347 must be maintained in the operating record for five years.

(19) Certifications as required by § 264.196(f) must be maintained in the operating record until closure of the facility.

[45 FR 33221, May 19, 1980]

§ 264.74 Availability, retention, and disposition of records.

(a) All records, including plans, required under this part must be furnished upon request, and made available at all reasonable times for inspection, by any officer, employee, or representative of EPA who is duly designated by the Administrator.

(b) The retention period for all records required under this part is extended automatically during the course of any unresolved enforcement action regarding the facility or as requested by the Administrator.

(c) A copy of records of waste disposal locations and quantities under § 264.73(b)(2) must be submitted to the Regional Administrator and local land authority upon closure of the facility.

§ 264.75 Biennial report.

The owner or operator must complete and submit EPA Form 8700-13 A/B to the Regional Administrator by March 1 of the following even numbered year and must cover activities during the previous year.

[81 FR 85826, Nov. 28, 2016]

§ 264.76 Unmanifested waste report.

(a) If a facility accepts for treatment, storage, or disposal any hazardous waste from an off-site source without an accompanying manifest, or without an accompanying shipping paper as described by § 263.20(e) of this chapter, and if the waste is not excluded from the manifest requirement by this chapter, then the owner or operator must prepare and submit a letter to the Regional Administrator within 15 days after receiving the waste. The unmanifested waste report must contain the following information:

(1) The EPA identification number, name and address of the facility;

(2) The date the facility received the waste;

(3) The EPA identification number, name and address of the generator and the transporter, if available;

(4) A description and the quantity of each unmanifested hazardous waste the facility received;

(5) The method of treatment, storage, or disposal for each hazardous waste;

(6) The certification signed by the owner or operator of the facility or his authorized representative; and,

(7) A brief explanation of why the waste was unmanifested, if known.

(b) [Reserved]

[70 FR 10823, Mar. 4, 2005]

§ 264.77 Additional reports.

In addition to submitting the biennial reports and unmanifested waste reports described in §§ 264.75 and 264.76, the owner or operator must also report to the Regional Administrator:

(a) Releases, fires, and explosions as specified in § 264.56(j);

(b) Facility closures specified in § 264.115; and

(c) As otherwise required by subparts F, K through N, AA, BB, and CC of this part.

[46 FR 2849, Jan. 12, 1981, as amended at 47 FR 32350, July 26, 1982; 48 FR 3982, Jan. 28, 1983; 55 FR 25494, June 21, 1990; 59 FR 62926, Dec. 6, 1994]

Subpart F - Releases From Solid Waste Management Units
Source:

47 FR 32350, July 26, 1982, unless otherwise noted.

§ 264.90 Applicability.

(a)

(1) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the regulations in this subpart apply to owners or operators of facilities that treat, store or dispose of hazardous waste. The owner or operator must satisfy the requirements identified in paragraph (a)(2) of this section for all wastes (or constituents thereof) contained in solid waste management units at the facility, regardless of the time at which waste was placed in such units.

(2) All solid waste management units must comply with the requirements in § 264.101. A surface impoundment, waste pile, and land treatment unit or landfill that receives hazardous waste after July 26, 1982 (hereinafter referred to as a “regulated unit”) must comply with the requirements of §§ 264.91 through 264.100 in lieu of § 264.101 for purposes of detecting, characterizing and responding to releases to the uppermost aquifer. The financial responsibility requirements of § 264.101 apply to regulated units.

(b) The owner or operator's regulated unit or units are not subject to regulation for releases into the uppermost aquifer under this subpart if:

(1) The owner or operator is exempted under § 264.1; or

(2) He operates a unit which the Regional Administrator finds:

(i) Is an engineered structure,

(ii) Does not receive or contain liquid waste or waste containing free liquids,

(iii) Is designed and operated to exclude liquid, precipitation, and other run-on and run-off,

(iv) Has both inner and outer layers of containment enclosing the waste,

(v) Has a leak detection system built into each containment layer,

(vi) The owner or operator will provide continuing operation and maintenance of these leak detection systems during the active life of the unit and the closure and post-closure care periods, and

(vii) To a reasonable degree of certainty, will not allow hazardous constituents to migrate beyond the outer containment layer prior to the end of the post-closure care period.

(3) The Regional Administrator finds, pursuant to § 264.280(d), that the treatment zone of a land treatment unit that qualifies as a regulated unit does not contain levels of hazardous constituents that are above background levels of those constituents by an amount that is statistically significant, and if an unsaturated zone monitoring program meeting the requirements of § 264.278 has not shown a statistically significant increase in hazardous constituents below the treatment zone during the operating life of the unit. An exemption under this paragraph can only relieve an owner or operator of responsibility to meet the requirements of this subpart during the post-closure care period; or

(4) The Regional Administrator finds that there is no potential for migration of liquid from a regulated unit to the uppermost aquifer during the active life of the regulated unit (including the closure period) and the post-closure care period specified under § 264.117. This demonstration must be certified by a qualified geologist or geotechnical engineer. In order to provide an adequate margin of safety in the prediction of potential migration of liquid, the owner or operator must base any predictions made under this paragraph on assumptions that maximize the rate of liquid migration.

(5) He designs and operates a pile in compliance with § 264.250(c).

(c) The regulations under this subpart apply during the active life of the regulated unit (including the closure period). After closure of the regulated unit, the regulations in this subpart:

(1) Do not apply if all waste, waste residues, contaminated containment system components, and contaminated subsoils are removed or decontaminated at closure;

(2) Apply during the post-closure care period under § 264.117 if the owner or operator is conducting a detection monitoring program under § 264.98; or

(3) Apply during the compliance period under § 264.96 if the owner or operator is conducting a compliance monitoring program under § 264.99 or a corrective action program under § 264.100.

(d) Regulations in this subpart may apply to miscellaneous units when necessary to comply with §§ 264.601 through 264.603.

(e) The regulations of this subpart apply to all owners and operators subject to the requirements of 40 CFR 270.1(c)(7), when the Agency issues either a post-closure permit or an enforceable document (as defined in 40 CFR 270.1(c)(7)) at the facility. When the Agency issues an enforceable document, references in this subpart to “in the permit” mean “in the enforceable document.”

(f) The Regional Administrator may replace all or part of the requirements of §§ 264.91 through 264.100 applying to a regulated unit with alternative requirements for groundwater monitoring and corrective action for releases to groundwater set out in the permit (or in an enforceable document) (as defined in 40 CFR 270.1(c)(7)) where the Regional Administrator determines that:

(1) The regulated unit is situated among solid waste management units (or areas of concern), a release has occurred, and both the regulated unit and one or more solid waste management unit(s) (or areas of concern) are likely to have contributed to the release; and

(2) It is not necessary to apply the groundwater monitoring and corrective action requirements of §§ 264.91 through 264.100 because alternative requirements will protect human health and the environment.

[47 FR 32350, July 26, 1982, as amended at 50 FR 28746, July 15, 1985; 52 FR 46963, Dec. 10, 1987; 63 FR 56733, Oct. 22, 1998]

§ 264.91 Required programs.

(a) Owners and operators subject to this subpart must conduct a monitoring and response program as follows:

(1) Whenever hazardous constituents under § 264.93 from a regulated unit are detected at a compliance point under § 264.95, the owner or operator must institute a compliance monitoring program under § 264.99. Detected is defined as statistically significant evidence of contamination as described in § 264.98(f);

(2) Whenever the ground-water protection standard under § 264.92 is exceeded, the owner or operator must institute a corrective action program under § 264.100. Exceeded is defined as statistically significant evidence of increased contamination as described in § 264.99(d);

(3) Whenever hazardous constituents under § 264.93 from a regulated unit exceed concentration limits under § 264.94 in ground water between the compliance point under § 264.95 and the downgradient facility property boundary, the owner or operator must institute a corrective action program under § 264.100; or

(4) In all other cases, the owner or operator must institute a detection monitoring program under § 264.98.

(b) The Regional Administrator will specify in the facility permit the specific elements of the monitoring and response program. The Regional Administrator may include one or more of the programs identified in paragraph (a) of this section in the facility permit as may be necessary to protect human health and the environment and will specify the circumstances under which each of the programs will be required. In deciding whether to require the owner or operator to be prepared to institute a particular program, the Regional Administrator will consider the potential adverse effects on human health and the environment that might occur before final administrative action on a permit modification application to incorporate such a program could be taken.

[47 FR 32350, July 26, 1982, as amended at 53 FR 39728, Oct. 11, 1988]

§ 264.92 Ground-water protection standard.

The owner or operator must comply with conditions specified in the facility permit that are designed to ensure that hazardous constituents under § 264.93 detected in the ground water from a regulated unit do not exceed the concentration limits under § 264.94 in the uppermost aquifer underlying the waste management area beyond the point of compliance under § 264.95 during the compliance period under § 264.96. The Regional Administrator will establish this ground-water protection standard in the facility permit when hazardous constituents have been detected in the ground water.

[53 FR 39728, Oct. 11, 1988]

§ 264.93 Hazardous constituents.

(a) The Regional Administrator will specify in the facility permit the hazardous constituents to which the ground-water protection standard of § 264.92 applies. Hazardous constituents are constituents identified in appendix VIII of part 261 of this chapter that have been detected in ground water in the uppermost aquifer underlying a regulated unit and that are reasonably expected to be in or derived from waste contained in a regulated unit, unless the Regional Administrator has excluded them under paragraph (b) of this section.

(b) The Regional Administrator will exclude an appendix VIII constituent from the list of hazardous constituents specified in the facility permit if he finds that the constituent is not capable of posing a substantial present or potential hazard to human health or the environment. In deciding whether to grant an exemption, the Regional Administrator will consider the following:

(1) Potential adverse effects on ground-water quality, considering:

(i) The physical and chemical characteristics of the waste in the regulated unit, including its potential for migration;

(ii) The hydrogeological characteristics of the facility and surrounding land;

(iii) The quantity of ground water and the direction of ground-water flow;

(iv) The proximity and withdrawal rates of ground-water users;

(v) The current and future uses of ground water in the area;

(vi) The existing quality of ground water, including other sources of contamination and their cumulative impact on the ground-water quality;

(vii) The potential for health risks caused by human exposure to waste constituents;

(viii) The potential damage to wildlife, crops, vegetation, and physical structures caused by exposure to waste constituents;

(ix) The persistence and permanence of the potential adverse effects; and

(2) Potential adverse effects on hydraulically-connected surface water quality, considering:

(i) The volume and physical and chemical characteristics of the waste in the regulated unit;

(ii) The hydrogeological characteristics of the facility and surrounding land;

(iii) The quantity and quality of ground water, and the direction of ground-water flow;

(iv) The patterns of rainfall in the region;

(v) The proximity of the regulated unit to surface waters;

(vi) The current and future uses of surface waters in the area and any water quality standards established for those surface waters;

(vii) The existing quality of surface water, including other sources of contamination and the cumulative impact on surface-water quality;

(viii) The potential for health risks caused by human exposure to waste constituents;

(ix) The potential damage to wildlife, crops, vegetation, and physical structures caused by exposure to waste constituents; and

(x) The persistence and permanence of the potential adverse effects.

(c) In making any determination under paragraph (b) of this section about the use of ground water in the area around the facility, the Regional Administrator will consider any identification of underground sources of drinking water and exempted aquifers made under § 144.8 of this chapter.

[47 FR 32350, July 26, 1982, as amended at 48 FR 14294, Apr. 1, 1983]

§ 264.94 Concentration limits.

(a) The Regional Administrator will specify in the facility permit concentration limits in the ground water for hazardous constituents established under § 264.93. The concentration of a hazardous constituent:

(1) Must not exceed the background level of that constituent in the ground water at the time that limit is specified in the permit; or

(2) For any of the constituents listed in Table 1, must not exceed the respective value given in that table if the background level of the constituent is below the value given in Table 1; or

Table 1 - Maximum Concentration of Constituents for Ground-water Protection

Constituent Maximum concentration1
Arsenic 0.05
Barium 1.0
Cadmium 0.01
Chromium 0.05
Lead 0.05
Mercury 0.002
Selenium 0.01
Silver 0.05
Endrin (1,2,3,4,10,10-hexachloro-1,7-epoxy 1,4,4a,5,6,7,8,9a-octahydro-1, 4-endo, endo-5,8-dimethano naphthalene) 0.0002
Lindane (1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocyclohexane, gamma isomer) 0.004
Methoxychlor (1,1,1-Trichloro-2,2-bis (p-methoxyphenylethane) 0.1
Toxaphene (C10H10Cl6, Technical chlorinated camphene, 67-69 percent chlorine) 0.005
2,4-D (2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) 0.1
2,4,5-TP Silvex (2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxypropionic acid) 0.01

(3) Must not exceed an alternate limit established by the Regional Administrator under paragraph (b) of this section.

(b) The Regional Administrator will establish an alternate concentration limit for a hazardous constituent if he finds that the constituent will not pose a substantial present or potential hazard to human health or the environment as long as the alternate concentration limit is not exceeded. In establishing alternate concentration limits, the Regional Administrator will consider the following factors:

(1) Potential adverse effects on ground-water quality, considering:

(i) The physical and chemical characteristics of the waste in the regulated unit, including its potential for migration;

(ii) The hydrogeological characteristics of the facility and surrounding land;

(iii) The quantity of ground water and the direction of ground-water flow;

(iv) The proximity and withdrawal rates of ground-water users;

(v) The current and future uses of ground water in the area;

(vi) The existing quality of ground water, including other sources of contamination and their cumulative impact on the ground-water quality;

(vii) The potential for health risks caused by human exposure to waste constituents;

(viii) The potential damage to wildlife, crops, vegetation, and physical structures caused by exposure to waste constituents;

(ix) The persistence and permanence of the potential adverse effects; and

(2) Potential adverse effects on hydraulically-connected surface-water quality, considering:

(i) The volume and physical and chemical characteristics of the waste in the regulated unit;

(ii) The hydrogeological characteristics of the facility and surrounding land;

(iii) The quantity and quality of ground water, and the direction of ground-water flow;

(iv) The patterns of rainfall in the region;

(v) The proximity of the regulated unit to surface waters;

(vi) The current and future uses of surface waters in the area and any water quality standards established for those surface waters;

(vii) The existing quality of surface water, including other sources of contamination and the cumulative impact on surface water quality;

(viii) The potential for health risks caused by human exposure to waste constituents;

(ix) The potential damage to wildlife, crops, vegetation, and physical structures caused by exposure to waste constituents; and

(x) The persistence and permanence of the potential adverse effects.

(c) In making any determination under paragraph (b) of this section about the use of ground water in the area around the facility the Regional Administrator will consider any identification of underground sources of drinking water and exempted aquifers made under § 144.8 of this chapter.

[47 FR 32350, July 26, 1982, as amended at 48 FR 14294, Apr. 1, 1983]

§ 264.95 Point of compliance.

(a) The Regional Administrator will specify in the facility permit the point of compliance at which the ground-water protection standard of § 264.92 applies and at which monitoring must be conducted. The point of compliance is a vertical surface located at the hydraulically downgradient limit of the waste management area that extends down into the uppermost aquifer underlying the regulated units.

(b) The waste management area is the limit projected in the horizontal plane of the area on which waste will be placed during the active life of a regulated unit.

(1) The waste management area includes horizontal space taken up by any liner, dike, or other barrier designed to contain waste in a regulated unit.

(2) If the facility contains more than one regulated unit, the waste management area is described by an imaginary line circumscribing the several regulated units.

§ 264.96 Compliance period.

(a) The Regional Administrator will specify in the facility permit the compliance period during which the ground-water protection standard of § 264.92 applies. The compliance period is the number of years equal to the active life of the waste management area (including any waste management activity prior to permitting, and the closure period.)

(b) The compliance period begins when the owner or operator initiates a compliance monitoring program meeting the requirements of § 264.99.

(c) If the owner or operator is engaged in a corrective action program at the end of the compliance period specified in paragraph (a) of this section, the compliance period is extended until the owner or operator can demonstrate that the ground-water protection standard of § 264.92 has not been exceeded for a period of three consecutive years.

§ 264.97 General ground-water monitoring requirements.

The owner or operator must comply with the following requirements for any ground-water monitoring program developed to satisfy § 264.98, § 264.99, or § 264.100:

(a) The ground-water monitoring system must consist of a sufficient number of wells, installed at appropriate locations and depths to yield ground-water samples from the uppermost aquifer that:

(1) Represent the quality of background ground water that has not been affected by leakage from a regulated unit;

(i) A determination of background ground-water quality may include sampling of wells that are not hydraulically upgradient of the waste management area where:

(A) Hydrogeologic conditions do not allow the owner or operator to determine what wells are hydraulically upgradient; and

(B) Sampling at other wells will provide an indication of background ground-water quality that is representative or more representative than that provided by the upgradient wells; and

(2) Represent the quality of ground water passing the point of compliance.

(3) Allow for the detection of contamination when hazardous waste or hazardous constituents have migrated from the waste management area to the uppermost aquifer.

(b) If a facility contains more than one regulated unit, separate ground-water monitoring systems are not required for each regulated unit provided that provisions for sampling the ground water in the uppermost aquifer will enable detection and measurement at the compliance point of hazardous constituents from the regulated units that have entered the ground water in the uppermost aquifer.

(c) All monitoring wells must be cased in a manner that maintains the integrity of the monitoring-well bore hole. This casing must be screened or perforated and packed with gravel or sand, where necessary, to enable collection of ground-water samples. The annular space (i.e., the space between the bore hole and well casing) above the sampling depth must be sealed to prevent contamination of samples and the ground water.

(d) The ground-water monitoring program must include consistent sampling and analysis procedures that are designed to ensure monitoring results that provide a reliable indication of ground-water quality below the waste management area. At a minimum the program must include procedures and techniques for:

(1) Sample collection;

(2) Sample preservation and shipment;

(3) Analytical procedures; and

(4) Chain of custody control.

(e) The ground-water monitoring program must include sampling and analytical methods that are appropriate for ground-water sampling and that accurately measure hazardous constituents in ground-water samples.

(f) The ground-water monitoring program must include a determination of the ground-water surface elevation each time ground water is sampled.

(g) In detection monitoring or where appropriate in compliance monitoring, data on each hazardous constituent specified in the permit will be collected from background wells and wells at the compliance point(s). The number and kinds of samples collected to establish background shall be appropriate for the form of statistical test employed, following generally accepted statistical principles. The sample size shall be as large as necessary to ensure with reasonable confidence that a contaminant release to ground water from a facility will be detected. The owner or operator will determine an appropriate sampling procedure and interval for each hazardous constituent listed in the facility permit which shall be specified in the unit permit upon approval by the Regional Administrator. This sampling procedure shall be:

(1) A sequence of at least four samples, taken at an interval that assures, to the greatest extent technically feasible, that an independent sample is obtained, by reference to the uppermost aquifer's effective porosity, hydraulic conductivity, and hydraulic gradient, and the fate and transport characteristics of the potential contaminants, or

(2) an alternate sampling procedure proposed by the owner or operator and approved by the Regional Administrator.

(h) The owner or operator will specify one of the following statistical methods to be used in evaluating ground-water monitoring data for each hazardous constituent which, upon approval by the Regional Administrator, will be specified in the unit permit. The statistical test chosen shall be conducted separately for each hazardous constituent in each well. Where practical quantification limits (pql's) are used in any of the following statistical procedures to comply with § 264.97(i)(5), the pql must be proposed by the owner or operator and approved by the Regional Administrator. Use of any of the following statistical methods must be protective of human health and the environment and must comply with the performance standards outlined in paragraph (i) of this section.

(1) A parametric analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by multiple comparisons procedures to identify statistically significant evidence of contamination. The method must include estimation and testing of the contrasts between each compliance well's mean and the background mean levels for each constituent.

(2) An analysis of variance (ANOVA) based on ranks followed by multiple comparisons procedures to identify statistically significant evidence of contamination. The method must include estimation and testing of the contrasts between each compliance well's median and the background median levels for each constituent.

(3) A tolerance or prediction interval procedure in which an interval for each constituent is established from the distribution of the background data, and the level of each constituent in each compliance well is compared to the upper tolerance or prediction limit.

(4) A control chart approach that gives control limits for each constituent.

(5) Another statistical test method submitted by the owner or operator and approved by the Regional Administrator.

(i) Any statistical method chosen under § 264.97(h) for specification in the unit permit shall comply with the following performance standards, as appropriate:

(1) The statistical method used to evaluate ground-water monitoring data shall be appropriate for the distribution of chemical parameters or hazardous constituents. If the distribution of the chemical parameters or hazardous constituents is shown by the owner or operator to be inappropriate for a normal theory test, then the data should be transformed or a distribution-free theory test should be used. If the distributions for the constituents differ, more than one statistical method may be needed.

(2) If an individual well comparison procedure is used to compare an individual compliance well constituent concentration with background constituent concentrations or a ground-water protection standard, the test shall be done at a Type I error level no less than 0.01 for each testing period. If a multiple comparisons procedure is used, the Type I experimentwise error rate for each testing period shall be no less than 0.05; however, the Type I error of no less than 0.01 for individual well comparisons must be maintained. This performance standard does not apply to tolerance intervals, prediction intervals or control charts.

(3) If a control chart approach is used to evaluate ground-water monitoring data, the specific type of control chart and its associated parameter values shall be proposed by the owner or operator and approved by the Regional Administrator if he or she finds it to be protective of human health and the environment.

(4) If a tolerance interval or a prediction interval is used to evaluate groundwater monitoring data, the levels of confidence and, for tolerance intervals, the percentage of the population that the interval must contain, shall be proposed by the owner or operator and approved by the Regional Administrator if he or she finds these parameters to be protective of human health and the environment. These parameters will be determined after considering the number of samples in the background data base, the data distribution, and the range of the concentration values for each constituent of concern.

(5) The statistical method shall account for data below the limit of detection with one or more statistical procedures that are protective of human health and the environment. Any practical quantification limit (pql) approved by the Regional Administrator under § 264.97(h) that is used in the statistical method shall be the lowest concentration level that can be reliably achieved within specified limits of precision and accuracy during routine laboratory operating conditions that are available to the facility.

(6) If necessary, the statistical method shall include procedures to control or correct for seasonal and spatial variability as well as temporal correlation in the data.

(j) Ground-water monitoring data collected in accordance with paragraph (g) of this section including actual levels of constituents must be maintained in the facility operating record. The Regional Administrator will specify in the permit when the data must be submitted for review.

[47 FR 32350, July 26, 1982, as amended at 50 FR 4514, Jan. 31, 1985; 53 FR 39728, Oct. 11, 1988; 71 FR 40272, July 14, 2006]

§ 264.98 Detection monitoring program.

An owner or operator required to establish a detection monitoring program under this subpart must, at a minimum, discharge the following responsibilities:

(a) The owner or operator must monitor for indicator parameters (e.g., specific conductance, total organic carbon, or total organic halogen), waste constituents, or reaction products that provide a reliable indication of the presence of hazardous constituents in ground water. The Regional Administrator will specify the parameters or constituents to be monitored in the facility permit, after considering the following factors:

(1) The types, quantities, and concentrations of constituents in wastes managed at the regulated unit;

(2) The mobility, stability, and persistence of waste constituents or their reaction products in the unsaturated zone beneath the waste management area;

(3) The detectability of indicator parameters, waste constituents, and reaction products in ground water; and

(4) The concentrations or values and coefficients of variation of proposed monitoring parameters or constituents in the ground-water background.

(b) The owner or operator must install a ground-water monitoring system at the compliance point as specified under § 264.95. The ground-water monitoring system must comply with § 264.97(a)(2), (b), and (c).

(c) The owner or operator must conduct a ground-water monitoring program for each chemical parameter and hazardous constituent specified in the permit pursuant to paragraph (a) of this section in accordance with § 264.97(g). The owner or operator must maintain a record of ground-water analytical data as measured and in a form necessary for the determination of statistical significance under § 264.97(h).

(d) The Regional Administrator will specify the frequencies for collecting samples and conducting statistical tests to determine whether there is statistically significant evidence of contamination for any parameter or hazardous constituent specified in the permit conditions under paragraph (a) of this section in accordance with § 264.97(g).

(e) The owner or operator must determine the ground-water flow rate and direction in the uppermost aquifer at least annually.

(f) The owner or operator must determine whether there is statistically significant evidence of contamination for any chemical parameter of hazardous constituent specified in the permit pursuant to paragraph (a) of this section at a frequency specified under paragraph (d) of this section.

(1) In determining whether statistically significant evidence of contamination exists, the owner or operator must use the method(s) specified in the permit under § 264.97(h). These method(s) must compare data collected at the compliance point(s) to the background ground-water quality data.

(2) The owner or operator must determine whether there is statistically significant evidence of contamination at each monitoring well as the compliance point within a reasonable period of time after completion of sampling. The Regional Administrator will specify in the facility permit what period of time is reasonable, after considering the complexity of the statistical test and the availability of laboratory facilities to perform the analysis of ground-water samples.

(g) If the owner or operator determines pursuant to paragraph (f) of this section that there is statistically significant evidence of contamination for chemical parameters or hazardous constituents specified pursuant to paragraph (a) of this section at any monitoring well at the compliance point, he or she must:

(1) Notify the Regional Administrator of this finding in writing within seven days. The notification must indicate what chemical parameters or hazardous constituents have shown statistically significant evidence of contamination;

(2) Immediately sample the ground water in all monitoring wells and determine whether constituents in the list of appendix IX of this part are present, and if so, in what concentration. However, the Regional Administrator, on a discretionary basis, may allow sampling for a site-specific subset of constituents from the appendix IX list of this part and other representative/related waste constituents.

(3) For any appendix IX compounds found in the analysis pursuant to paragraph (g)(2) of this section, the owner or operator may resample within one month or at an alternative site-specific schedule approved by the Administrator and repeat the analysis for those compounds detected. If the results of the second analysis confirm the initial results, then these constituents will form the basis for compliance monitoring. If the owner or operator does not resample for the compounds in paragraph (g)(2) of this section, the hazardous constituents found during this initial appendix IX analysis will form the basis for compliance monitoring.

(4) Within 90 days, submit to the Regional Administrator an application for a permit modification to establish a compliance monitoring program meeting the requirements of § 264.99. The application must include the following information:

(i) An identification of the concentration of any appendix IX constituent detected in the ground water at each monitoring well at the compliance point;

(ii) Any proposed changes to the ground-water monitoring system at the facility necessary to meet the requirements of § 264.99;

(iii) Any proposed additions or changes to the monitoring frequency, sampling and analysis procedures or methods, or statistical methods used at the facility necessary to meet the requirements of § 264.99;

(iv) For each hazardous constituent detected at the compliance point, a proposed concentration limit under § 264.94(a) (1) or (2), or a notice of intent to seek an alternate concentration limit under § 264.94(b); and

(5) Within 180 days, submit to the Regional Administrator:

(i) All data necessary to justify an alternate concentration limit sought under § 264.94(b); and

(ii) An engineering feasibility plan for a corrective action program necessary to meet the requirement of § 264.100, unless:

(A) All hazardous constituents identified under paragraph (g)(2) of this section are listed in Table 1 of § 264.94 and their concentrations do not exceed the respective values given in that Table; or

(B) The owner or operator has sought an alternate concentration limit under § 264.94(b) for every hazardous constituent identified under paragraph (g)(2) of this section.

(6) If the owner or operator determines, pursuant to paragraph (f) of this section, that there is a statistically significant difference for chemical parameters or hazardous constituents specified pursuant to paragraph (a) of this section at any monitoring well at the compliance point, he or she may demonstrate that a source other than a regulated unit caused the contamination or that the detection is an artifact caused by an error in sampling, analysis, or statistical evaluation or natural variation in the ground water. The owner operator may make a demonstration under this paragraph in addition to, or in lieu of, submitting a permit modification application under paragraph (g)(4) of this section; however, the owner or operator is not relieved of the requirement to submit a permit modification application within the time specified in paragraph (g)(4) of this section unless the demonstration made under this paragraph successfully shows that a source other than a regulated unit caused the increase, or that the increase resulted from error in sampling, analysis, or evaluation. In making a demonstration under this paragraph, the owner or operator must:

(i) Notify the Regional Administrator in writing within seven days of determining statistically significant evidence of contamination at the compliance point that he intends to make a demonstration under this paragraph;

(ii) Within 90 days, submit a report to the Regional Administrator which demonstrates that a source other than a regulated unit caused the contamination or that the contamination resulted from error in sampling, analysis, or evaluation;

(iii) Within 90 days, submit to the Regional Administrator an application for a permit modification to make any appropriate changes to the detection monitoring program facility; and

(iv) Continue to monitor in accordance with the detection monitoring program established under this section.

(h) If the owner or operator determines that the detection monitoring program no longer satisfies the requirements of this section, he or she must, within 90 days, submit an application for a permit modification to make any appropriate changes to the program.

[47 FR 32350, July 26, 1982, as amended at 50 FR 4514, Jan. 31, 1985; 52 FR 25946, July 9, 1987; 53 FR 39729, Oct. 11, 1988; 71 FR 16904, Apr. 4, 2006; 71 FR 40272, July 14, 2006]

§ 264.99 Compliance monitoring program.

An owner or operator required to establish a compliance monitoring program under this subpart must, at a minimum, discharge the following responsibilities:

(a) The owner or operator must monitor the ground water to determine whether regulated units are in compliance with the ground-water protection standard under § 264.92. The Regional Administrator will specify the ground-water protection standard in the facility permit, including:

(1) A list of the hazardous constituents identified under § 264.93;

(2) Concentration limits under § 264.94 for each of those hazardous constituents;

(3) The compliance point under § 264.95; and

(4) The compliance period under § 264.96.

(b) The owner or operator must install a ground-water monitoring system at the compliance point as specified under § 264.95. The ground-water monitoring system must comply with § 264.97(a)(2), (b), and (c).

(c) The Regional Administrator will specify the sampling procedures and statistical methods appropriate for the constituents and the facility, consistent with § 264.97 (g) and (h).

(1) The owner or operator must conduct a sampling program for each chemical parameter or hazardous constituent in accordance with § 264.97(g).

(2) The owner or operator must record ground-water analytical data as measured and in form necessary for the determination of statistical significance under § 264.97(h) for the compliance period of the facility.

(d) The owner or operator must determine whether there is statistically significant evidence of increased contamination for any chemical parameter or hazardous constituent specified in the permit, pursuant to paragraph (a) of this section, at a frequency specified under paragraph (f) under this section.

(1) In determining whether statistically significant evidence of increased contamination exists, the owner or operator must use the method(s) specified in the permit under § 264.97(h). The methods(s) must compare data collected at the compliance point(s) to a concentration limit developed in accordance with § 264.94.

(2) The owner or operator must determine whether there is statistically significant evidence of increased contamination at each monitoring well at the compliance point within a reasonable time period after completion of sampling. The Regional Administrator will specify that time period in the facility permit, after considering the complexity of the statistical test and the availability of laboratory facilities to perform the analysis of ground-water samples.

(e) The owner or operator must determine the ground-water flow rate and direction in the uppermost aquifer at least annually.

(f) The Regional Administrator will specify the frequencies for collecting samples and conducting statistical tests to determine statistically significant evidence of increased contamination in accordance with § 264.97(g).

(g) Annually, the owner or operator must determine whether additional hazardous constituents from appendix IX of this part, which could possibly be present but are not on the detection monitoring list in the permit, are actually present in the uppermost aquifer and, if so, at what concentration, pursuant to procedures in § 264.98(f). To accomplish this, the owner or operator must consult with the Regional Administrator to determine on a case-by-case basis: which sample collection event during the year will involve enhanced sampling; the number of monitoring wells at the compliance point to undergo enhanced sampling; the number of samples to be collected from each of these monitoring wells; and, the specific constituents from appendix IX of this part for which these samples must be analyzed. If the enhanced sampling event indicates that appendix IX constituents are present in the ground water that are not already identified in the permit as monitoring constituents, the owner or operator may resample within one month or at an alternative site-specific schedule approved by the Regional Administrator, and repeat the analysis. If the second analysis confirms the presence of new constituents, the owner or operator must report the concentration of these additional constituents to the Regional Administrator within seven days after the completion of the second analysis and add them to the monitoring list. If the owner or operator chooses not to resample, then he or she must report the concentrations of these additional constituents to the Regional Administrator within seven days after completion of the initial analysis, and add them to the monitoring list.

(h) If the owner or operator determines pursuant to paragraph (d) of this section that any concentration limits under § 264.94 are being exceeded at any monitoring well at the point of compliance he or she must:

(1) Notify the Regional Administrator of this finding in writing within seven days. The notification must indicate what concentration limits have been exceeded.

(2) Submit to the Regional Administrator an application for a permit modification to establish a corrective action program meeting the requirements of § 264.100 within 180 days, or within 90 days if an engineering feasibility study has been previously submitted to the Regional Administrator under § 264.98(g)(5). The application must at a minimum include the following information:

(i) A detailed description of corrective actions that will achieve compliance with the ground-water protection standard specified in the permit under paragraph (a) of this section; and

(ii) A plan for a ground-water monitoring program that will demonstrate the effectiveness of the corrective action. Such a ground-water monitoring program may be based on a compliance monitoring program developed to meet the requirements of this section.

(i) If the owner or operator determines, pursuant to paragraph (d) of this section, that the ground-water concentration limits under this section are being exceeded at any monitoring well at the point of compliance, he or she may demonstrate that a source other than a regulated unit caused the contamination or that the detection is an artifact caused by an error in sampling, analysis, or statistical evaluation or natural variation in the ground water. In making a demonstration under this paragraph, the owner or operator must:

(1) Notify the Regional Administrator in writing within seven days that he intends to make a demonstration under this paragraph;

(2) Within 90 days, submit a report to the Regional Administrator which demonstrates that a source other than a regulated unit caused the standard to be exceeded or that the apparent noncompliance with the standards resulted from error in sampling, analysis, or evaluation;

(3) Within 90 days, submit to the Regional Administrator an application for a permit modification to make any appropriate changes to the compliance monitoring program at the facility; and

(4) Continue to monitor in accord with the compliance monitoring program established under this section.

(j) If the owner or operator determines that the compliance monitoring program no longer satisfies the requirements of this section, he must, within 90 days, submit an application for a permit modification to make any appropriate changes to the program.

[47 FR 32350, July 26, 1982, as amended at 50 FR 4514, Jan. 31, 1985; 52 FR 25946, July 9, 1987; 53 FR 39730, Oct. 11, 1988; 71 FR 16904, Apr. 4, 2006; 71 FR 40272, July 14, 2006]

§ 264.100 Corrective action program.

An owner or operator required to establish a corrective action program under this subpart must, at a minimum, discharge the following responsibilities:

(a) The owner or operator must take corrective action to ensure that regulated units are in compliance with the ground-water protection standard under § 264.92. The Regional Administrator will specify the ground-water protection standard in the facility permit, including:

(1) A list of the hazardous constituents identified under § 264.93;

(2) Concentration limits under § 264.94 for each of those hazardous constituents;

(3) The compliance point under § 264.95; and

(4) The compliance period under § 264.96.

(b) The owner or operator must implement a corrective action program that prevents hazardous constituents from exceeding their respective concentration limits at the compliance point by removing the hazardous waste constituents or treating them in place. The permit will specify the specific measures that will be taken.

(c) The owner or operator must begin corrective action within a reasonable time period after the ground-water protection standard is exceeded. The Regional Administrator will specify that time period in the facility permit. If a facility permit includes a corrective action program in addition to a compliance monitoring program, the permit will specify when the corrective action will begin and such a requirement will operate in lieu of § 264.99(i)(2).

(d) In conjunction with a corrective action program, the owner or operator must establish and implement a ground-water monitoring program to demonstrate the effectiveness of the corrective action program. Such a monitoring program may be based on the requirements for a compliance monitoring program under § 264.99 and must be as effective as that program in determining compliance with the ground-water protection standard under § 264.92 and in determining the success of a corrective action program under paragraph (e) of this section, where appropriate.

(e) In addition to the other requirements of this section, the owner or operator must conduct a corrective action program to remove or treat in place any hazardous constituents under § 264.93 that exceed concentration limits under § 264.94 in groundwater:

(1) Between the compliance point under § 264.95 and the downgradient property boundary; and

(2) Beyond the facility boundary, where necessary to protect human health and the environment, unless the owner or operator demonstrates to the satisfaction of the Regional Administrator that, despite the owner's or operator's best efforts, the owner or operator was unable to obtain the necessary permission to undertake such action. The owner/operator is not relieved of all responsibility to clean up a release that has migrated beyond the facility boundary where off-site access is denied. On-site measures to address such releases will be determined on a case-by-case basis.

(3) Corrective action measures under this paragraph must be initiated and completed within a reasonable period of time considering the extent of contamination.

(4) Corrective action measures under this paragraph may be terminated once the concentration of hazardous constituents under § 264.93 is reduced to levels below their respective concentration limits under § 264.94.

(f) The owner or operator must continue corrective action measures during the compliance period to the extent necessary to ensure that the ground-water protection standard is not exceeded. If the owner or operator is conducting corrective action at the end of the compliance period, he must continue that corrective action for as long as necessary to achieve compliance with the ground-water protection standard. The owner or operator may terminate corrective action measures taken beyond the period equal to the active life of the waste management area (including the closure period) if he can demonstrate, based on data from the ground-water monitoring program under paragraph (d) of this section, that the ground-water protection standard of § 264.92 has not been exceeded for a period of three consecutive years.

(g) The owner or operator must report in writing to the Regional Administrator on the effectiveness of the corrective action program. The owner or operator must submit these reports annually.

(h) If the owner or operator determines that the corrective action program no longer satisfies the requirements of this section, he must, within 90 days, submit an application for a permit modification to make any appropriate changes to the program.

[47 FR 32350, July 26, 1985, as amended at 50 FR 4514, Jan. 31, 1985; 52 FR 45798, Dec. 1, 1987; 71 FR 16904, Apr. 4, 2006]

§ 264.101 Corrective action for solid waste management units.

(a) The owner or operator of a facility seeking a permit for the treatment, storage or disposal of hazardous waste must institute corrective action as necessary to protect human health and the environment for all releases of hazardous waste or constituents from any solid waste management unit at the facility, regardless of the time at which waste was placed in such unit.

(b) Corrective action will be specified in the permit in accordance with this section and subpart S of this part. The permit will contain schedules of compliance for such corrective action (where such corrective action cannot be completed prior to issuance of the permit) and assurances of financial responsibility for completing such corrective action.

(c) The owner or operator must implement corrective actions beyond the facility property boundary, where necessary to protect human health and the environment, unless the owner or operator demonstrates to the satisfaction of the Regional Administrator that, despite the owner's or operator's best efforts, the owner or operator was unable to obtain the necessary permission to undertake such actions. The owner/operator is not relieved of all responsibility to clean up a release that has migrated beyond the facility boundary where off-site access is denied. On-site measures to address such releases will be determined on a case-by-case basis. Assurances of financial responsibility for such corrective action must be provided.

(d) This section does not apply to remediation waste management sites unless they are part of a facility subject to a permit for treating, storing or disposing of hazardous wastes that are not remediation wastes.

[50 FR 28747, July 15, 1985, as amended at 52 FR 45798, Dec. 1, 1987; 58 FR 8683, Feb. 16, 1993; 63 FR 65938, Nov. 30, 1998; 71 FR 40272, July 14, 2006]

Subpart G - Closure and Post-Closure
Source:

51 FR 16444, May 2, 1986, unless otherwise noted.

§ 264.110 Applicability.

Except as § 264.1 provides otherwise:

(a) Sections 264.111 through 264.115 (which concern closure) apply to the owners and operators of all hazardous waste management facilities; and

(b) Sections 264.116 through 264.120 (which concern post-closure care) apply to the owners and operators of:

(1) All hazardous waste disposal facilities;

(2) Waste piles and surface impoundments from which the owner or operator intends to remove the wastes at closure to the extent that these sections are made applicable to such facilities in § 264.228 or § 264.258;

(3) Tank systems that are required under § 264.197 to meet the requirements for landfills; and

(4) Containment buildings that are required under § 264.1102 to meet the requirement for landfills.

(c) The Regional Administrator may replace all or part of the requirements of this subpart (and the unit-specific standards referenced in § 264.111(c) applying to a regulated unit), with alternative requirements set out in a permit or in an enforceable document (as defined in 40 CFR 270.1(c)(7)), where the Regional Administrator determines that:

(1) The regulated unit is situated among solid waste management units (or areas of concern), a release has occurred, and both the regulated unit and one or more solid waste management unit(s) (or areas of concern) are likely to have contributed to the release; and

(2) It is not necessary to apply the closure requirements of this subpart (and those referenced herein) because the alternative requirements will protect human health and the environment and will satisfy the closure performance standard of § 264.111 (a) and (b).

[51 FR 16444, May 2, 1986, as amended at 51 FR 25472, July 14, 1986; 57 FR 37264, Aug. 18, 1992; 63 FR 56733, Oct. 22, 1998]

§ 264.111 Closure performance standard.

The owner or operator must close the facility in a manner that:

(a) Minimizes the need for further maintenance; and

(b) Controls, minimizes or eliminates, to the extent necessary to protect human health and the environment, post-closure escape of hazardous waste, hazardous constituents, leachate, contaminated run-off, or hazardous waste decomposition products to the ground or surface waters or to the atmosphere; and

(c) Complies with the closure requirements of this part, including, but not limited to, the requirements of §§ 264.178, 264.197, 264.228, 264.258, 264.280, 264.310, 264.351, 264.601 through 264.603, and 264.1102.

[51 FR 16444, May 2, 1986, as amended at 52 FR 46963, Dec. 10, 1987; 57 FR 37265, Aug. 18, 1992; 71 FR 40272, July 14, 2006]

§ 264.112 Closure plan; amendment of plan.

(a) Written plan.

(1) The owner or operator of a hazardous waste management facility must have a written closure plan. In addition, certain surface impoundments and waste piles from which the owner or operator intends to remove or decontaminate the hazardous waste at partial or final closure are required by §§ 264.228(c)(1)(i) and 264.258(c)(1)(i) to have contingent closure plans. The plan must be submitted with the permit application, in accordance with § 270.14(b)(13) of this chapter, and approved by the Regional Administrator as part of the permit issuance procedures under part 124 of this chapter. In accordance with § 270.32 of this chapter, the approved closure plan will become a condition of any RCRA permit.

(2) The Director's approval of the plan must ensure that the approved closure plan is consistent with §§ 264.111 through 264.115 and the applicable requirements of subpart F of this part, §§ 264.178, 264.197, 264.228, 264.258, 264.280, 264.310, 264.351, 264.601, and 264.1102. Until final closure is completed and certified in accordance with § 264.115, a copy of the approved plan and all approved revisions must be furnished to the Director upon request, including requests by mail.

(b) Content of plan. The plan must identify steps necessary to perform partial and/or final closure of the facility at any point during its active life. The closure plan must include, at least:

(1) A description of how each hazardous waste management unit at the facility will be closed in accordance with § 264.111;

(2) A description of how final closure of the facility will be conducted in accordance with § 264.111. The description must identify the maximum extent of the operations which will be unclosed during the active life of the facility; and

(3) An estimate of the maximum inventory of hazardous wastes ever on-site over the active life of the facility and a detailed description of the methods to be used during partial closures and final closure, including, but not limited to, methods for removing, transporting, treating, storing, or disposing of all hazardous wastes, and identification of the type(s) of the off-site hazardous waste management units to be used, if applicable; and

(4) A detailed description of the steps needed to remove or decontaminate all hazardous waste residues and contaminated containment system components, equipment, structures, and soils during partial and final closure, including, but not limited to, procedures for cleaning equipment and removing contaminated soils, methods for sampling and testing surrounding soils, and criteria for determining the extent of decontamination required to satisfy the closure performance standard; and

(5) A detailed description of other activities necessary during the closure period to ensure that all partial closures and final closure satisfy the closure performance standards, including, but not limited to, ground-water monitoring, leachate collection, and run-on and run-off control; and

(6) A schedule for closure of each hazardous waste management unit and for final closure of the facility. The schedule must include, at a minimum, the total time required to close each hazardous waste management unit and the time required for intervening closure activities which will allow tracking of the progress of partial and final closure. (For example, in the case of a landfill unit, estimates of the time required to treat or dispose of all hazardous waste inventory and of the time required to place a final cover must be included.)

(7) For facilities that use trust funds to establish financial assurance under § 264.143 or § 264.145 and that are expected to close prior to the expiration of the permit, an estimate of the expected year of final closure.

(8) For facilities where the Regional Administrator has applied alternative requirements at a regulated unit under §§ 264.90(f), 264.110(c), and/or § 264.140(d), either the alternative requirements applying to the regulated unit, or a reference to the enforceable document containing those alternative requirements.

(c) Amendment of plan. The owner or operator must submit a written notification of or request for a permit modification to authorize a change in operating plans, facility design, or the approved closure plan in accordance with the applicable procedures in parts 124 and 270. The written notification or request must include a copy of the amended closure plan for review or approval by the Regional Administrator.

(1) The owner or operator may submit a written notification or request to the Regional Administrator for a permit modification to amend the closure plan at any time prior to the notification of partial or final closure of the facility.

(2) The owner or operator must submit a written notification of or request for a permit modification to authorize a change in the approved closure plan whenever:

(i) Changes in operating plans or facility design affect the closure plan, or

(ii) There is a change in the expected year of closure, if applicable, or

(iii) In conducting partial or final closure activities, unexpected events require a modification of the approved closure plan.

(iv) The owner or operator requests the Regional Administrator to apply alternative requirements to a regulated unit under §§ 264.90(f), 264.110(c), and/or § 264.140(d).

(3) The owner or operator must submit a written request for a permit modification including a copy of the amended closure plan for approval at least 60 days prior to the proposed change in facility design or operation, or no later than 60 days after an unexpected event has occurred which has affected the closure plan. If an unexpected event occurs during the partial or final closure period, the owner or operator must request a permit modification no later than 30 days after the unexpected event. An owner or operator of a surface impoundment or waste pile that intends to remove all hazardous waste at closure and is not otherwise required to prepare a contingent closure plan under § 264.228(c)(1)(i) or § 264.258(c)(1)(i), must submit an amended closure plan to the Regional Administrator no later than 60 days from the date that the owner or operator or Regional Administrator determines that the hazardous waste management unit must be closed as a landfill, subject to the requirements of § 264.310, or no later than 30 days from that date if the determination is made during partial or final closure. The Regional Administrator will approve, disapprove, or modify this amended plan in accordance with the procedures in parts 124 and 270. In accordance with § 270.32 of this chapter, the approved closure plan will become a condition of any RCRA permit issued.

(4) The Regional Administrator may request modifications to the plan under the conditions described in § 264.112(c)(2). The owner or operator must submit the modified plan within 60 days of the Regional Administrator's request, or within 30 days if the change in facility conditions occurs during partial or final closure. Any modifications requested by the Regional Administrator will be approved in accordance with the procedures in parts 124 and 270.

(d) Notification of partial closure and final closure.

(1) The owner or operator must notify the Regional Administrator in writing at least 60 days prior to the date on which he expects to begin closure of a surface impoundment, waste pile, land treatment or landfill unit, or final closure of a facility with such a unit. The owner or operator must notify the Regional Administrator in writing at least 45 days prior to the date on which he expects to begin final closure of a facility with only treatment or storage tanks, container storage, or incinerator units to be closed. The owner or operator must notify the Regional Administrator in writing at least 45 days prior to the date on which he expects to begin partial or final closure of a boiler or industrial furnace, whichever is earlier.

(2) The date when he “expects to begin closure” must be either:

(i) No later than 30 days after the date on which any hazardous waste management unit receives the known final volume of hazardous wastes, or if there is a reasonable possibility that the hazardous waste management unit will receive additional hazardous wastes, no later than one year after the date on which the unit received the most recent volume of hazardous wastes. If the owner or operator of a hazardous waste management unit can demonstrate to the Regional Administrator that the hazardous waste management unit or facility has the capacity to receive additional hazardous wastes and he has taken all steps to prevent threats to human health and the environment, including compliance with all applicable permit requirements, the Regional Administrator may approve an extension to this one-year limit; or

(ii) For units meeting the requirements of § 264.113(d), no later than 30 days after the date on which the hazardous waste management unit receives the known final volume of non-hazardous wastes, or if there is a reasonable possibility that the hazardous waste management unit will receive additional non-hazardous wastes, no later than one year after the date on which the unit received the most recent volume of non-hazardous wastes. If the owner or operator can demonstrate to the Regional Administrator that the hazardous waste management unit has the capacity to receive additional non-hazardous wastes and he has taken, and will continue to take, all steps to prevent threats to human health and the environment, including compliance with all applicable permit requirements, the Regional Administrator may approve an extension to this one-year limit.

(3) If the facility's permit is terminated, or if the facility is otherwise ordered, by judicial decree or final order under section 3008 of RCRA, to cease receiving hazardous wastes or to close, then the requirements of this paragraph do not apply. However, the owner or operator must close the facility in accordance with the deadlines established in § 264.113.

(e) Removal of wastes and decontamination or dismantling of equipment. Nothing in this section shall preclude the owner or operator from removing hazardous wastes and decontaminating or dismantling equipment in accordance with the approved partial or final closure plan at any time before or after notification of partial or final closure.

[51 FR 16444, May 2, 1986, as amended at 52 FR 46963, Dec. 10, 1987; 53 FR 37935, Sept. 28, 1988; 54 FR 33394, Aug. 14, 1989; 56 FR 7207, Feb. 21, 1991; 57 FR 37265, Aug. 18, 1992; 63 FR 56733, Oct. 22, 1998; 71 FR 40272, July 14, 2006]

§ 264.113 Closure; time allowed for closure.

(a) Within 90 days after receiving the final volume of hazardous wastes, or the final volume of non-hazardous wastes if the owner or operator complies with all applicable requirements in paragraphs (d) and (e) of this section, at a hazardous waste management unit or facility, the owner or operator must treat, remove from the unit or facility, or dispose of on-site, all hazardous wastes in accordance with the approved closure plan. The Regional Administrator may approve a longer period if the owner or operator complies with all applicable requirements for requesting a modification to the permit and demonstrates that:

(1)

(i) The activities required to comply with this paragraph will, of necessity, take longer than 90 days to complete; or

(ii)

(A) The hazardous waste management unit or facility has the capacity to receive additional hazardous wastes, or has the capacity to receive non-hazardous wastes if the owner or operator complies with paragraphs (d) and (e) of this section; and

(B) There is a reasonable likelihood that he or another person will recommence operation of the hazardous waste management unit or the facility within one year; and

(C) Closure of the hazardous waste management unit or facility would be incompatible with continued operation of the site; and

(2) He has taken and will continue to take all steps to prevent threats to human health and the environment, including compliance with all applicable permit requirements.

(b) The owner or operator must complete partial and final closure activities in accordance with the approved closure plan and within 180 days after receiving the final volume of hazardous wastes, or the final volume of non-hazardous wastes if the owner or operator complies with all applicable requirements in paragraphs (d) and (e) of this section, at the hazardous waste management unit or facility. The Regional Administrator may approve an extension to the closure period if the owner or operator complies with all applicable requirements for requesting a modification to the permit and demonstrates that:

(1)

(i) The partial or final closure activities will, of necessity, take longer than 180 days to complete; or

(ii)

(A) The hazardous waste management unit or facility has the capacity to receive additional hazardous wastes, or has the capacity to receive non-hazardous wastes if the owner or operator complies with paragraphs (d) and (e) of this section; and

(B) There is reasonable likelihood that he or another person will recommence operation of the hazardous waste management unit or the facility within one year; and

(C) Closure of the hazardous waste management unit or facility would be incompatible with continued operation of the site; and

(2) He has taken and will continue to take all steps to prevent threats to human health and the environment from the unclosed but not operating hazardous waste management unit or facility, including compliance with all applicable permit requirements.

(c) The demonstrations referred to in paragraphs (a)(1) and (b)(1) of this section must be made as follows:

(1) The demonstrations in paragraph (a)(1) of this section must be made at least 30 days prior to the expiration of the 90-day period in paragraph (a) of this section; and

(2) The demonstration in paragraph (b)(1) of this section must be made at least 30 days prior to the expiration of the 180-day period in paragraph (b) of this section, unless the owner or operator is otherwise subject to the deadlines in paragraph (d) of this section.

(d) The Regional Administrator may allow an owner or operator to receive only non-hazardous wastes in a landfill, land treatment, or surface impoundment unit after the final receipt of hazardous wastes at that unit if:

(1) The owner or operator requests a permit modification in compliance with all applicable requirements in parts 270 and 124 of this title and in the permit modification request demonstrates that:

(i) The unit has the existing design capacity as indicated on the part A application to receive non-hazardous wastes; and

(ii) There is a reasonable likelihood that the owner or operator or another person will receive non-hazardous wastes in the unit within one year after the final receipt of hazardous wastes; and

(iii) The non-hazardous wastes will not be incompatible with any remaining wastes in the unit, or with the facility design and operating requirements of the unit or facility under this part; and

(iv) Closure of the hazardous waste management unit would be incompatible with continued operation of the unit or facility; and

(v) The owner or operator is operating and will continue to operate in compliance with all applicable permit requirements; and

(2) The request to modify the permit includes an amended waste analysis plan, ground-water monitoring and response program, human exposure assessment required under RCRA section 3019, and closure and post-closure plans, and updated cost estimates and demonstrations of financial assurance for closure and post-closure care as necessary and appropriate, to reflect any changes due to the presence of hazardous constituents in the non-hazardous wastes, and changes in closure activities, including the expected year of closure if applicable under § 264.112(b)(7), as a result of the receipt of non-hazardous wastes following the final receipt of hazardous wastes; and

(3) The request to modify the permit includes revisions, as necessary and appropriate, to affected conditions of the permit to account for the receipt of non-hazardous wastes following receipt of the final volume of hazardous wastes; and

(4) The request to modify the permit and the demonstrations referred to in paragraphs (d)(1) and (d)(2) of this section are submitted to the Regional Administrator no later than 120 days prior to the date on which the owner or operator of the facility receives the known final volume of hazardous wastes at the unit, or no later than 90 days after the effective date of this rule in the state in which the unit is located, whichever is later.

(e) In addition to the requirements in paragraph (d) of this section, an owner or operator of a hazardous waste surface impoundment that is not in compliance with the liner and leachate collection system requirements in 42 U.S.C. 3004(o)(1) and 3005(j)(1) or 42 U.S.C. 3004(o) (2) or (3) or 3005(j) (2), (3), (4) or (13) must:

(1) Submit with the request to modify the permit:

(i) A contingent corrective measures plan, unless a corrective action plan has already been submitted under § 264.99; and

(ii) A plan for removing hazardous wastes in compliance with paragraph (e)(2) of this section; and

(2) Remove all hazardous wastes from the unit by removing all hazardous liquids, and removing all hazardous sludges to the extent practicable without impairing the integrity of the liner(s), if any.

(3) Removal of hazardous wastes must be completed no later than 90 days after the final receipt of hazardous wastes. The Regional Administrator may approve an extension to this deadline if the owner or operator demonstrates that the removal of hazardous wastes will, of necessity, take longer than the allotted period to complete and that an extension will not pose a threat to human health and the environment.

(4) If a release that is a statistically significant increase (or decrease in the case of pH) over background values for detection monitoring parameters or constituents specified in the permit or that exceeds the facility's ground-water protection standard at the point of compliance, if applicable, is detected in accordance with the requirements in subpart F of this part, the owner or operator of the unit:

(i) Must implement corrective measures in accordance with the approved contingent corrective measures plan required by paragraph (e)(1) of this section no later than one year after detection of the release, or approval of the contingent corrective measures plan, whichever is later;

(ii) May continue to receive wastes at the unit following detection of the release only if the approved corrective measures plan includes a demonstration that continued receipt of wastes will not impede corrective action; and

(iii) May be required by the Regional Administrator to implement corrective measures in less than one year or to cease the receipt of wastes until corrective measures have been implemented if necessary to protect human health and the environment.

(5) During the period of corrective action, the owner or operator shall provide annual reports to the Regional Administrator describing the progress of the corrective action program, compile all ground-water monitoring data, and evaluate the effect of the continued receipt of non-hazardous wastes on the effectiveness of the corrective action.

(6) The Regional Administrator may require the owner or operator to commence closure of the unit if the owner or operator fails to implement corrective action measures in accordance with the approved contingent corrective measures plan within one year as required in paragraph (e)(4) of this section, or fails to make substantial progress in implementing corrective action and achieving the facility's ground-water protection standard or background levels if the facility has not yet established a ground-water protection standard.

(7) If the owner or operator fails to implement corrective measures as required in paragraph (e)(4) of this section, or if the Regional Administrator determines that substantial progress has not been made pursuant to paragraph (e)(6) of this section he shall:

(i) Notify the owner or operator in writing that the owner or operator must begin closure in accordance with the deadlines in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section and provide a detailed statement of reasons for this determination, and

(ii) Provide the owner or operator and the public, through a newspaper notice, the opportunity to submit written comments on the decision no later than 20 days after the date of the notice.

(iii) If the Regional Administrator receives no written comments, the decision will become final five days after the close of the comment period. The Regional Administrator will notify the owner or operator that the decision is final, and that a revised closure plan, if necessary, must be submitted within 15 days of the final notice and that closure must begin in accordance with the deadlines in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section.

(iv) If the Regional Administrator receives written comments on the decision, he shall make a final decision within 30 days after the end of the comment period, and provide the owner or operator in writing and the public through a newspaper notice, a detailed statement of reasons for the final decision. If the Regional Administrator determines that substantial progress has not been made, closure must be initiated in accordance with the deadlines in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section.

(v) The final determinations made by the Regional Administrator under paragraphs (e)(7) (iii) and (iv) of this section are not subject to administrative appeal.

[51 FR 16444, May 2, 1986, as amended at 54 FR 33394, Aug. 14, 1989; 71 FR 16904, Apr. 4, 2006]

§ 264.114 Disposal or decontamination of equipment, structures and soils.

During the partial and final closure periods, all contaminated equipment, structures and soils must be properly disposed of or decontaminated unless otherwise specified in §§ 264.197, 264.228, 264.258, 264.280 or § 264.310. By removing any hazardous wastes or hazardous constituents during partial and final closure, the owner or operator may become a generator of hazardous waste and must handle that waste in accordance with all applicable requirements of part 262 of this chapter.

[51 FR 16444, May 2, 1986, as amended at 52 FR 46963, Dec. 10, 1987; 53 FR 34086, Sept. 2, 1988]

§ 264.115 Certification of closure.

Within 60 days of completion of closure of each hazardous waste surface impoundment, waste pile, land treatment, and landfill unit, and within 60 days of the completion of final closure, the owner or operator must submit to the Regional Administrator, by registered mail, a certification that the hazardous waste management unit or facility, as applicable, has been closed in accordance with the specifications in the approved closure plan. The certification must be signed by the owner or operator and by a qualified Professional Engineer. Documentation supporting the Professional Engineer's certification must be furnished to the Regional Administrator upon request until he releases the owner or operator from the financial assurance requirements for closure under § 264.143(i).

[71 FR 16904, Apr. 4, 2006, as amended at 71 FR 40272, July 14, 2006]

§ 264.116 Survey plat.

No later than the submission of the certification of closure of each hazardous waste disposal unit, the owner or operator must submit to the local zoning authority, or the authority with jurisdiction over local land use, and to the Regional Administrator, a survey plat indicating the location and dimensions of landfill cells or other hazardous waste disposal units with respect to permanently surveyed benchmarks. This plat must be prepared and certified by a professional land surveyor. The plat filed with the local zoning authority, or the authority with jurisdiction over local land use, must contain a note, prominently displayed, which states the owner's or operator's obligation to restrict disturbance of the hazardous waste disposal unit in accordance with the applicable subpart G regulations.

[51 FR 16444, May 2, 1986, as amended at 71 FR 40272, July 14, 2006]

§ 264.117 Post-closure care and use of property.

(a)

(1) Post-closure care for each hazardous waste management unit subject to the requirements of §§ 264.117 through 264.120 must begin after completion of closure of the unit and continue for 30 years after that date and must consist of at least the following:

(i) Monitoring and reporting in accordance with the requirements of subparts F, K, L, M, N, and X of this part; and

(ii) Maintenance and monitoring of waste containment systems in accordance with the requirements of subparts F, K, L, M, N, and X of this part.

(2) Any time preceding partial closure of a hazardous waste management unit subject to post-closure care requirements or final closure, or any time during the post-closure period for a particular unit, the Regional Administrator may, in accordance with the permit modification procedures in parts 124 and 270:

(i) Shorten the post-closure care period applicable to the hazardous waste management unit, or facility, if all disposal units have been closed, if he finds that the reduced period is sufficient to protect human health and the environment (e.g., leachate or ground-water monitoring results, characteristics of the hazardous wastes, application of advanced technology, or alternative disposal, treatment, or re-use techniques indicate that the hazardous waste management unit or facility is secure); or

(ii) Extend the post-closure care period applicable to the hazardous waste management unit or facility if he finds that the extended period is necessary to protect human health and the environment (e.g., leachate or ground-water monitoring results indicate a potential for migration of hazardous wastes at levels which may be harmful to human health and the environment).

(b) The Regional Administrator may require, at partial and final closure, continuation of any of the security requirements of § 264.14 during part or all of the post-closure period when:

(1) Hazardous wastes may remain exposed after completion of partial or final closure; or

(2) Access by the public or domestic livestock may pose a hazard to human health.

(c) Post-closure use of property on or in which hazardous wastes remain after partial or final closure must never be allowed to disturb the integrity of the final cover, liner(s), or any other components of the containment system, or the function of the facility's monitoring systems, unless the Regional Administrator finds that the disturbance:

(1) Is necessary to the proposed use of the property, and will not increase the potential hazard to human health or the environment; or

(2) Is necessary to reduce a threat to human health or the environment.

(d) All post-closure care activities must be in accordance with the provisions of the approved post-closure plan as specified in § 264.118.

[51 FR 16444, May 2, 1986, as amended at 52 FR 46963, Dec. 10, 1987]

§ 264.118 Post-closure plan; amendment of plan.

(a) Written Plan. The owner or operator of a hazardous waste disposal unit must have a written post-closure plan. In addition, certain surface impoundments and waste piles from which the owner or operator intends to remove or decontaminate the hazardous wastes at partial or final closure are required by §§ 264.228(c)(1)(ii) and 264.258(c)(1)(ii) to have contingent post-closure plans. Owners or operators of surface impoundments and waste piles not otherwise required to prepare contingent post-closure plans under §§ 264.228(c)(1)(ii) and 264.258(c)(1)(ii) must submit a post-closure plan to the Regional Administrator within 90 days from the date that the owner or operator or Regional administrator determines that the hazardous waste management unit must be closed as a landfill, subject to the requirements of §§ 264.117 through 264.120. The plan must be submitted with the permit application, in accordance with § 270.14(b)(13) of this chapter, and approved by the Regional Administrator as part of the permit issuance procedures under part 124 of this chapter. In accordance with § 270.32 of this chapter, the approved post-closure plan will become a condition of any RCRA permit issued.

(b) For each hazardous waste management unit subject to the requirements of this section, the post-closure plan must identify the activities that will be carried on after closure of each disposal unit and the frequency of these activities, and include at least:

(1) A description of the planned monitoring activities and frequencies at which they will be performed to comply with subparts F, K, L, M, N, and X of this part during the post-closure care period; and

(2) A description of the planned maintenance activities, and frequencies at which they will be performed, to ensure:

(i) The integrity of the cap and final cover or other containment systems in accordance with the requirements of subparts F, K, L, M, N, and X of this part; and

(ii) The function of the monitoring equipment in accordance with the requirements of subparts, F, K, L, M, N, and X of this part; and

(3) The name, address, and phone number of the person or office to contact about the hazardous waste disposal unit or facility during the post-closure care period.

(4) For facilities where the Regional Administrator has applied alternative requirements at a regulated unit under §§ 264.90(f), 264.110(c), and/or §§ 264.140(d), either the alternative requirements that apply to the regulated unit, or a reference to the enforceable document containing those requirements.

(c) Until final closure of the facility, a copy of the approved post-closure plan must be furnished to the Regional Administrator upon request, including request by mail. After final closure has been certified, the person or office specified in § 264.118(b)(3) must keep the approved post-closure plan during the remainder of the post-closure period.

(d) Amendment of plan. The owner or operator must submit a written notification of or request for a permit modification to authorize a change in the approved post-closure plan in accordance with the applicable requirements in parts 124 and 270. The written notification or request must include a copy of the amended post-closure plan for review or approval by the Regional Administrator.

(1) The owner or operator may submit a written notification or request to the Regional Administrator for a permit modification to amend the post-closure plan at any time during the active life of the facility or during the post-closure care period.

(2) The owner or operator must submit a written notification of or request for a permit modification to authorize a change in the approved post-closure plan whenever:

(i) Changes in operating plans or facility design affect the approved post-closure plan, or

(ii) There is a change in the expected year of final closure, if applicable, or

(iii) Events which occur during the active life of the facility, including partial and final closures, affect the approved post-closure plan.

(iv) The owner or operator requests the Regional Administrator to apply alternative requirements to a regulated unit under §§ 264.90(f), 264.110(c), and/or § 264.140(d).

(3) The owner or operator must submit a written request for a permit modification at least 60 days prior to the proposed change in facility design or operation, or no later than 60 days after an unexpected event has occurred which has affected the post-closure plan. An owner or operator of a surface impoundment or waste pile that intends to remove all hazardous waste at closure and is not otherwise required to submit a contingent post-closure plan under §§ 264.228(c)(1)(ii) and 264.258(c)(1)(ii) must submit a post-closure plan to the Regional Administrator no later than 90 days after the date that the owner or operator or Regional Administrator determines that the hazardous waste management unit must be closed as a landfill, subject to the requirements of § 264.310. The Regional Administrator will approve, disapprove or modify this plan in accordance with the procedures in parts 124 and 270. In accordance with § 270.32 of this chapter, the approved post-closure plan will become a permit condition.

(4) The Regional Administrator may request modifications to the plan under the conditions described in § 264.118(d)(2). The owner or operator must submit the modified plan no later than 60 days after the Regional Administrator's request, or no later than 90 days if the unit is a surface impoundment or waste pile not previously required to prepare a contingent post-closure plan. Any modifications requested by the Regional Administrator will be approved, disapproved, or modified in accordance with the procedures in parts 124 and 270.

[51 FR 16444, May 2, 1986, as amended at 52 FR 46964, Dec. 10, 1987; 53 FR 37935, Sept. 28, 1988; 63 FR 56733, Oct. 22, 1998; 71 FR 40272, July 14, 2006]

§ 264.119 Post-closure notices.

(a) No later than 60 days after certification of closure of each hazardous waste disposal unit, the owner or operator must submit to the local zoning authority, or the authority with jurisdiction over local land use, and to the Regional Administrator a record of the type, location, and quantity of hazardous wastes disposed of within each cell or other disposal unit of the facility. For hazardous wastes disposed of before January 12, 1981, the owner or operator must identify the type, location, and quantity of the hazardous wastes to the best of his knowledge and in accordance with any records he has kept.

(b) Within 60 days of certification of closure of the first hazardous waste disposal unit and within 60 days of certification of closure of the last hazardous waste disposal unit, the owner or operator must:

(1) Record, in accordance with State law, a notation on the deed to the facility property - or on some other instrument which is normally examined during title search - that will in perpetuity notify any potential purchaser of the property that:

(i) The land has been used to manage hazardous wastes; and

(ii) Its use is restricted under 40 CFR part 264, subpart G regulations; and

(iii) The survey plat and record of the type, location, and quantity of hazardous wastes disposed of within each cell or other hazardous waste disposal unit of the facility required by §§ 264.116 and 264.119(a) have been filed with the local zoning authority or the authority with jurisdiction over local land use and with the Regional Administrator; and

(2) Submit a certification, signed by the owner or operator, that he has recorded the notation specified in paragraph (b)(1) of this section, including a copy of the document in which the notation has been placed, to the Regional Administrator.

(c) If the owner or operator or any subsequent owner or operator of the land upon which a hazardous waste disposal unit is located wishes to remove hazardous wastes and hazardous waste residues, the liner, if any, or contaminated soils, he must request a modification to the post-closure permit in accordance with the applicable requirements in parts 124 and 270. The owner or operator must demonstrate that the removal of hazardous wastes will satisfy the criteria of § 264.117(c). By removing hazardous waste, the owner or operator may become a generator of hazardous waste and must manage it in accordance with all applicable requirements of this chapter. If he is granted a permit modification or otherwise granted approval to conduct such removal activities, the owner or operator may request that the Regional Administrator approve either:

(1) The removal of the notation on the deed to the facility property or other instrument normally examined during title search; or

(2) The addition of a notation to the deed or instrument indicating the removal of the hazardous waste.

[51 FR 16444, May 2, 1986, as amended at 71 FR 40272, July 14, 2006]

§ 264.120 Certification of completion of post-closure care.

No later than 60 days after completion of the established post-closure care period for each hazardous waste disposal unit, the owner or operator must submit to the Regional Administrator, by registered mail, a certification that the post-closure care period for the hazardous waste disposal unit was performed in accordance with the specifications in the approved post-closure plan. The certification must be signed by the owner or operator and a qualified Professional Engineer. Documentation supporting the Professional Engineer's certification must be furnished to the Regional Administrator upon request until he releases the owner or operator from the financial assurance requirements for post-closure care under § 264.145(i).

[71 FR 16904, Apr. 4, 2006]

Subpart H - Financial Requirements
Source:

47 FR 15047, Apr. 7, 1982, unless otherwise noted.

§ 264.140 Applicability.

(a) The requirements of §§ 264.142, 264.143, and 264.147 through 264.151 apply to owners and operators of all hazardous waste facilities, except as provided otherwise in this section or in § 264.1.

(b) The requirements of §§ 264.144 and 264.145 apply only to owners and operators of:

(1) Disposal facilities;

(2) Piles, and surface impoundments from which the owner or operator intends to remove the wastes at closure, to the extent that these sections are made applicable to such facilities in §§ 264.228 and 264.258;

(3) Tank systems that are required under § 264.197 to meet the requirements for landfills; and

(4) Containment buildings that are required under § 264.1102 to meet the requirements for landfills.

(c) States and the Federal government are exempt from the requirements of this subpart.

(d) The Regional Administrator may replace all or part of the requirements of this subpart applying to a regulated unit with alternative requirements for financial assurance set out in the permit or in an enforceable document (as defined in 40 CFR 270.1(c)(7)), where the Regional Administrator:

(1) Prescribes alternative requirements for the regulated unit under § 264.90(f) and/or § 264.110(c); and

(2) Determines that it is not necessary to apply the requirements of this subpart because the alternative financial assurance requirements will protect human health and the environment.

[47 FR 15047, Apr. 7, 1982, as amended at 47 FR 32357, July 26, 1982; 51 FR 25472, July 14, 1986; 57 FR 37265, Aug. 18, 1992; 63 FR 56733, Oct. 22, 1998; 71 FR 40272, July 14, 2006]

§ 264.141 Definitions of terms as used in this subpart.

(a) Closure plan means the plan for closure prepared in accordance with the requirements of § 264.112.

(b) Current closure cost estimate means the most recent of the estimates prepared in accordance with § 264.142 (a), (b), and (c).

(c) Current post-closure cost estimate means the most recent of the estimates prepared in accordance with § 264.144 (a), (b), and (c).

(d) Parent corporation means a corporation which directly owns at least 50 percent of the voting stock of the corporation which is the facility owner or operator; the latter corporation is deemed a “subsidiary” of the parent corporation.

(e) Post-closure plan means the plan for post-closure care prepared in accordance with the requirements of §§ 264.117 through 264.120.

(f) The following terms are used in the specifications for the financial tests for closure, post-closure care, and liability coverage. The definitions are intended to assist in the understanding of these regulations and are not intended to limit the meanings of terms in a way that conflicts with generally accepted accounting practices.

Assets means all existing and all probable future economic benefits obtained or controlled by a particular entity.

Current assets means cash or other assets or resources commonly identified as those which are reasonably expected to be realized in cash or sold or consumed during the normal operating cycle of the business.

Current liabilities means obligations whose liquidation is reasonably expected to require the use of existing resources properly classifiable as current assets or the creation of other current liabilities.

Current plugging and abandonment cost estimate means the most recent of the estimates prepared in accordance with § 144.62(a), (b), and (c) of this title.

Independently audited refers to an audit performed by an independent certified public accountant in accordance with generally accepted auditing standards.

Liabilities means probable future sacrifices of economic benefits arising from present obligations to transfer assets or provide services to other entities in the future as a result of past transactions or events.

Net working capital means current assets minus current liabilities.

Net worth means total assets minus total liabilities and is equivalent to owner's equity.

Tangible net worth means the tangible assets that remain after deducting liabilities; such assets would not include intangibles such as goodwill and rights to patents or royalties.

(g) In the liability insurance requirements the terms bodily injury and property damage shall have the meanings given these terms by applicable State law. However, these terms do not include those liabilities which, consistent with standard industry practices, are excluded from coverage in liability policies for bodily injury and property damage. The Agency intends the meanings of other terms used in the liability insurance requirements to be consistent with their common meanings within the insurance industry. The definitions given below of several of the terms are intended to assist in the understanding of these regulations and are not intended to limit their meanings in a way that conflicts with general insurance industry usage.

Accidental occurrence means an accident, including continuous or repeated exposure to conditions, which results in bodily injury or property damage neither expected nor intended from the standpoint of the insured.

Legal defense costs means any expenses that an insurer incurs in defending against claims of third parties brought under the terms and conditions of an insurance policy.

Nonsudden accidental occurrence means an occurrence which takes place over time and involves continuous or repeated exposure.

Sudden accidental occurrence means an occurrence which is not continuous or repeated in nature.

(h) Substantial business relationship means the extent of a business relationship necessary under applicable State law to make a guarantee contract issued incident to that relationship valid and enforceable. A “substantial business relationship” must arise from a pattern of recent or ongoing business transactions, in addition to the guarantee itself, such that a currently existing business relationship between the guarantor and the owner or operator is demonstrated to the satisfaction of the applicable EPA Regional Administrator.

[47 FR 16554, Apr. 16, 1982, as amended at 51 FR 16447, May 2, 1986; 53 FR 33950, Sept. 1, 1988]

§ 264.142 Cost estimate for closure.

(a) The owner or operator must have a detailed written estimate, in current dollars, of the cost of closing the facility in accordance with the requirements in §§ 264.111 through 264.115 and applicable closure requirements in §§ 264.178, 264.197, 264.228, 264.258, 264.280, 264.310, 264.351, 264.601 through 264.603, and 264.1102.

(1) The estimate must equal the cost of final closure at the point in the facility's active life when the extent and manner of its operation would make closure the most expensive, as indicated by its closure plan (see § 264.112(b)); and

(2) The closure cost estimate must be based on the costs to the owner or operator of hiring a third party to close the facility. A third party is a party who is neither a parent nor a subsidiary of the owner or operator. (See definition of parent corporation in § 264.141(d).) The owner or operator may use costs for on-site disposal if he can demonstrate that on-site disposal capacity will exist at all times over the life of the facility.

(3) The closure cost estimate may not incorporate any salvage value that may be realized with the sale of hazardous wastes, or non-hazardous wastes if applicable under § 264.113(d), facility structures or equipment, land, or other assets associated with the facility at the time of partial or final closure.

(4) The owner or operator may not incorporate a zero cost for hazardous wastes, or non-hazardous wastes if applicable under § 264.113(d), that might have economic value.

(b) During the active life of the facility, the owner or operator must adjust the closure cost estimate for inflation within 60 days prior to the anniversary date of the establishment of the financial instrument(s) used to comply with § 264.143. For owners and operators using the financial test or corporate guarantee, the closure cost estimate must be updated for inflation within 30 days after the close of the firm's fiscal year and before submission of updated information to the Regional Administrator as specified in § 264.143(f)(3). The adjustment may be made by recalculating the maximum costs of closure in current dollars, or by using an inflation factor derived from the most recent Implicit Price Deflator for Gross National Product published by the U.S. Department of Commerce in its Survey of Current Business, as specified in paragraphs (b)(1) and (2) of this section. The inflation factor is the result of dividing the latest published annual Deflator by the Deflator for the previous year.

(1) The first adjustment is made by multiplying the closure cost estimate by the inflation factor. The result is the adjusted closure cost estimate.

(2) Subsequent adjustments are made by multiplying the latest adjusted closure cost estimate by the latest inflation factor.

(c) During the active life of the facility, the owner or operator must revise the closure cost estimate no later than 30 days after the Regional Administrator has approved the request to modify the closure plan, if the change in the closure plan increases the cost of closure. The revised closure cost estimate must be adjusted for inflation as specified in § 264.142(b).

(d) The owner or operator must keep the following at the facility during the operating life of the facility: The latest closure cost estimate prepared in accordance with § 264.142 (a) and (c) and, when this estimate has been adjusted in accordance with § 264.142(b), the latest adjusted closure cost estimate.

[47 FR 15047, Apr. 7, 1982, as amended at 50 FR 4514, Jan. 31, 1985; 51 FR 16447, May 2, 1986; 52 FR 46964, Dec. 10, 1987; 54 FR 33395, Aug. 14, 1989; 57 FR 37265, Aug. 18, 1992; 71 FR 40272, July 14, 2006]

§ 264.143 Financial assurance for closure.

An owner or operator of each facility must establish financial assurance for closure of the facility. He must choose from the options as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section.

(a) Closure trust fund.

(1) An owner or operator may satisfy the requirements of this section by establishing a closure trust fund which conforms to the requirements of this paragraph and submitting an originally signed duplicate of the trust agreement to the Regional Administrator. An owner or operator of a new facility must submit the originally signed duplicate of the trust agreement to the Regional Administrator at least 60 days before the date on which hazardous waste is first received for treatment, storage, or disposal. The trustee must be an entity which has the authority to act as a trustee and whose trust operations are regulated and examined by a Federal or State agency.

(2) The wording of the trust agreement must be identical to the wording specified in § 264.151(a)(1), and the trust agreement must be accompanied by a formal certification of acknowledgment (for example, see § 264.151(a)(2)). Schedule A of the trust agreement must be updated within 60 days after a change in the amount of the current closure cost estimate covered by the agreement.

(3) Payments into the trust fund must be made annually by the owner or operator over the term of the initial RCRA permit or over the remaining operating life of the facility as estimated in the closure plan, whichever period is shorter; this period is hereafter referred to as the “pay-in period.” The payments into the closure trust fund must be made as follows:

(i) For a new facility, the first payment must be made before the initial receipt of hazardous waste for treatment, storage, or disposal. A receipt from the trustee for this payment must be submitted by the owner or operator to the Regional Administrator before this initial receipt of hazardous waste. The first payment must be at least equal to the current closure cost estimate, except as provided in § 264.143(g), divided by the number of years in the pay-in period. Subsequent payments must be made no later than 30 days after each anniversary date of the first payment. The amount of each subsequent payment must be determined by this formula:

where CE is the current closure cost estimate, CV is the current value of the trust fund, and Y is the number of years remaining in the pay-in period.

(ii) If an owner or operator establishes a trust fund as specified in § 265.143(a) of this chapter, and the value of that trust fund is less than the current closure cost estimate when a permit is awarded for the facility, the amount of the current closure cost estimate still to be paid into the trust fund must be paid in over the pay-in period as defined in paragraph (a)(3) of this section. Payments must continue to be made no later than 30 days after each anniversary date of the first payment made pursuant to part 265 of this chapter. The amount of each payment must be determined by this formula:

where CE is the current closure cost estimate, CV is the current value of the trust fund, and Y is the number of years remaining in the pay-in period.

(4) The owner or operator may accelerate payments into the trust fund or he may deposit the full amount of the current closure cost estimate at the time the fund is established. However, he must maintain the value of the fund at no less than the value that the fund would have if annual payments were made as specified in paragraph (a)(3) of this section.

(5) If the owner or operator establishes a closure trust fund after having used one or more alternate mechanisms specified in this section or in § 265.143 of this chapter, his first payment must be in at least the amount that the fund would contain if the trust fund were established initially and annual payments made according to specifications of this paragraph and § 265.143(a) of this chapter, as applicable.

(6) After the pay-in period is completed, whenever the current closure cost estimate changes, the owner or operator must compare the new estimate with the trustee's most recent annual valuation of the trust fund. If the value of the fund is less than the amount of the new estimate, the owner or operator, within 60 days after the change in the cost estimate, must either deposit an amount into the fund so that its value after this deposit at least equals the amount of the current closure cost estimate, or obtain other financial assurance as specified in this section to cover the difference.

(7) If the value of the trust fund is greater than the total amount of the current closure cost estimate, the owner or operator may submit a written request to the Regional Administrator for release of the amount in excess of the current closure cost estimate.

(8) If an owner or operator substitutes other financial assurance as specified in this section for all or part of the trust fund, he may submit a written request to the Regional Administrator for release of the amount in excess of the current closure cost estimate covered by the trust fund.

(9) Within 60 days after receiving a request from the owner or operator for release of funds as specified in paragraph (a) (7) or (8) of this section, the Regional Administrator will instruct the trustee to release to the owner or operator such funds as the Regional Administrator specifies in writing.

(10) After beginning partial or final closure, an owner or operator or another person authorized to conduct partial or final closure may request reimbursements for partial or final closure expenditures by submitting itemized bills to the Regional Administrator. The owner or operator may request reimbursements for partial closure only if sufficient funds are remaining in the trust fund to cover the maximum costs of closing the facility over its remaining operating life. Within 60 days after receiving bills for partial or final closure activities, the Regional Administrator will instruct the trustee to make reimbursements in those amounts as the Regional Administrator specifies in writing, if the Regional Administrator determines that the partial or final closure expenditures are in accordance with the approved closure plan, or otherwise justified. If the Regional Administrator has reason to believe that the maximum cost of closure over the remaining life of the facility will be significantly greater than the value of the trust fund, he may withhold reimbursements of such amounts as he deems prudent until he determines, in accordance with § 264.143(i) that the owner or operator is no longer required to maintain financial assurance for final closure of the facility. If the Regional Administrator does not instruct the trustee to make such reimbursements, he will provide the owner or operator with a detailed written statement of reasons.

(11) The Regional Administrator will agree to termination of the trust when:

(i) An owner or operator substitutes alternate financial assurance as specified in this section; or

(ii) The Regional Administrator releases the owner or operator from the requirements of this section in accordance with § 264.143(i).

(b) Surety bond guaranteeing payment into a closure trust fund.

(1) An owner or operator may satisfy the requirements of this section by obtaining a surety bond which conforms to the requirements of this paragraph and submitting the bond to the Regional Administrator. An owner or operator of a new facility must submit the bond to the Regional Administrator at least 60 days before the date on which hazardous waste is first received for treatment, storage, or disposal. The bond must be effective before this initial receipt of hazardous waste. The surety company issuing the bond must, at a minimum, be among those listed as acceptable sureties on Federal bonds in Circular 570 of the U.S. Department of the Treasury.

(2) The wording of the surety bond must be identical to the wording specified in § 264.151(b).

(3) The owner or operator who uses a surety bond to satisfy the requirements of this section must also establish a standby trust fund. Under the terms of the bond, all payments made thereunder will be deposited by the surety directly into the standby trust fund in accordance with instructions from the Regional Administrator. This standby trust fund must meet the requirements specified in § 264.143(a), except that:

(i) An originally signed duplicate of the trust agreement must be submitted to the Regional Administrator with the surety bond; and

(ii) Until the standby trust fund is funded pursuant to the requirements of this section, the following are not required by these regulations:

(A) Payments into the trust fund as specified in § 264.143(a);

(B) Updating of Schedule A of the trust agreement (see § 264.151(a)) to show current closure cost estimates;

(C) Annual valuations as required by the trust agreement; and

(D) Notices of nonpayment as required by the trust agreement.

(4) The bond must guarantee that the owner or operator will:

(i) Fund the standby trust fund in an amount equal to the penal sum of the bond before the beginning of final closure of the facility; or

(ii) Fund the standby trust fund in an amount equal to the penal sum within 15 days after an administrative order to begin final closure issued by the Regional Administrator becomes final, or within 15 days after an order to begin final closure is issued by a U.S. district court or other court of competent jurisdiction; or

(iii) Provide alternate financial assurance as specified in this section, and obtain the Regional Administrator's written approval of the assurance provided, within 90 days after receipt by both the owner or operator and the Regional Administrator of a notice of cancellation of the bond from the surety.

(5) Under the terms of the bond, the surety will become liable on the bond obligation when the owner or operator fails to perform as guaranteed by the bond.

(6) The penal sum of the bond must be in an amount at least equal to the current closure cost estimate, except as provided in § 264.143(g).

(7) Whenever the current closure cost estimate increases to an amount greater than the penal sum, the owner or operator, within 60 days after the increase, must either cause the penal sum to be increased to an amount at least equal to the current closure cost estimate and submit evidence of such increase to the Regional Administrator, or obtain other financial assurance as specified in this section to cover the increase. Whenever the current closure cost estimate decreases, the penal sum may be reduced to the amount of the current closure cost estimate following written approval by the Regional Administrator.

(8) Under the terms of the bond, the surety may cancel the bond by sending notice of cancellation by certified mail to the owner or operator and to the Regional Administrator. Cancellation may not occur, however, during the 120 days beginning on the date of receipt of the notice of cancellation by both the owner or operator and the Regional Administrator, as evidenced by the return receipts.

(9) The owner or operator may cancel the bond if the Regional Administrator has given prior written consent based on his receipt of evidence of alternate financial assurance as specified in this section.

(c) Surety bond guaranteeing performance of closure.

(1) An owner or operator may satisfy the requirements of this section by obtaining a surety bond which conforms to the requirements of this paragraph and submitting the bond to the Regional Administrator. An owner or operator of a new facility must submit the bond to the Regional Administrator at least 60 days before the date on which hazardous waste is first received for treatment, storage, or disposal. The bond must be effective before this initial receipt of hazardous waste. The surety company issuing the bond must, at a minimum, be among those listed as acceptable sureties on Federal bonds in Circular 570 of the U.S. Department of the Treasury.

(2) The wording of the surety bond must be identical to the wording specified in § 264.151(c).

(3) The owner or operator who uses a surety bond to satisfy the requirements of this section must also establish a standby trust fund. Under the terms of the bond, all payments made thereunder will be deposited by the surety directly into the standby trust fund in accordance with instructions from the Regional Administrator. This standby trust must meet the requirements specified in § 264.143(a), except that:

(i) An originally signed duplicate of the trust agreement must be submitted to the Regional Administrator with the surety bond; and

(ii) Unless the standby trust fund is funded pursuant to the requirements of this section, the following are not required by these regulations:

(A) Payments into the trust fund as specified in § 264.143(a);

(B) Updating of Schedule A of the trust agreement (see § 264.151(a)) to show current closure cost estimates;

(C) Annual valuations as required by the trust agreement; and

(D) Notices of nonpayment as required by the trust agreement.

(4) The bond must guarantee that the owner or operator will:

(i) Perform final closure in accordance with the closure plan and other requirements of the permit for the facility whenever required to do so; or

(ii) Provide alternate financial assurance as specified in this section, and obtain the Regional Administrator's written approval of the assurance provided, within 90 days after receipt by both the owner or operator and the Regional Administrator of a notice of cancellation of the bond from the surety.

(5) Under the terms of the bond, the surety will become liable on the bond obligation when the owner or operator fails to perform as guaranteed by the bond. Following a final administrative determination pursuant to section 3008 of RCRA that the owner or operator has failed to perform final closure in accordance with the approved closure plan and other permit requirements when required to do so, under the terms of the bond the surety will perform final closure as guaranteed by the bond or will deposit the amount of the penal sum into the standby trust fund.

(6) The penal sum of the bond must be in an amount at least equal to the current closure cost estimate.

(7) Whenever the current closure cost estimate increases to an amount greater than the penal sum, the owner or operator, within 60 days after the increase, must either cause the penal sum to be increased to an amount at least equal to the current closure cost estimate and submit evidence of such increase to the Regional Administrator, or obtain other financial assurance as specified in this section. Whenever the current closure cost estimate decreases, the penal sum may be reduced to the amount of the current closure cost estimate following written approval by the Regional Administrator.

(8) Under the terms of the bond, the surety may cancel the bond by sending notice of cancellation by certified mail to the owner or operator and to the Regional Administrator. Cancellation may not occur, however, during the 120 days beginning on the date of receipt of the notice of cancellation by both the owner or operator and the Regional Administrator, as evidenced by the return receipts.

(9) The owner or operator may cancel the bond if the Regional Administrator has given prior written consent. The Regional Administrator will provide such written consent when:

(i) An owner or operator substitutes alternate financial assurance as specified in this section; or

(ii) The Regional Administrator releases the owner or operator from the requirements of this section in accordance with § 264.143(i).

(10) The surety will not be liable for deficiencies in the performance of closure by the owner or operator after the Regional Administrator releases the owner or operator from the requirements of this section in accordance with § 264.143(i).

(d) Closure letter of credit.

(1) An owner or operator may satisfy the requirements of this section by obtaining an irrevocable standby letter of credit which conforms to the requirements of this paragraph and submitting the letter to the Regional Administrator. An owner or operator of a new facility must submit the letter of credit to the Regional Administrator at least 60 days before the date on which hazardous waste is first received for treatment, storage, or disposal. The letter of credit must be effective before this initial receipt of hazardous waste. The issuing institution must be an entity which has the authority to issue letters of credit and whose letter-of-credit operations are regulated and examined by a Federal or State agency.

(2) The wording of the letter of credit must be identical to the wording specified in § 264.151(d).

(3) An owner or operator who uses a letter of credit to satisfy the requirements of this section must also establish a standby trust fund. Under the terms of the letter of credit, all amounts paid pursuant to a draft by the Regional Administrator will be deposited by the issuing institution directly into the standby trust fund in accordance with instructions from the Regional Administrator. This standby trust fund must meet the requirements of the trust fund specified in § 264.143(a), except that:

(i) An originally signed duplicate of the trust agreement must be submitted to the Regional Administrator with the letter of credit; and

(ii) Unless the standby trust fund is funded pursuant to the requirements of this section, the following are not required by these regulations:

(A) Payments into the trust fund as specified in § 264.143(a);

(B) Updating of Schedule A of the trust agreement (see § 264.151(a)) to show current closure cost estimates;

(C) Annual valuations as required by the trust agreement; and

(D) Notices of nonpayment as required by the trust agreement.

(4) The letter of credit must be accompanied by a letter from the owner or operator referring to the letter of credit by number, issuing institution, and date, and providing the following information: the EPA Identification Number, name, and address of the facility, and the amount of funds assured for closure of the facility by the letter of credit.

(5) The letter of credit must be irrevocable and issued for a period of at least 1 year. The letter of credit must provide that the expiration date will be automatically extended for a period of at least 1 year unless, at least 120 days before the current expiration date, the issuing institution notifies both the owner or operator and the Regional Administrator by certified mail of a decision not to extend the expiration date. Under the terms of the letter of credit, the 120 days will begin on the date when both the owner or operator and the Regional Administrator have received the notice, as evidenced by the return receipts.

(6) The letter of credit must be issued in an amount at least equal to the current closure cost estimate, except as provided in § 264.143(g).

(7) Whenever the current closure cost estimate increases to an amount greater than the amount of the credit, the owner or operator, within 60 days after the increase, must either cause the amount of the credit to be increased so that it at least equals the current closure cost estimate and submit evidence of such increase to the Regional Administrator, or obtain other financial assurance as specified in this section to cover the increase. Whenever the current closure cost estimate decreases, the amount of the credit may be reduced to the amount of the current closure cost estimate following written approval by the Regional Administrator.

(8) Following a final administrative determination pursuant to section 3008 of RCRA that the owner or operator has failed to perform final closure in accordance with the closure plan and other permit requirements when required to do so, the Regional Administrator may draw on the letter of credit.

(9) If the owner or operator does not establish alternate financial assurance as specified in this section and obtain written approval of such alternate assurance from the Regional Administrator within 90 days after receipt by both the owner or operator and the Regional Administrator of a notice from issuing institution that it has decided not to extend the letter of credit beyond the current expiration date, the Regional Administrator will draw on the letter of credit. The Regional Administrator may delay the drawing if the issuing institution grants an extension of the term of the credit. During the last 30 days of any such extension the Regional Administrator will draw on the letter of credit if the owner or operator has failed to provide alternate financial assurance as specified in this section and obtain written approval of such assurance from the Regional Administrator.

(10) The Regional Administrator will return the letter of credit to the issuing institution for termination when:

(i) An owner or operator substitutes alternate financial assurance as specified in this section; or

(ii) The Regional Administrator releases the owner or operator from the requirements of this section in accordance with § 264.143(i).

(e) Closure insurance.

(1) An owner or operator may satisfy the requirements of this section by obtaining closure insurance which conforms to the requirements of this paragraph and submitting a certificate of such insurance to the Regional Administrator. An owner or operator of a new facility must submit the certificate of insurance to the Regional Administrator at least 60 days before the date on which hazardous waste is first received for treatment, storage, or disposal. The insurance must be effective before this initial receipt of hazardous waste. At a minimum, the insurer must be licensed to transact the business of insurance, or eligible to provide insurance as an excess or surplus lines insurer, in one or more States.

(2) The wording of the certificate of insurance must be identical to the wording specified in § 264.151(e).

(3) The closure insurance policy must be issued for a face amount at least equal to the current closure cost estimate, except as provided in § 264.143(g). The term “face amount” means the total amount the insurer is obligated to pay under the policy. Actual payments by the insurer will not change the face amount, although the insurer's future liability will be lowered by the amount of the payments.

(4) The closure insurance policy must guarantee that funds will be available to close the facility whenever final closure occurs. The policy must also guarantee that once final closure begins, the insurer will be responsible for paying out funds, up to an amount equal to the face amount of the policy, upon the direction of the Regional Administrator, to such party or parties as the Regional Administrator specifies.

(5) After beginning partial or final closure, an owner or operator or any other person authorized to conduct closure may request reimbursements for closure expenditures by submitting itemized bills to the Regional Administrator. The owner or operator may request reimbursements for partial closure only if the remaining value of the policy is sufficient to cover the maximum costs of closing the facility over its remaining operating life. Within 60 days after receiving bills for closure activities, the Regional Administrator will instruct the insurer to make reimbursements in such amounts as the Regional Administrator specifies in writing, if the Regional Administrator determines that the partial or final closure expenditures are in accordance with the approved closure plan or otherwise justified. If the Regional Administrator has reason to believe that the maximum cost of closure over the remaining life of the facility will be significantly greater than the face amount of the policy, he may withhold reimbursements of such amounts as he deems prudent until he determines, in accordance with § 264.143(i), that the owner or operator is no longer required to maintain financial assurance for final closure of the facility. If the Regional Administrator does not instruct the insurer to make such reimbursements, he will provide the owner or operator with a detailed written statement of reasons.

(6) The owner or operator must maintain the policy in full force and effect until the Regional Administrator consents to termination of the policy by the owner or operator as specified in paragraph (e)(10) of this section. Failure to pay the premium, without substitution of alternate financial assurance as specified in this section, will constitute a significant violation of these regulations, warranting such remedy as the Regional Administrator deems necessary. Such violation will be deemed to begin upon receipt by the Regional Administrator of a notice of future cancellation, termination, or failure to renew due to nonpayment of the premium, rather than upon the date of expiration.

(7) Each policy must contain a provision allowing assignment of the policy to a successor owner or operator. Such assignment may be conditional upon consent of the insurer, provided such consent is not unreasonably refused.

(8) The policy must provide that the insurer may not cancel, terminate, or fail to renew the policy except for failure to pay the premium. The automatic renewal of the policy must, at a minimum, provide the insured with the option of renewal at the face amount of the expiring policy. If there is a failure to pay the premium, the insurer may elect to cancel, terminate, or fail to renew the policy by sending notice by certified mail to the owner or operator and the Regional Administrator. Cancellation, termination, or failure to renew may not occur, however, during the 120 days beginning with the date of receipt of the notice by both the Regional Administrator and the owner or operator, as evidenced by the return receipts. Cancellation, termination, or failure to renew may not occur and the policy will remain in full force and effect in the event that on or before the date of expiration:

(i) The Regional Administrator deems the facility abandoned; or

(ii) The permit is terminated or revoked or a new permit is denied; or

(iii) Closure is ordered by the Regional Administrator or a U.S. district court or other court of competent jurisdiction; or

(iv) The owner or operator is named as debtor in a voluntary or involuntary proceeding under Title 11 (Bankruptcy), U.S. Code; or

(v) The premium due is paid.

(9) Whenever the current closure cost estimate increases to an amount greater than the face amount of the policy, the owner or operator, within 60 days after the increase, must either cause the face amount to be increased to an amount at least equal to the current closure cost estimate and submit evidence of such increase to the Regional Administrator, or obtain other financial assurance as specified in this section to cover the increase. Whenever the current closure cost estimate decreases, the face amount may be reduced to the amount of the current closure cost estimate following written approval by the Regional Administrator.

(10) The Regional Administrator will give written consent to the owner or operator that he may terminate the insurance policy when:

(i) An owner or operator substitutes alternate financial assurance as specified in this section; or

(ii) The Regional Administrator releases the owner or operator from the requirements of this section in accordance with § 264.143(i).

(f) Financial test and corporate guarantee for closure.

(1) An owner or operator may satisfy the requirements of this section by demonstrating that he passes a financial test as specified in this paragraph. To pass this test the owner or operator must meet the criteria of either paragraph (f)(1)(i) or (ii) of this section:

(i) The owner or operator must have:

(A) Two of the following three ratios: a ratio of total liabilities to net worth less than 2.0; a ratio of the sum of net income plus depreciation, depletion, and amortization to total liabilities greater than 0.1; and a ratio of current assets to current liabilities greater than 1.5; and

(B) Net working capital and tangible net worth each at least six times the sum of the current closure and post-closure cost estimates and the current plugging and abandonment cost estimates; and

(C) Tangible net worth of at least $10 million; and

(D) Assets located in the United States amounting to at least 90 percent of total assets or at least six times the sum of the current closure and post-closure cost estimates and the current plugging and abandonment cost estimates.

(ii) The owner or operator must have:

(A) A current rating for his most recent bond issuance of AAA, AA, A, or BBB as issued by Standard and Poor's or Aaa, Aa, A, or Baa as issued by Moody's; and

(B) Tangible net worth at least six times the sum of the current closure and post-closure cost estimates and the current plugging and abandonment cost estimates; and

(C) Tangible net worth of at least $10 million; and

(D) Assets located in the United States amounting to at least 90 percent of total assets or at least six times the sum of the current closure and post-closure cost estimates and the current plugging and abandonment cost estimates.

(2) The phrase “current closure and post-closure cost estimates” as used in paragraph (f)(1) of this section refers to the cost estimates required to be shown in paragraphs 1-4 of the letter from the owner's or operator's chief financial officer (§ 264.151(f)). The phrase “current plugging and abandonment cost estimates” as used in paragraph (f)(1) of this section refers to the cost estimates required to be shown in paragraphs 1-4 of the letter from the owner's or operator's chief financial officer (§ 144.70(f) of this title).

(3) To demonstrate that he meets this test, the owner or operator must submit the following items to the Regional Administrator:

(i) A letter signed by the owner's or operator's chief financial officer and worded as specified in § 264.151(f); and

(ii) A copy of the independent certified public accountant's report on examination of the owner's or operator's financial statements for the latest completed fiscal year; and

(iii) A special report from the owner's or operator's independent certified public accountant to the owner or operator stating that:

(A) He has compared the data which the letter from the chief financial officer specifies as having been derived from the independently audited, year-end financial statements for the latest fiscal year with the amounts in such financial statements; and

(B) In connection with that procedure, no matters came to his attention which caused him to believe that the specified data should be adjusted.

(4) An owner or operator of a new facility must submit the items specified in paragraph (f)(3) of this section to the Regional Administrator at least 60 days before the date on which hazardous waste is first received for treatment, storage, or disposal.

(5) After the initial submission of items specified in paragraph (f)(3) of this section, the owner or operator must send updated information to the Regional Administrator within 90 days after the close of each succeeding fiscal year. This information must consist of all three items specified in paragraph (f)(3) of this section.

(6) If the owner or operator no longer meets the requirements of paragraph (f)(1) of this section, he must send notice to the Regional Administrator of intent to establish alternate financial assurance as specified in this section. The notice must be sent by certified mail within 90 days after the end of the fiscal year for which the year-end financial data show that the owner or operator no longer meets the requirements. The owner or operator must provide the alternate financial assurance within 120 days after the end of such fiscal year.

(7) The Regional Administrator may, based on a reasonable belief that the owner or operator may no longer meet the requirements of paragraph (f)(1) of this section, require reports of financial condition at any time from the owner or operator in addition to those specified in paragraph (f)(3) of this section. If the Regional Administrator finds, on the basis of such reports or other information, that the owner or operator no longer meets the requirements of paragraph (f)(1) of this section, the owner or operator must provide alternate financial assurance as specified in this section within 30 days after notification of such a finding.

(8) The Regional Administrator may disallow use of this test on the basis of qualifications in the opinion expressed by the independent certified public accountant in his report on examination of the owner's or operator's financial statements (see paragraph (f)(3)(ii) of this section). An adverse opinion or a disclaimer of opinion will be cause for disallowance. The Regional Administrator will evaluate other qualifications on an individual basis. The owner or operator must provide alternate financial assurance as specified in this section within 30 days after notification of the disallowance.

(9) The owner or operator is no longer required to submit the items specified in paragraph (f)(3) of this section when:

(i) An owner or operator substitutes alternate financial assurance as specified in this section; or

(ii) The Regional Administrator releases the owner or operator from the requirements of this section in accordance with § 264.143(i).

(10) An owner or operator may meet the requirements of this section by obtaining a written guarantee. The guarantor must be the direct or higher-tier parent corporation of the owner or operator, a firm whose parent corporation is also the parent corporation of the owner or operator, or a firm with a “substantial business relationship” with the owner or operator. The guarantor must meet the requirements for owners or operators in paragraphs (f)(1) through (8) of this section and must comply with the terms of the guarantee. The wording of the guarantee must be identical to the wording specified in § 264.151(h). The certified copy of the guarantee must accompany the items sent to the Regional Administrator as specified in paragraph (f)(3) of this section. One of these items must be the letter from the guarantor's chief financial officer. If the guarantor's parent corporation is also the parent corporation of the owner or operator, the letter must describe the value received in consideration of the guarantee. If the guarantor is a firm with a “substantial business relationship” with the owner or operator, this letter must describe this “substantial business relationship” and the value received in consideration of the guarantee. The terms of the guarantee must provide that:

(i) If the owner or operator fails to perform final closure of a facility covered by the corporate guarantee in accordance with the closure plan and other permit requirements whenever required to do so, the guarantor will do so or establish a trust fund as specified in § 264.143(a) in the name of the owner or operator.

(ii) The corporate guarantee will remain in force unless the guarantor sends notice of cancellation by certified mail to the owner or operator and to the Regional Administrator. Cancellation may not occur, however, during the 120 days beginning on the date of receipt of the notice of cancellation by both the owner or operator and the Regional Administrator, as evidenced by the return receipts.

(iii) If the owner or operator fails to provide alternate financial assurance as specified in this section and obtain the written approval of such alternate assurance from the Regional Administrator within 90 days after receipt by both the owner or operator and the Regional Administrator of a notice of cancellation of the corporate guarantee from the guarantor, the guarantor will provide such alternative financial assurance in the name of the owner or operator.

(g) Use of multiple financial mechanisms. An owner or operator may satisfy the requirements of this section by establishing more than one financial mechanism per facility. These mechanisms are limited to trust funds, surety bonds guaranteeing payment into a trust fund, letters of credit, and insurance. The mechanisms must be as specified in paragraphs (a), (b), (d), and (e), respectively, of this section, except that it is the combination of mechanisms, rather than the single mechanism, which must provide financial assurance for an amount at least equal to the current closure cost estimate. If an owner or operator uses a trust fund in combination with a surety bond or a letter of credit, he may use the trust fund as the standby trust fund for the other mechanisms. A single standby trust fund may be established for two or more mechanisms. The Regional Administrator may use any or all of the mechanisms to provide for closure of the facility.

(h) Use of a financial mechanism for multiple facilities. An owner or operator may use a financial assurance mechanism specified in this section to meet the requirements of this section for more than one facility. Evidence of financial assurance submitted to the Regional Administrator must include a list showing, for each facility, the EPA Identification Number, name, address, and the amount of funds for closure assured by the mechanism. If the facilities covered by the mechanism are in more than one Region, identical evidence of financial assurance must be submitted to and maintained with the Regional Administrators of all such Regions. The amount of funds available through the mechanism must be no less than the sum of funds that would be available if a separate mechanism had been established and maintained for each facility. In directing funds available through the mechanism for closure of any of the facilities covered by the mechanism, the Regional Administrator may direct only the amount of funds designated for that facility, unless the owner or operator agrees to the use of additional funds available under the mechanism.

(i) Release of the owner or operator from the requirements of this section. Within 60 days after receiving certifications from the owner or operator and a qualified Professional Engineer that final closure has been completed in accordance with the approved closure plan, the Regional Administrator will notify the owner or operator in writing that he is no longer required by this section to maintain financial assurance for final closure of the facility, unless the Regional Administrator has reason to believe that final closure has not been in accordance with the approved closure plan. The Regional Administrator shall provide the owner or operator a detailed written statement of any such reason to believe that closure has not been in accordance with the approved closure plan.

[47 FR 15047, Apr. 7, 1982, as amended at 51 FR 16448, May 2, 1986; 57 FR 42835, Sept. 16, 1992; 71 FR 16905, Apr. 4, 2006; 71 FR 40272, July 14, 2006]

§ 264.144 Cost estimate for post-closure care.

(a) The owner or operator of a disposal surface impoundment, disposal miscellaneous unit, land treatment unit, or landfill unit, or of a surface impoundment or waste pile required under §§ 264.228 and 264.258 to prepare a contingent closure and post-closure plan, must have a detailed written estimate, in current dollars, of the annual cost of post-closure monitoring and maintenance of the facility in accordance with the applicable post-closure regulations in §§ 264.117 through 264.120, 264.228, 264.258, 264.280, 264.310, and 264.603.

(1) The post-closure cost estimate must be based on the costs to the owner or operator of hiring a third party to conduct post-closure care activities. A third party is a party who is neither a parent nor a subsidiary of the owner or operator. (See definition of parent corporation in § 264.141(d).)

(2) The post-closure cost estimate is calculated by multiplying the annual post-closure cost estimate by the number of years of post-closure care required under § 264.117.

(b) During the active life of the facility, the owner or operator must adjust the post-closure cost estimate for inflation within 60 days prior to the anniversary date of the establishment of the financial instrument(s) used to comply with § 264.145. For owners or operators using the financial test or corporate guarantee, the post-closure cost estimate must be updated for inflation within 30 days after the close of the firm's fiscal year and before the submission of updated information to the Regional Administrator as specified in § 264.145(f)(5). The adjustment may be made by recalculating the post-closure cost estimate in current dollars or by using an inflation factor derived from the most recent Implicit Price Deflator for Gross National Product published by the U.S. Department of Commerce in its Survey of Current Business as specified in § 264.145(b)(1) and (2). The inflation factor is the result of dividing the latest published annual Deflator by the Deflator for the previous year.

(1) The first adjustment is made by multiplying the post-closure cost estimate by the inflation factor. The result is the adjusted post-closure cost estimate.

(2) Subsequent adjustments are made by multiplying the latest adjusted post-closure cost estimate by the latest inflation factor.

(c) During the active life of the facility, the owner or operator must revise the post-closure cost estimate within 30 days after the Regional Administrator has approved the request to modify the post-closure plan, if the change in the post-closure plan increases the cost of post-closure care. The revised post-closure cost estimate must be adjusted for inflation as specified in § 264.144(b).

(d) The owner or operator must keep the following at the facility during the operating life of the facility: The latest post-closure cost estimate prepared in accordance with § 264.144 (a) and (c) and, when this estimate has been adjusted in accordance with § 264.144(b), the latest adjusted post-closure cost estimate.

[47 FR 15047, Apr. 7, 1982, as amended at 47 FR 32357, July 26, 1982; 50 FR 4514, Jan. 31, 1985; 51 FR 16449, May 2, 1986; 52 FR 46964, Dec. 10, 1987]

§ 264.145 Financial assurance for post-closure care.

The owner or operator of a hazardous waste management unit subject to the requirements of § 264.144 must establish financial assurance for post-closure care in accordance with the approved post-closure plan for the facility 60 days prior to the initial receipt of hazardous waste or the effective date of the regulation, whichever is later. He must choose from the following options:

(a) Post-closure trust fund.

(1) An owner or operator may satisfy the requirements of this section by establishing a post-closure trust fund which conforms to the requirements of this paragraph and submitting an originally signed duplicate of the trust agreement to the Regional Administrator. An owner or operator of a new facility must submit the originally signed duplicate of the trust agreement to the Regional Administrator at least 60 days before the date on which hazardous waste is first received for disposal. The trustee must be an entity which has the authority to act as a trustee and whose trust operations are regulated and examined by a Federal or State agency.

(2) The wording of the trust agreement must be identical to the wording specified in § 264.151(a)(1), and the trust agreement must be accompanied by a formal certification of acknowledgment (for example, see § 264.151(a)(2)). Schedule A of the trust agreement must be updated within 60 days after a change in the amount of the current post-closure cost estimate covered by the agreement.

(3) Payments into the trust fund must be made annually by the owner or operator over the term of the initial RCRA permit or over the remaining operating life of the facility as estimated in the closure plan, whichever period is shorter; this period is hereafter referred to as the “pay-in period.” The payments into the post-closure trust fund must be made as follows:

(i) For a new facility, the first payment must be made before the initial receipt of hazardous waste for disposal. A receipt from the trustee for this payment must be submitted by the owner or operator to the Regional Administrator before this initial receipt of hazardous waste. The first payment must be at least equal to the current post-closure cost estimate, except as provided in § 264.145(g), divided by the number of years in the pay-in period. Subsequent payments must be made no later than 30 days after each anniversary date of the first payment. The amount of each subsequent payment must be determined by this formula:

where CE is the current post-closure cost estimate, CV is the current value of the trust fund, and Y is the number of years remaining in the pay-in period.

(ii) If an owner or operator establishes a trust fund as specified in § 265.145(a) of this chapter, and the value of that trust fund is less than the current post-closure cost estimate when a permit is awarded for the facility, the amount of the current post-closure cost estimate still to be paid into the fund must be paid in over the pay-in period as defined in paragraph (a)(3) of this section. Payments must continue to be made no later than 30 days after each anniversary date of the first payment made pursuant to Part 265 of this chapter. The amount of each payment must be determined by this formula:

where CE is the current post-closure cost estimate, CV is the current value of the trust fund, and Y is the number of years remaining in the pay-in period.

(4) The owner or operator may accelerate payments into the trust fund or he may deposit the full amount of the current post-closure cost estimate at the time the fund is established. However, he must maintain the value of the fund at no less than the value that the fund would have if annual payments were made as specified in paragraph (a)(3) of this section.

(5) If the owner or operator establishes a post-closure trust fund after having used one or more alternate mechanisms specified in this section or in § 265.145 of this chapter, his first payment must be in at least the amount that the fund would contain if the trust fund were established initially and annual payments made according to specifications of this paragraph and § 265.145(a) of this chapter, as applicable.

(6) After the pay-in period is completed, whenever the current post-closure cost estimate changes during the operating life of the facility, the owner or operator must compare the new estimate with the trustee's most recent annual valuation of the trust fund. If the value of the fund is less than the amount of the new estimate, the owner or operator, within 60 days after the change in the cost estimate, must either deposit an amount into the fund so that its value after this deposit at least equals the amount of the current post-closure cost estimate, or obtain other financial assurance as specified in this section to cover the difference.

(7) During the operating life of the facility, if the value of the trust fund is greater than the total amount of the current post-closure cost estimate, the owner or operator may submit a written request to the Regional Administrator for release of the amount in excess of the current post-closure cost estimate.

(8) If an owner or operator substitutes other financial assurance as specified in this section for all or part of the trust fund, he may submit a written request to the Regional Administrator for release of the amount in excess of the current post-closure cost estimate covered by the trust fund.

(9) Within 60 days after receiving a request from the owner or operator for release of funds as specified in paragraph (a) (7) or (8) of this section, the Regional Administrator will instruct the trustee to release to the owner or operator such funds as the Regional Administrator specifies in writing.

(10) During the period of post-closure care, the Regional Administrator may approve a release of funds if the owner or operator demonstrates to the Regional Administrator that the value of the trust fund exceeds the remaining cost of post-closure care.

(11) An owner or operator or any other person authorized to conduct post-closure care may request reimbursements for post-closure care expenditures by submitting itemized bills to the Regional Administrator. Within 60 days after receiving bills for post-closure care activities, the Regional Administrator will instruct the trustee to make reimbursements in those amounts as the Regional Administrator specifies in writing, if the Regional Administrator determines that the post-closure care expenditures are in accordance with the approved post-closure plan or otherwise justified. If the Regional Administrator does not instruct the trustee to make such reimbursements, he will provide the owner or operator with a detailed written statement of reasons.

(12) The Regional Administrator will agree to termination of the trust when:

(i) An owner or operator substitutes alternate financial assurance as specified in this section; or

(ii) The Regional Administrator releases the owner or operator from the requirements of this section in accordance with § 264.145(i).

(b) Surety bond guaranteeing payment into a post-closure trust fund.

(1) An owner or operator may satisfy the requirements of this section by obtaining a surety bond which conforms to the requirements of this paragraph and submitting the bond to the Regional Administrator. An owner or operator of a new facility must submit the bond to the Regional Administrator at least 60 days before the date on which hazardous waste is first received for disposal. The bond must be effective before this initial receipt of hazardous waste. The surety company issuing the bond must, at a minimum, be among those listed as acceptable sureties on Federal bonds in Circular 570 of the U.S. Department of the Treasury.

(2) The wording of the surety bond must be identical to the wording specified in § 264.151(b).

(3) The owner or operator who uses a surety bond to satisfy the requirements of this section must also establish a standby trust fund. Under the terms of the bond, all payments made thereunder will be deposited by the surety directly into the standby trust fund in accordance with instructions from the Regional Administrator. This standby trust fund must meet the requirements specified in § 264.145(a), except that:

(i) An originally signed duplicate of the trust agreement must be submitted to the Regional Administrator with the surety bond; and

(ii) Until the standby trust fund is funded pursuant to the requirements of this section, the following are not required by these regulations:

(A) Payments into the trust fund as specified in § 264.145(a);

(B) Updating of Schedule A of the trust agreement (see § 264.151(a)) to show current post-closure cost estimates;

(C) Annual valuations as required by the trust agreement; and

(D) Notices of nonpayment as required by the trust agreement.

(4) The bond must guarantee that the owner or operator will:

(i) Fund the standby trust fund in an amount equal to the penal sum of the bond before the beginning of final closure of the facility; or

(ii) Fund the standby trust fund in an amount equal to the penal sum within 15 days after an administrative order to begin final closure issued by the Regional Administrator becomes final, or within 15 days after an order to begin final closure is issued by a U.S. district court or other court of competent jurisdiction; or

(iii) Provide alternate financial assurance as specified in this section, and obtain the Regional Administrator's written approval of the assurance provided, within 90 days after receipt by both the owner or operator and the Regional Administrator of a notice of cancellation of the bond from the surety.

(5) Under the terms of the bond, the surety will become liable on the bond obligation when the owner or operator fails to perform as guaranteed by the bond.

(6) The penal sum of the bond must be in an amount at least equal to the current post-closure cost estimate, except as provided in § 264.145(g).

(7) Whenever the current post-closure cost estimate increases to an amount greater than the penal sum, the owner or operator, within 60 days after the increase, must either cause the penal sum to be increased to an amount at least equal to the current post-closure cost estimate and submit evidence of such increase to the Regional Administrator, or obtain other financial assurance as specified in this section to cover the increase. Whenever the current post-closure cost estimate decreases, the penal sum may be reduced to the amount of the current post-closure cost estimate following written approval by the Regional Administrator.

(8) Under the terms of the bond, the surety may cancel the bond by sending notice of cancellation by certified mail to the owner or operator and to the Regional Administrator. Cancellation may not occur, however, during the 120 days beginning on the date of receipt of the notice of cancellation by both the owner or operator and the Regional Administrator, as evidenced by the return receipts.

(9) The owner or operator may cancel the bond if the Regional Administrator has given prior written consent based on his receipt of evidence of alternate financial assurance as specified in this section.

(c) Surety bond guaranteeing performance of post-closure care.

(1) An owner or operator may satisfy the requirements of this section by obtaining a surety bond which conforms to the requirements of this paragraph and submitting the bond to the Regional Administrator. An owner or operator of a new facility must submit the bond to the Regional Administrator at least 60 days before the date on which hazardous waste is first received for disposal. The bond must be effective before this initial receipt of hazardous waste. The surety company issuing the bond must, at a minimum, be among those listed as acceptable sureties on Federal bonds in Circular 570 of the U.S. Department of the Treasury.

(2) The wording of the surety bond must be identical to the wording specified in § 264.151(c).

(3) The owner or operator who uses a surety bond to satisfy the requirements of this section must also establish a standby trust fund. Under the terms of the bond, all payments made thereunder will be deposited by the surety directly into the standby trust fund in accordance with instructions from the Regional Administrator. This standby trust fund must meet the requirements specified in § 264.145(a), except that:

(i) An originally signed duplicate of the trust agreement must be submitted to the Regional Administrator with the surety bond; and

(ii) Unless the standby trust fund is funded pursuant to the requirements of this section, the following are not required by these regulations:

(A) Payments into the trust fund as specified in § 264.145(a);

(B) Updating of Schedule A of the trust agreement (see § 264.151(a)) to show current post-closure cost estimates;

(C) Annual valuations as required by the trust agreement; and

(D) Notices of nonpayment as required by the trust agreement.

(4) The bond must guarantee that the owner or operator will:

(i) Perform post-closure care in accordance with the post-closure plan and other requirements of the permit for the facility; or

(ii) Provide alternate financial assurance as specified in this section, and obtain the Regional Administrator's written approval of the assurance provided, within 90 days of receipt by both the owner or operator and the Regional Administrator of a notice of cancellation of the bond from the surety.

(5) Under the terms of the bond, the surety will become liable on the bond obligation when the owner or operator fails to perform as guaranteed by the bond. Following a final administrative determination pursuant to section 3008 of RCRA that the owner or operator has failed to perform post-closure care in accordance with the approved post-closure plan and other permit requirements, under the terms of the bond the surety will perform post-closure care in accordance with the post-closure plan and other permit requirements or will deposit the amount of the penal sum into the standby trust fund.

(6) The penal sum of the bond must be in an amount at least equal to the current post-closure cost estimate.

(7) Whenever the current post-closure cost estimate increases to an amount greater than the penal sum during the operating life of the facility, the owner or operator, within 60 days after the increase, must either cause the penal sum to be increased to an amount at least equal to the current post-closure cost estimate and submit evidence of such increase to the Regional Administrator, or obtain other financial assurance as specified in this section. Whenever the current post-closure cost estimate decreases during the operating life of the facility, the penal sum may be reduced to the amount of the current post-closure cost estimate following written approval by the Regional Administrator.

(8) During the period of post-closure care, the Regional Administrator may approve a decrease in the penal sum if the owner or operator demonstrates to the Regional Administrator that the amount exceeds the remaining cost of post-closure care.

(9) Under the terms of the bond, the surety may cancel the bond by sending notice of cancellation by certified mail to the owner or operator and to the Regional Administrator. Cancellation may not occur, however, during the 120 days beginning on the date of receipt of the notice of cancellation by both the owner or operator and the Regional Administrator, as evidenced by the return receipts.

(10) The owner or operator may cancel the bond if the Regional Administrator has given prior written consent. The Regional Administrator will provide such written consent when:

(i) An owner or operator substitutes alternate financial assurance as specified in this section; or

(ii) The Regional Administrator releases the owner or operator from the requirements of this section in accordance with § 264.145(i).

(11) The surety will not be liable for deficiencies in the performance of post-closure care by the owner or operator after the Regional Administrator releases the owner or operator from the requirements of this section in accordance with § 264.145(i).

(d) Post-closure letter of credit.

(1) An owner or operator may satisfy the requirements of this section by obtaining an irrevocable standby letter of credit which conforms to the requirements of this paragraph and submitting the letter to the Regional Administrator. An owner or operator of a new facility must submit the letter of credit to the Regional Administrator at least 60 days before the date on which hazardous waste is first received for disposal. The letter of credit must be effective before this initial receipt of hazardous waste. The issuing institution must be an entity which has the authority to issue letters of credit and whose letter-of-credit operations are regulated and examined by a Federal or State agency.

(2) The wording of the letter of credit must be identical to the wording specified in § 264.151(d).

(3) An owner or operator who uses a letter of credit to satisfy the requirements of this section must also establish a standby trust fund. Under the terms of the letter of credit, all amounts paid pursuant to a draft by the Regional Administrator will be deposited by the issuing institution directly into the standby trust fund in accordance with instructions from the Regional Administrator. This standby trust fund must meet the requirements of the trust fund specified in § 264.145(a), except that:

(i) An originally signed duplicate of the trust agreement must be submitted to the Regional Administrator with the letter of credit; and

(ii) Unless the standby trust fund is funded pursuant to the requirements of this section, the following are not required by these regulations:

(A) Payments into the trust fund as specified in § 264.145(a);

(B) Updating of Schedule A of the trust agreement (see § 264.151(a)) to show current post-closure cost estimates;

(C) Annual valuations as required by the trust agreement; and

(D) Notices of nonpayment as required by the trust agreement.

(4) The letter of credit must be accompanied by a letter from the owner or operator referring to the letter of credit by number, issuing institution, and date, and providing the following information: the EPA Identification Number, name, and address of the facility, and the amount of funds assured for post-closure care of the facility by the letter of credit.

(5) The letter of credit must be irrevocable and issued for a period of at least 1 year. The letter of credit must provide that the expiration date will be automatically extended for a period of at least 1 year unless, at least 120 days before the current expiration date, the issuing institution notifies both the owner or operator and the Regional Administrator by certified mail of a decision not to extend the expiration date. Under the terms of the letter of credit, the 120 days will begin on the date when both the owner or operator and the Regional Administrator have received the notice, as evidenced by the return receipts.

(6) The letter of credit must be issued in an amount at least equal to the current post-closure cost estimate, except as provided in § 264.145(g).

(7) Whenever the current post-closure cost estimate increases to an amount greater than the amount of the credit during the operating life of the facility, the owner or operator, within 60 days after the increase, must either cause the amount of the credit to be increased so that it at least equals the current post-closure cost estimate and submit evidence of such increase to the Regional Administrator, or obtain other financial assurance as specified in this section to cover the increase. Whenever the current post-closure cost estimate decreases during the operating life of the facility, the amount of the credit may be reduced to the amount of the current post-closure cost estimate following written approval by the Regional Administrator.

(8) During the period of post-closure care, the Regional Administrator may approve a decrease in the amount of the letter of credit if the owner or operator demonstrates to the Regional Administrator that the amount exceeds the remaining cost of post-closure care.

(9) Following a final administrative determination pursuant to section 3008 of RCRA that the owner or operator has failed to perform post-closure care in accordance with the approved post-closure plan and other permit requirements, the Regional Administrator may draw on the letter of credit.

(10) If the owner or operator does not establish alternate financial assurance as specified in this section and obtain written approval of such alternate assurance from the Regional Administrator within 90 days after receipt by both the owner or operator and the Regional Administrator of a notice from the issuing institution that it has decided not to extend the letter of credit beyond the current expiration date, the Regional Administrator will draw on the letter of credit. The Regional Administrator may delay the drawing if the issuing institution grants an extension of the term of the credit. During the last 30 days of any such extension the Regional Administrator will draw on the letter of credit if the owner or operator has failed to provide alternate financial assurance as specified in this section and obtain written approval of such assurance from the Regional Administrator.

(11) The Regional Administrator will return the letter of credit to the issuing institution for termination when:

(i) An owner or operator substitutes alternate financial assurance as specified in this section; or

(ii) The Regional Administrator releases the owner or operator from the requirements of this section in accordance with § 264.145(i).

(e) Post-closure insurance.

(1) An owner or operator may satisfy the requirements of this section by obtaining post-closure insurance which conforms to the requirements of this paragraph and submitting a certificate of such insurance to the Regional Administrator. An owner or operator of a new facility must submit the certificate of insurance to the Regional Administrator at least 60 days before the date on which hazardous waste is first received for disposal. The insurance must be effective before this initial receipt of hazardous waste. At a minimum, the insurer must be licensed to transact the business of insurance, or eligible to provide insurance as an excess or surplus lines insurer, in one or more States.

(2) The wording of the certificate of insurance must be identical to the wording specified in § 264.151(e).

(3) The post-closure insurance policy must be issued for a face amount at least equal to the current post-closure cost estimate, except as provided in § 264.145(g). The term “face amount” means the total amount the insurer is obligated to pay under the policy. Actual payments by the insurer will not change the face amount, although the insurer's future liability will be lowered by the amount of the payments.

(4) The post-closure insurance policy must guarantee that funds will be available to provide post-closure care of the facility whenever the post-closure period begins. The policy must also guarantee that once post-closure care begins, the insurer will be responsible for paying out funds, up to an amount equal to the face amount of the policy, upon the direction of the Regional Administrator, to such party or parties as the Regional Administrator specifies.

(5) An owner or operator or any other person authorized to conduct post-closure care may request reimbursements for post-closure care expenditures by submitting itemized bills to the Regional Administrator. Within 60 days after receiving bills for post-closure care activities, the Regional Administrator will instruct the insurer to make reimbursements in those amounts as the Regional Administrator specifies in writing, if the Regional Administrator determines that the post-closure care expenditures are in accordance with the approved post-closure plan or otherwise justified. If the Regional Administrator does not instruct the insurer to make such reimbursements, he will provide the owner or operator with a detailed written statement of reasons.

(6) The owner or operator must maintain the policy in full force and effect until the Regional Administrator consents to termination of the policy by the owner or operator as specified in paragraph (e)(11) of this section. Failure to pay the premium, without substitution of alternate financial assurance as specified in this section, will constitute a significant violation of these regulations, warranting such remedy as the Regional Administrator deems necessary. Such violation will be deemed to begin upon receipt by the Regional Administrator of a notice of future cancellation, termination, or failure to renew due to nonpayment of the premium, rather than upon the date of expiration.

(7) Each policy must contain a provision allowing assignment of the policy to a successor owner or operator. Such assignment may be conditional upon consent of the insurer, provided such consent is not unreasonably refused.

(8) The policy must provide that the insurer may not cancel, terminate, or fail to renew the policy except for failure to pay the premium. The automatic renewal of the policy must, at a minimum, provide the insured with the option of renewal at the face amount of the expiring policy. If there is a failure to pay the premium, the insurer may elect to cancel, terminate, or fail to renew the policy by sending notice by certified mail to the owner or operator and the Regional Administrator. Cancellation, termination, or failure to renew may not occur, however, during the 120 days beginning with the date of receipt of the notice by both the Regional Administrator and the owner or operator, as evidenced by the return receipts. Cancellation, termination, or failure to renew may not occur and the policy will remain in full force and effect in the event that on or before the date of expiration:

(i) The Regional Administrator deems the facility abandoned; or

(ii) The permit is terminated or revoked or a new permit is denied; or

(iii) Closure is ordered by the Regional Administrator or a U.S. district court or other court of competent jurisdiction; or

(iv) The owner or operator is named as debtor in a voluntary or involuntary proceeding under Title 11 (Bankruptcy), U.S. Code; or

(v) The premium due is paid.

(9) Whenever the current post-closure cost estimate increases to an amount greater than the face amount of the policy during the operating life of the facility, the owner or operator, within 60 days after the increase, must either cause the face amount to be increased to an amount at least equal to the current post-closure cost estimate and submit evidence of such increase to the Regional Administrator, or obtain other financial assurance as specified in this section to cover the increase. Whenever the current post-closure cost estimate decreases during the operating life of the facility, the face amount may be reduced to the amount of the current post-closure cost estimate following written approval by the Regional Administrator.

(10) Commencing on the date that liability to make payments pursuant to the policy accrues, the insurer will thereafter annually increase the face amount of the policy. Such increase must be equivalent to the face amount of the policy, less any payments made, multiplied by an amount equivalent to 85 percent of the most recent investment rate or of the equivalent coupon-issue yield announced by the U.S. Treasury for 26-week Treasury securities.

(11) The Regional Administrator will give written consent to the owner or operator that he may terminate the insurance policy when:

(i) An owner or operator substitutes alternate financial assurance as specified in this section; or

(ii) The Regional Administrator releases the owner or operator from the requirements of this section in accordance with § 264.145(i).

(f) Financial test and corporate guarantee for post-closure care.

(1) An owner or operator may satisfy the requirements of this section by demonstrating that he passes a financial test as specified in this paragraph. To pass this test the owner or operator must meet the criteria of either paragraph (f)(1)(i) or (ii) of this section:

(i) The owner or operator must have:

(A) Two of the following three ratios: a ratio of total liabilities to net worth less than 2.0; a ratio of the sum of net income plus depreciation, depletion, and amortization to total liabilities greater than 0.1; and a ratio of current assets to current liabilities greater than 1.5; and

(B) Net working capital and tangible net worth each at least six times the sum of the current closure and post-closure cost estimates and the current plugging and abandonment cost estimates; and

(C) Tangible net worth of at least $10 million; and

(D) Assets in the United States amounting to at least 90 percent of his total assets or at least six times the sum of the current closure and post-closure cost estimates and the current plugging and abandonment cost estimates.

(ii) The owner or operator must have:

(A) A current rating for his most recent bond issuance of AAA, AA, A, or BBB as issued by Standard and Poor's or Aaa, Aa, A or Baa as issued by Moody's; and

(B) Tangible net worth at least six times the sum of the current closure and post-closure cost estimates and the current plugging and abandonment cost estimates; and

(C) Tangible net worth of at least $10 million; and

(D) Assets located in the United States amounting to at least 90 percent of his total assets or at least six times the sum of the current closure and post-closure cost estimates and the current plugging and abandonment cost estimates.

(2) The phrase “current closure and post-closure cost estimates” as used in paragraph (f)(1) of this section refers to the cost estimates required to be shown in paragraphs 1-4 of the letter from the owner's or operator's chief financial officer (§ 264.151(f)). The phrase “current plugging and abandonment cost estimates” as used in paragraph (f)(1) of this section refers to the cost estimates required to be shown in paragraphs 1-4 of the letter from the owner's or operator's chief financial officer (§ 144.70(f) of this title).

(3) To demonstrate that he meets this test, the owner or operator must submit the following items to the Regional Administrator:

(i) A letter signed by the owner's or operator's chief financial officer and worded as specified in § 264.151(f); and

(ii) A copy of the independent certified public accountant's report on examination of the owner's or operator's financial statements for the latest completed fiscal year; and

(iii) A special report from the owner's or operator's independent certified public accountant to the owner or operator stating that:

(A) He has compared the data which the letter from the chief financial officer specifies as having been derived from the independently audited, year-end financial statements for the latest fiscal year with the amounts in such financial statements; and

(B) In connection with that procedure, no matters came to his attention which caused him to believe that the specified data should be adjusted.

(4) An owner or operator of a new facility must submit the items specified in paragraph (f)(3) of this section to the Regional Administrator at least 60 days before the date on which hazardous waste is first received for disposal.

(5) After the initial submission of items specified in paragraph (f)(3) of this section, the owner or operator must send updated information to the Regional Administrator within 90 days after the close of each succeeding fiscal year. This information must consist of all three items specified in paragraph (f)(3) of this section.

(6) If the owner or operator no longer meets the requirements of paragraph (f)(1) of this section, he must send notice to the Regional Administrator of intent to establish alternate financial assurance as specified in this section. The notice must be sent by certified mail within 90 days after the end of the fiscal year for which the year-end financial data show that the owner or operator no longer meets the requirements. The owner or operator must provide the alternate financial assurance within 120 days after the end of such fiscal year.

(7) The Regional Administrator may, based on a reasonable belief that the owner or operator may no longer meet the requirements of paragraph (f)(1) of this section, require reports of financial condition at any time from the owner or operator in addition to those specified in paragraph (f)(3) of this section. If the Regional Administrator finds, on the basis of such reports or other information, that the owner or operator no longer meets the requirements of paragraph (f)(1) of this section, the owner or operator must provide alternate financial assurance as specified in this section within 30 days after notification of such a finding.

(8) The Regional Administrator may disallow use of this test on the basis of qualifications in the opinion expressed by the independent certified public accountant in his report on examination of the owner's or operator's financial statements (see paragraph (f)(3)(ii) of this section). An adverse opinion or a disclaimer of opinion will be cause for disallowance. The Regional Administrator will evaluate other qualifications on an individual basis. The owner or operator must provide alternate financial assurance as specified in this section within 30 days after notification of the disallowance.

(9) During the period of post-closure care, the Regional Administrator may approve a decrease in the current post-closure cost estimate for which this test demonstrates financial assurance if the owner or operator demonstrates to the Regional Administrator that the amount of the cost estimate exceeds the remaining cost of post-closure care.

(10) The owner or operator is no longer required to submit the items specified in paragraph (f)(3) of this section when:

(i) An owner or operator substitutes alternate financial assurance as specified in this section; or

(ii) The Regional Administrator releases the owner or operator from the requirements of this section in accordance with § 264.145(i).

(11) An owner or operator may meet the requirements of this section by obtaining a written guarantee. The guarantor must be the direct or higher-tier parent corporation of the owner or operator, a firm whose parent corporation is also the parent corporation of the owner or operator, or a firm with a “substantial business relationship” with the owner or operator. The guarantor must meet the requirements for owners or operators in paragraphs (f)(1) through (9) of this section and must comply with the terms of the guarantee. The wording of the guarantee must be identical to the wording specified in § 264.151(h). A certified copy of the guarantee must accompany the items sent to the Regional Administrator as specified in paragraph (f)(3) of this section. One of these items must be the letter from the guarantor's chief financial officer. If the guarantor's parent corporation is also the parent corporation of the owner or operator, the letter must describe the value received in consideration of the guarantee. If the guarantor is a firm with a “substantial business relationship” with the owner or operator, this letter must describe this “substantial business relationship” and the value received in consideration of the guarantee. The terms of the guarantee must provide that:

(i) If the owner or operator fails to perform post-closure care of a facility covered by the corporate guarantee in accordance with the post-closure plan and other permit requirements whenever required to do so, the guarantor will do so or establish a trust fund as specified in § 264.145(a) in the name of the owner or operator.

(ii) The corporate guarantee will remain in force unless the guarantor sends notice of cancellation by certified mail to the owner or operator and to the Regional Administrator. Cancellation may not occur, however, during the 120 days beginning on the date of receipt of the notice of cancellation by both the owner or operator and the Regional Administrator, as evidenced by the return receipts.

(iii) If the owner or operator fails to provide alternate financial assurance as specified in this section and obtain the written approval of such alternate assurance from the Regional Administrator within 90 days after receipt by both the owner or operator and the Regional Administrator of a notice of cancellation of the corporate guarantee from the guarantor, the guarantor will provide such alternate financial assurance in the name of the owner or operator.

(g) Use of multiple financial mechanisms. An owner or operator may satisfy the requirements of this section by establishing more than one financial mechanism per facility. These mechanisms are limited to trust funds, surety bonds guaranteeing payment into a trust fund, letters of credit, and insurance. The mechanisms must be as specified in paragraphs (a), (b), (d), and (e), respectively, of this section, except that it is the combination of mechanisms, rather than the single mechanism, which must provide financial assurance for an amount at least equal to the current post-closure cost estimate. If an owner or operator uses a trust fund in combination with a surety bond or a letter of credit, he may use the trust fund as the standby trust fund for the other mechanisms. A single standby trust fund may be established for two or more mechanisms. The Regional Administrator may use any or all of the mechanisms to provide for post-closure care of the facility.

(h) Use of a financial mechanism for multiple facilities. An owner or operator may use a financial assurance mechanism specified in this section to meet the requirements of this section for more than one facility. Evidence of financial assurance submitted to the Regional Administrator must include a list showing, for each facility, the EPA Identification Number, name, address, and the amount of funds for post-closure care assured by the mechanism. If the facilities covered by the mechanism are in more than one Region, identical evidence of financial assurance must be submitted to and maintained with the Regional Administrators of all such Regions. The amount of funds available through the mechanism must be no less than the sum of funds that would be available if a separate mechanism had been established and maintained for each facility. In directing funds available through the mechanism for post-closure care of any of the facilities covered by the mechanism, the Regional Administrator may direct only the amount of funds designated for that facility, unless the owner or operator agrees to the use of additional funds available under the mechanism.

(i) Release of the owner or operator from the requirements of this section. Within 60 days after receiving certifications from the owner or operator and a qualified Professional Engineer that the post-closure care period has been completed for a hazardous waste disposal unit in accordance with the approved plan, the Regional Administrator will notify the owner or operator that he is no longer required to maintain financial assurance for post-closure of that unit, unless the Regional Administrator has reason to believe that post-closure care has not been in accordance with the approved post-closure plan. The Regional Administrator shall provide the owner or operator a detailed written statement of any such reason to believe that post-closure care has not been in accordance with the approved post-closure plan.

[47 FR 15047, Apr. 7, 1982, as amended at 51 FR 16449, May 2, 1986; 57 FR 42836, Sept. 16, 1992; 71 FR 16905, Apr. 4, 2006; 71 FR 40272, July 14, 2006]

§ 264.146 Use of a mechanism for financial assurance of both closure and post-closure care.

An owner or operator may satisfy the requirements for financial assurance for both closure and post-closure care for one or more facilities by using a trust fund, surety bond, letter of credit, insurance, financial test, or corporate guarantee that meets the specifications for the mechanism in both §§ 264.143 and 264.145. The amount of funds available through the mechanism must be no less than the sum of funds that would be available if a separate mechanism had been established and maintained for financial assurance of closure and of post-closure care.

§ 264.147 Liability requirements.

(a) Coverage for sudden accidental occurrences. An owner or operator of a hazardous waste treatment, storage, or disposal facility, or a group of such facilities, must demonstrate financial responsibility for bodily injury and property damage to third parties caused by sudden accidental occurrences arising from operations of the facility or group of facilities. The owner or operator must have and maintain liability coverage for sudden accidental occurrences in the amount of at least $1 million per occurrence with an annual aggregate of at least $2 million, exclusive of legal defense costs. This liability coverage may be demonstrated as specified in paragraphs (a) (1), (2), (3), (4), (5), or (6) of this section:

(1) An owner or operator may demonstrate the required liability coverage by having liability insurance as specified in this paragraph.

(i) Each insurance policy must be amended by attachment of the Hazardous Waste Facility Liability Endorsement or evidenced by a Certificate of Liability Insurance. The wording of the endorsement must be identical to the wording specified in § 264.151(i). The wording of the certificate of insurance must be identical to the wording specified in § 264.151(j). The owner or operator must submit a signed duplicate original of the endorsement or the certificate of insurance to the Regional Administrator, or Regional Administrators if the facilities are located in more than one Region. If requested by a Regional Administrator, the owner or operator must provide a signed duplicate original of the insurance policy. An owner or operator of a new facility must submit the signed duplicate original of the Hazardous Waste Facility Liability Endorsement or the Certificate of Liability Insurance to the Regional Administrator at least 60 days before the date on which hazardous waste is first received for treatment, storage, or disposal. The insurance must be effective before this initial receipt of hazardous waste.

(ii) Each insurance policy must be issued by an insurer which, at a minimum, is licensed to transact the business of insurance, or eligible to provide insurance as an excess or surplus lines insurer, in one or more States.

(2) An owner or operator may meet the requirements of this section by passing a financial test or using the guarantee for liability coverage as specified in paragraphs (f) and (g) of this section.

(3) An owner or operator may meet the requirements of this section by obtaining a letter of credit for liability coverage as specified in paragraph (h) of this section.

(4) An owner or operator may meet the requirements of this section by obtaining a surety bond for liability coverage as specified in paragraph (i) of this section.

(5) An owner or operator may meet the requirements of this section by obtaining a trust fund for liability coverage as specified in paragraph (j) of this section.

(6) An owner or operator may demonstrate the required liability coverage through the use of combinations of insurance, financial test, guarantee, letter of credit, surety bond, and trust fund, except that the owner or operator may not combine a financial test covering part of the liability coverage requirement with a guarantee unless the financial statement of the owner or operator is not consolidated with the financial statement of the guarantor. The amounts of coverage demonstrated must total at least the minimum amounts required by this section. If the owner or operator demonstrates the required coverage through the use of a combination of financial assurances under this paragraph, the owner or operator shall specify at least one such assurance as “primary” coverage and shall specify other assurance as “excess” coverage.

(7) An owner or operator shall notify the Regional Administrator in writing within 30 days whenever:

(i) A claim results in a reduction in the amount of financial assurance for liability coverage provided by a financial instrument authorized in paragraphs (a)(1) through (a)(6) of this section; or

(ii) A Certification of Valid Claim for bodily injury or property damages caused by a sudden or non-sudden accidental occurrence arising from the operation of a hazardous waste treatment, storage, or disposal facility is entered between the owner or operator and third-party claimant for liability coverage under paragraphs (a)(1) through (a)(6) of this section; or

(iii) A final court order establishing a judgment for bodily injury or property damage caused by a sudden or non-sudden accidental occurrence arising from the operation of a hazardous waste treatment, storage, or disposal facility is issued against the owner or operator or an instrument that is providing financial assurance for liability coverage under paragraphs (a)(1) through (a)(6) of this section.

(b) Coverage for nonsudden accidental occurrences. An owner or operator of a surface impoundment, landfill, land treatment facility, or disposal miscellaneous unit that is used to manage hazardous waste, or a group of such facilities, must demonstrate financial responsibility for bodily injury and property damage to third parties caused by nonsudden accidental occurrences arising from operations of the facility or group of facilities. The owner or operator must have and maintain liability coverage for nonsudden accidental occurrences in the amount of at least $3 million per occurrence with an annual aggregate of at least $6 million, exclusive of legal defense costs. An owner or operator who must meet the requirements of this section may combine the required per-occurrence coverage levels for sudden and nonsudden accidental occurrences into a single per-occurrence level, and combine the required annual aggregate coverage levels for sudden and nonsudden accidental occurrences into a single annual aggregate level. Owners or operators who combine coverage levels for sudden and nonsudden accidental occurrences must maintain liability coverage in the amount of at least $4 million per occurrence and $8 million annual aggregate. This liability coverage may be demonstrated as specified in paragraphs (b) (1), (2), (3), (4), (5), or (6), of this section:

(1) An owner or operator may demonstrate the required liability coverage by having liability insurance as specified in this paragraph.

(i) Each insurance policy must be amended by attachment of the Hazardous Waste Facility Liability Endorsement or evidenced by a Certificate of Liability Insurance. The wording of the endorsement must be identical to the wording specified in § 264.151(i). The wording of the certificate of insurance must be identical to the wording specified in § 264.151(j). The owner or operator must submit a signed duplicate original of the endorsement or the certificate of insurance to the Regional Administrator, or Regional Administrators if the facilities are located in more than one Region. If requested by a Regional Administrator, the owner or operator must provide a signed duplicate original of the insurance policy. An owner or operator of a new facility must submit the signed duplicate original of the Hazardous Waste Facility Liability Endorsement or the Certificate of Liability Insurance to the Regional Administrator at least 60 days before the date on which hazardous waste is first received for treatment, storage, or disposal. The insurance must be effective before this initial receipt of hazardous waste.

(ii) Each insurance policy must be issued by an insurer which, at a minimum, is licensed to transact the business of insurance, or eligible to provide insurance as an excess or surplus lines insurer, in one or more States.

(2) An owner or operator may meet the requirements of this section by passing a financial test or using the guarantee for liability coverage as specified in paragraphs (f) and (g) of this section.

(3) An owner or operator may meet the requirements of this section by obtaining a letter of credit for liability coverage as specified in paragraph (h) of this section.

(4) An owner or operator may meet the requirements of this section by obtaining a surety bond for liability coverage as specified in paragraph (i) of this section.

(5) An owner or operator may meet the requirements of this section by obtaining a trust fund for liability coverage as specified in paragraph (j) of this section.

(6) An owner or operator may demonstrate the required liability coverage through the use of combinations of insurance, financial test, guarantee, letter of credit, surety bond, and trust fund, except that the owner or operator may not combine a financial test covering part of the liability coverage requirement with a guarantee unless the financial statement of the owner or operator is not consolidated with the financial statement of the guarantor. The amounts of coverage demonstrated must total at least the minimum amount required by this section. If the owner or operator demonstrates the required coverage through the use of a combination of financial assurances under this paragraph, the owner or operator shall specify at least one such assurance as “primary” coverage and shall specify other assurance as “excess” coverage.

(7) An owner or operator shall notify the Regional Administrator in writing within 30 days whenever:

(i) A Claim results in a reduction in the amount of financial assurance for liability coverage provided by a financial instrument authorized in paragraphs (b)(1) through (b)(6) of this section; or

(ii) A Certification of Valid Claim for bodily injury or property damages caused by a sudden or non-sudden accidental occurrence arising from the operation of a hazardous waste treatment, storage, or disposal facility is entered between the owner or operator and third-party claimant for liability coverage under paragraphs (b)(1) through (b)(6) of this section; or

(iii) A final court order establishing a judgment for bodily injury or property damage caused by a sudden or non-sudden accidental occurrence arising from the operation of a hazardous waste treatment, storage, or disposal facility is issued against the owner or operator or an instrument that is providing financial assurance for liability coverage under paragraphs (b)(1) through (b)(6) of this section.

(c) Request for variance. If an owner or operator can demonstrate to the satisfaction of the Regional Administrator that the levels of financial responsibility required by paragraph (a) or (b) of this section are not consistent with the degree and duration of risk associated with treatment, storage, or disposal at the facility or group of facilities, the owner or operator may obtain a variance from the Regional Administrator. The request for a variance must be submitted to the Regional Administrator as part of the application under § 270.14 of this chapter for a facility that does not have a permit, or pursuant to the procedures for permit modification under § 124.5 of this chapter for a facility that has a permit. If granted, the variance will take the form of an adjusted level of required liability coverage, such level to be based on the Regional Administrator's assessment of the degree and duration of risk associated with the ownership or operation of the facility or group of facilities. The Regional Administrator may require an owner or operator who requests a variance to provide such technical and engineering information as is deemed necessary by the Regional Administrator to determine a level of financial responsibility other than that required by paragraph (a) or (b) of this section. Any request for a variance for a permitted facility will be treated as a request for a permit modification under §§ 270.41(a)(5) and 124.5 of this chapter.

(d) Adjustments by the Regional Administrator. If the Regional Administrator determines that the levels of financial responsibility required by paragraph (a) or (b) of this section are not consistent with the degree and duration of risk associated with treatment, storage, or disposal at the facility or group of facilities, the Regional Administrator may adjust the level of financial responsibility required under paragraph (a) or (b) of this section as may be necessary to protect human health and the environment. This adjusted level will be based on the Regional Administrator's assessment of the degree and duration of risk associated with the ownership or operation of the facility or group of facilities. In addition, if the Regional Administrator determines that there is a significant risk to human health and the environment from nonsudden accidental occurrences resulting from the operations of a facility that is not a surface impoundment, landfill, or land treatment facility, he may require that an owner or operator of the facility comply with paragraph (b) of this section. An owner or operator must furnish to the Regional Administrator, within a reasonable time, any information which the Regional Administrator requests to determine whether cause exists for such adjustments of level or type of coverage. Any adjustment of the level or type of coverage for a facility that has a permit will be treated as a permit modification under §§ 270.41(a)(5) and 124.5 of this chapter.

(e) Period of coverage. Within 60 days after receiving certifications from the owner or operator and a qualified Professional Engineer that final closure has been completed in accordance with the approved closure plan, the Regional Administrator will notify the owner or operator in writing that he is no longer required by this section to maintain liability coverage for that facility, unless the Regional Administrator has reason to believe that closure has not been in accordance with the approved closure plan.

(f) Financial test for liability coverage.

(1) An owner or operator may satisfy the requirements of this section by demonstrating that he passes a financial test as specified in this paragraph. To pass this test the owner or operator must meet the criteria of paragraph (f)(1)(i) or (ii):

(i) The owner or operator must have:

(A) Net working capital and tangible net worth each at least six times the amount of liability coverage to be demonstrated by this test; and

(B) Tangible net worth of at least $10 million; and

(C) Assets in the United States amounting to either:

(1) At least 90 percent of his total assets; or

(2) at least six times the amount of liability coverage to be demonstrated by this test.

(ii) The owner or operator must have:

(A) A current rating for his most recent bond issuance of AAA, AA, A, or BBB as issued by Standard and Poor's, or Aaa, Aa, A, or Baa as issued by Moody's; and

(B) Tangible net worth of at least $10 million; and

(C) Tangible net worth at least six times the amount of liability coverage to be demonstrated by this test; and

(D) Assets in the United States amounting to either:

(1) At least 90 percent of his total assets; or

(2) at least six times the amount of liability coverage to be demonstrated by this test.

(2) The phrase “amount of liability coverage” as used in paragraph (f)(1) of this section refers to the annual aggregate amounts for which coverage is required under paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section.

(3) To demonstrate that he meets this test, the owner or operator must submit the following three items to the Regional Administrator:

(i) A letter signed by the owner's or operator's chief financial officer and worded as specified in § 264.151(g). If an owner or operator is using the financial test to demonstrate both assurance for closure or post-closure care, as specified by §§ 264.143(f), 264.145(f), 265.143(e), and 265.145(e), and liability coverage, he must submit the letter specified in § 264.151(g) to cover both forms of financial responsibility; a separate letter as specified in § 264.151(f) is not required.

(ii) A copy of the independent certified public accountant's report on examination of the owner's or operator's financial statements for the latest completed fiscal year.

(iii) A special report from the owner's or operator's independent certified public accountant to the owner or operator stating that:

(A) He has compared the data which the letter from the chief financial officer specifies as having been derived from the independently audited, year-end financial statements for the latest fiscal year with the amounts in such financial statements; and

(B) In connection with that procedure, no matters came to his attention which caused him to believe that the specified data should be adjusted.

(4) An owner or operator of a new facility must submit the items specified in paragraph (f)(3) of this section to the Regional Administrator at least 60 days before the date on which hazardous waste is first received for treatment, storage, or disposal.

(5) After the initial submission of items specified in paragraph (f)(3) of this section, the owner or operator must send updated information to the Regional Administrator within 90 days after the close of each succeeding fiscal year. This information must consist of all three items specified in paragraph (f)(3) of this section.

(6) If the owner or operator no longer meets the requirements of paragraph (f)(1) of this section, he must obtain insurance, a letter of credit, a surety bond, a trust fund, or a guarantee for the entire amount of required liability coverage as specified in this section. Evidence of liability coverage must be submitted to the Regional Administrator within 90 days after the end of the fiscal year for which the year-end financial data show that the owner or operator no longer meets the test requirements.

(7) The Regional Administrator may disallow use of this test on the basis of qualifications in the opinion expressed by the independent certified public accountant in his report on examination of the owner's or operator's financial statements (see paragraph (f)(3)(ii) of this section). An adverse opinion or a disclaimer of opinion will be cause for disallowance. The Regional Administrator will evaluate other qualifications on an individual basis. The owner or operator must provide evidence of insurance for the entire amount of required liability coverage as specified in this section within 30 days after notification of disallowance.

(g) Guarantee for liability coverage.

(1) Subject to paragraph (g)(2) of this section, an owner or operator may meet the requirements of this section by obtaining a written guarantee, hereinafter referred to as “guarantee.” The guarantor must be the direct or higher-tier parent corporation of the owner or operator, a firm whose parent corporation is also the parent corporation of the owner or operator, or a firm with a “substantial business relationship” with the owner or operator. The guarantor must meet the requirements for owners or operators in paragraphs (f)(1) through (f)(6) of this section. The wording of the guarantee must be identical to the wording specified in § 264.151(h)(2) of this part. A certified copy of the guarantee must accompany the items sent to the Regional Administrator as specified in paragraph (f)(3) of this section. One of these items must be the letter from the guarantor's chief financial officer. If the guarantor's parent corporation is also the parent corporation of the owner or operator, this letter must describe the value received in consideration of the guarantee. If the guarantor is a firm with a “substantial business relationship” with the owner or operator, this letter must describe this “substantial business relationship” and the value received in consideration of the guarantee.

(i) If the owner or operator fails to satisfy a judgment based on a determination of liability for bodily injury or property damage to third parties caused by sudden or nonsudden accidental occurrences (or both as the case may be), arising from the operation of facilities covered by this corporate guarantee, or fails to pay an amount agreed to in settlement of claims arising from or alleged to arise from such injury or damage, the guarantor will do so up to the limits of coverage.

(ii) [Reserved]

(2)

(i) In the case of corporations incorporated in the United States, a guarantee may be used to satisfy the requirements of this section only if the Attorneys General or Insurance Commissioners of

(A) the State in which the guarantor is incorporated, and

(B) each State in which a facility covered by the guarantee is located have submitted a written statement to EPA that a guarantee executed as described in this section and § 264.151(h)(2) is a legally valid and enforceable obligation in that State.

(ii) In the case of corporations incorporated outside the United States, a guarantee may be used to satisfy the requirements of this section only if

(A) the non-U.S. corporation has identified a registered agent for service of process in each State in which a facility covered by the guarantee is located and in the State in which it has its principal place of business, and

(B) the Attorney General or Insurance Commissioner of each State in which a facility covered by the guarantee is located and the State in which the guarantor corporation has its principal place of business, has submitted a written statement to EPA that a guarantee executed as described in this section and § 264.151(h)(2) is a legally valid and enforceable obligation in that State.

(h) Letter of credit for liability coverage.

(1) An owner or operator may satisfy the requirements of this section by obtaining an irrevocable standby letter of credit that conforms to the requirements of this paragraph and submitting a copy of the letter of credit to the Regional Administrator.

(2) The financial institution issuing the letter of credit must be an entity that has the authority to issue letters of credit and whose letter of credit operations are regulated and examined by a Federal or State agency.

(3) The wording of the letter of credit must be identical to the wording specified in § 264.151(k) of this part.

(4) An owner or operator who uses a letter of credit to satisfy the requirements of this section may also establish a standby trust fund. Under the terms of such a letter of credit, all amounts paid pursuant to a draft by the trustee of the standby trust will be deposited by the issuing institution into the standby trust in accordance with instructions from the trustee. The trustee of the standby trust fund must be an entity which has the authority to act as a trustee and whose trust operations are regulated and examined by a Federal or State agency.

(5) The wording of the standby trust fund must be identical to the wording specified in § 264.151(n).

(i) Surety bond for liability coverage.

(1) An owner or operator may satisfy the requirements of this section by obtaining a surety bond that conforms to the requirements of this paragraph and submitting a copy of the bond to the Regional Administrator.

(2) The surety company issuing the bond must be among those listed as acceptable sureties on Federal bonds in the most recent Circular 570 of the U.S. Department of the Treasury.

(3) The wording of the surety bond must be identical to the wording specified in § 264.151(l) of this part.

(4) A surety bond may be used to satisfy the requirements of this section only if the Attorneys General or Insurance Commissioners of

(i) the State in which the surety is incorporated, and

(ii) each State in which a facility covered by the surety bond is located have submitted a written statement to EPA that a surety bond executed as described in this section and § 264.151(l) of this part is a legally valid and enforceable obligation in that State.

(j) Trust fund for liability coverage.

(1) An owner or operator may satisfy the requirements of this section by establishing a trust fund that conforms to the requirements of this paragraph and submitting an originally signed duplicate of the trust agreement to the Regional Administrator.

(2) The trustee must be an entity which has the authority to act as a trustee and whose trust operations are regulated and examined by a Federal or State agency.

(3) The trust fund for liability coverage must be funded for the full amount of the liability coverage to be provided by the trust fund before it may be relied upon to satisfy the requirements of this section. If at any time after the trust fund is created the amount of funds in the trust fund is reduced below the full amount of the liability coverage to be provided, the owner or operator, by the anniversary date of the establishment of the fund, must either add sufficient funds to the trust fund to cause its value to equal the full amount of liability coverage to be provided, or obtain other financial assurance as specified in this section to cover the difference. For purposes of this paragraph, “the full amount of the liability coverage to be provided” means the amount of coverage for sudden and/or nonsudden occurrences required to be provided by the owner or operator by this section, less the amount of financial assurance for liability coverage that is being provided by other financial assurance mechanisms being used to demonstrate financial assurance by the owner or operator.

(4) The wording of the trust fund must be identical to the wording specified in § 264.151(m) of this part.

(k) Notwithstanding any other provision of this part, an owner or operator using liability insurance to satisfy the requirements of this section may use, until October 16, 1982, a Hazardous Waste Facility Liability Endorsement or Certificate of Liability Insurance that does not certify that the insurer is licensed to transact the business of insurance, or eligible as an excess or surplus lines insurer, in one or more States.

[47 FR 16554, Apr. 16, 1982, as amended at 47 FR 28627, July 1, 1982; 47 FR 30447, July 13, 1982; 48 FR 30115, June 30, 1983; 51 FR 16450, May 2, 1986; 51 FR 25354, July 11, 1986; 52 FR 44320, Nov. 18, 1987; 52 FR 46964, Dec. 10, 1987; 53 FR 33950, Sept. 1, 1988; 56 FR 30200, July 1, 1991; 57 FR 42836, Sept. 16, 1992; 71 FR 16905, Apr. 4, 2006; 71 FR 40272, July 14, 2006]

§ 264.148 Incapacity of owners or operators, guarantors, or financial institutions.

(a) An owner or operator must notify the Regional Administrator by certified mail of the commencement of a voluntary or involuntary proceeding under Title 11 (Bankruptcy), U.S. Code, naming the owner or operator as debtor, within 10 days after commencement of the proceeding. A guarantor of a corporate guarantee as specified in §§ 264.143(f) and 264.145(f) must make such a notification if he is named as debtor, as required under the terms of the corporate guarantee (§ 264.151(h)).

(b) An owner or operator who fulfills the requirements of § 264.143, § 264.145, or § 264.147 by obtaining a trust fund, surety bond, letter of credit, or insurance policy will be deemed to be without the required financial assurance or liability coverage in the event of bankruptcy of the trustee or issuing institution, or a suspension or revocation of the authority of the trustee institution to act as trustee or of the institution issuing the surety bond, letter of credit, or insurance policy to issue such instruments. The owner or operator must establish other financial assurance or liability coverage within 60 days after such an event.

§ 264.149 Use of State-required mechanisms.

(a) For a facility located in a State where EPA is administering the requirements of this subpart but where the State has hazardous waste regulations that include requirements for financial assurance of closure or post-closure care or liability coverage, an owner or operator may use State-required financial mechanisms to meet the requirements of § 264.143, § 264.145, or § 264.147, if the Regional Administrator determines that the State mechanisms are at least equivalent to the financial mechanism specified in this subpart. The Regional Administrator will evaluate the equivalency of the mechanisms principally in terms of

(1) certainty of the availability of funds for the required closure or post-closure care activities or liability coverage and

(2) the amount of funds that will be made available. The Regional Administrator may also consider other factors as he deems appropriate. The owner or operator must submit to the Regional Administrator evidence of the establishment of the mechanism together with a letter requesting that the State-required mechanism be considered acceptable for meeting the requirements of this subpart. The submission must include the following information: The facility's EPA Identification Number, name, and address, and the amount of funds for closure or post-closure care or liability coverage assured by the mechanism. The Regional Administrator will notify the owner or operator of his determination regarding the mechanism's acceptability in lieu of financial mechanisms specified in this subpart. The Regional Administrator may require the owner or operator to submit additional information as is deemed necessary to make this determination. Pending this determination, the owner or operator will be deemed to be in compliance with the requirements of § 264.143, § 264.145, or § 264.147, as applicable.

(b) If a State-required mechanism is found acceptable as specified in paragraph (a) of this section except for the amount of funds available, the owner or operator may satisfy the requirements of this subpart by increasing the funds available through the State-required mechanism or using additional financial mechanisms as specified in this subpart. The amount of funds available through the State and Federal mechanisms must at least equal the amount required by this subpart.

§ 264.150 State assumption of responsibility.

(a) If a State either assumes legal responsibility for an owner's or operator's compliance with the closure, post-closure care, or liability requirements of this part or assures that funds will be available from State sources to cover those requirements, the owner or operator will be in compliance with the requirements of § 264.143, § 264.145, or § 264.147 if the Regional Administrator determines that the State's assumption of responsibility is at least equivalent to the financial mechanisms specified in this subpart. The Regional Administrator will evaluate the equivalency of State guarantees principally in terms of

(1) certainty of the availability of funds for the required closure or post-closure care activities or liability coverage and

(2) the amount of funds that will be made available. The Regional Administrator may also consider other factors as he deems appropriate. The owner or operator must submit to the Regional Administrator a letter from the State describing the nature of the State's assumption of responsibility together with a letter from the owner or operator requesting that the State's assumption of responsibility be considered acceptable for meeting the requirements of this subpart. The letter from the State must include, or have attached to it, the following information: the facility's EPA Identification Number, name, and address, and the amount of funds for closure or post-closure care or liability coverage that are guaranteed by the State. The Regional Administrator will notify the owner or operator of his determination regarding the acceptability of the State's guarantee in lieu of financial mechanisms specified in this subpart. The Regional Administrator may require the owner or operator to submit additional information as is deemed necessary to make this determination. Pending this determination, the owner or operator will be deemed to be in compliance with the requirements of § 264.143, § 264.145, or § 264.147, as applicable.

(b) If a State's assumption of responsibility is found acceptable as specified in paragraph (a) of this section except for the amount of funds available, the owner or operator may satisfy the requirements of this subpart by use of both the State's assurance and additional financial mechanisms as specified in this subpart. The amount of funds available through the State and Federal mechanisms must at least equal the amount required by this subpart.

§ 264.151 Wording of the instruments.

(a)

(1) A trust agreement for a trust fund, as specified in § 264.143(a) or § 264.145(a) or § 265.143(a) or § 265.145(a) of this chapter, must be worded as follows, except that instructions in brackets are to be replaced with the relevant information and the brackets deleted:

Trust Agreement

Trust Agreement, the “Agreement,” entered into as of [date] by and between [name of the owner or operator], a [name of State] [insert “corporation,” “partnership,” “association,” or “proprietorship”], the “Grantor,” and [name of corporate trustee], [insert “incorporated in the State of ______” or “a national bank”], the “Trustee.”

Whereas, the United States Environmental Protection Agency, “EPA,” an agency of the United States Government, has established certain regulations applicable to the Grantor, requiring that an owner or operator of a hazardous waste management facility shall provide assurance that funds will be available when needed for closure and/or post-closure care of the facility,

Whereas, the Grantor has elected to establish a trust to provide all or part of such financial assurance for the facilities identified herein,

Whereas, the Grantor, acting through its duly authorized officers, has selected the Trustee to be the trustee under this agreement, and the Trustee is willing to act as trustee,

Now, Therefore, the Grantor and the Trustee agree as follows:

Section 1. Definitions. As used in this Agreement:

(a) The term “Grantor” means the owner or operator who enters into this Agreement and any successors or assigns of the Grantor.

(b) The term “Trustee” means the Trustee who enters into this Agreement and any successor Trustee.

Section 2. Identification of Facilities and Cost Estimates. This Agreement pertains to the facilities and cost estimates identified on attached Schedule A [on Schedule A, for each facility list the EPA Identification Number, name, address, and the current closure and/or post-closure cost estimates, or portions thereof, for which financial assurance is demonstrated by this Agreement].

Section 3. Establishment of Fund. The Grantor and the Trustee hereby establish a trust fund, the “Fund,” for the benefit of EPA. The Grantor and the Trustee intend that no third party have access to the Fund except as herein provided. The Fund is established initially as consisting of the property, which is acceptable to the Trustee, described in Schedule B attached hereto. Such property and any other property subsequently transferred to the Trustee is referred to as the Fund, together with all earnings and profits thereon, less any payments or distributions made by the Trustee pursuant to this Agreement. The Fund shall be held by the Trustee, IN TRUST, as hereinafter provided. The Trustee shall not be responsible nor shall it undertake any responsibility for the amount or adequacy of, nor any duty to collect from the Grantor, any payments necessary to discharge any liabilities of the Grantor established by EPA.

Section 4. Payment for Closure and Post-Closure Care. The Trustee shall make payments from the Fund as the EPA Regional Administrator shall direct, in writing, to provide for the payment of the costs of closure and/or post-closure care of the facilities covered by this Agreement. The Trustee shall reimburse the Grantor or other persons as specified by the EPA Regional Administrator from the Fund for closure and post-closure expenditures in such amounts as the EPA Regional Administrator shall direct in writing. In addition, the Trustee shall refund to the Grantor such amounts as the EPA Regional Administrator specifies in writing. Upon refund, such funds shall no longer constitute part of the Fund as defined herein.

Section 5. Payments Comprising the Fund. Payments made to the Trustee for the Fund shall consist of cash or securities acceptable to the Trustee.

Section 6. Trustee Management. The Trustee shall invest and reinvest the principal and income of the Fund and keep the Fund invested as a single fund, without distinction between principal and income, in accordance with general investment policies and guidelines which the Grantor may communicate in writing to the Trustee from time to time, subject, however, to the provisions of this section. In investing, reinvesting, exchanging, selling, and managing the Fund, the Trustee shall discharge his duties with respect to the trust fund solely in the interest of the beneficiary and with the care, skill, prudence, and diligence under the circumstances then prevailing which persons of prudence, acting in a like capacity and familiar with such matters, would use in the conduct of an enterprise of a like character and with like aims; except that:

(i) Securities or other obligations of the Grantor, or any other owner or operator of the facilities, or any of their affiliates as defined in the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended, 15 U.S.C. 80a-2.(a), shall not be acquired or held, unless they are securities or other obligations of the Federal or a State government;

(ii) The Trustee is authorized to invest the Fund in time or demand deposits of the Trustee, to the extent insured by an agency of the Federal or State government; and

(iii) The Trustee is authorized to hold cash awaiting investment or distribution uninvested for a reasonable time and without liability for the payment of interest thereon.

Section 7. Commingling and Investment. The Trustee is expressly authorized in its discretion:

(a) To transfer from time to time any or all of the assets of the Fund to any common, commingled, or collective trust fund created by the Trustee in which the Fund is eligible to participate, subject to all of the provisions thereof, to be commingled with the assets of other trusts participating therein; and

(b) To purchase shares in any investment company registered under the Investment Company Act of 1940, 15 U.S.C. 80a-1 et seq., including one which may be created, managed, underwritten, or to which investment advice is rendered or the shares of which are sold by the Trustee. The Trustee may vote such shares in its discretion.

Section 8. Express Powers of Trustee. Without in any way limiting the powers and discretions conferred upon the Trustee by the other provisions of this Agreement or by law, the Trustee is expressly authorized and empowered:

(a) To sell, exchange, convey, transfer, or otherwise dispose of any property held by it, by public or private sale. No person dealing with the Trustee shall be bound to see to the application of the purchase money or to inquire into the validity or expediency of any such sale or other disposition;

(b) To make, execute, acknowledge, and deliver any and all documents of transfer and conveyance and any and all other instruments that may be necessary or appropriate to carry out the powers herein granted;

(c) To register any securities held in the Fund in its own name or in the name of a nominee and to hold any security in bearer form or in book entry, or to combine certificates representing such securities with certificates of the same issue held by the Trustee in other fiduciary capacities, or to deposit or arrange for the deposit of such securities in a qualified central depositary even though, when so deposited, such securities may be merged and held in bulk in the name of the nominee of such depositary with other securities deposited therein by another person, or to deposit or arrange for the deposit of any securities issued by the United States Government, or any agency or instrumentality thereof, with a Federal Reserve bank, but the books and records of the Trustee shall at all times show that all such securities are part of the Fund;

(d) To deposit any cash in the Fund in interest-bearing accounts maintained or savings certificates issued by the Trustee, in its separate corporate capacity, or in any other banking institution affiliated with the Trustee, to the extent insured by an agency of the Federal or State government; and

(e) To compromise or otherwise adjust all claims in favor of or against the Fund.

Section 9. Taxes and Expenses. All taxes of any kind that may be assessed or levied against or in respect of the Fund and all brokerage commissions incurred by the Fund shall be paid from the Fund. All other expenses incurred by the Trustee in connection with the administration of this Trust, including fees for legal services rendered to the Trustee, the compensation of the Trustee to the extent not paid directly by the Grantor, and all other proper charges and disbursements of the Trustee shall be paid from the Fund.

Section 10. Annual Valuation. The Trustee shall annually, at least 30 days prior to the anniversary date of establishment of the Fund, furnish to the Grantor and to the appropriate EPA Regional Administrator a statement confirming the value of the Trust. Any securities in the Fund shall be valued at market value as of no more than 60 days prior to the anniversary date of establishment of the Fund. The failure of the Grantor to object in writing to the Trustee within 90 days after the statement has been furnished to the Grantor and the EPA Regional Administrator shall constitute a conclusively binding assent by the Grantor, barring the Grantor from asserting any claim or liability against the Trustee with respect to matters disclosed in the statement.

Section 11. Advice of Counsel. The Trustee may from time to time consult with counsel, who may be counsel to the Grantor, with respect to any question arising as to the construction of this Agreement or any action to be taken hereunder. The Trustee shall be fully protected, to the extent permitted by law, in acting upon the advice of counsel.

Section 12. Trustee Compensation. The Trustee shall be entitled to reasonable compensation for its services as agreed upon in writing from time to time with the Grantor.

Section 13. Successor Trustee. The Trustee may resign or the Grantor may replace the Trustee, but such resignation or replacement shall not be effective until the Grantor has appointed a successor trustee and this successor accepts the appointment. The successor trustee shall have the same powers and duties as those conferred upon the Trustee hereunder. Upon the successor trustee's acceptance of the appointment, the Trustee shall assign, transfer, and pay over to the successor trustee the funds and properties then constituting the Fund. If for any reason the Grantor cannot or does not act in the event of the resignation of the Trustee, the Trustee may apply to a court of competent jurisdiction for the appointment of a successor trustee or for instructions. The successor trustee shall specify the date on which it assumes administration of the trust in a writing sent to the Grantor, the EPA Regional Administrator, and the present Trustee by certified mail 10 days before such change becomes effective. Any expenses incurred by the Trustee as a result of any of the acts contemplated by this Section shall be paid as provided in Section 9.

Section 14. Instructions to the Trustee. All orders, requests, and instructions by the Grantor to the Trustee shall be in writing, signed by such persons as are designated in the attached Exhibit A or such other designees as the Grantor may designate by amendment to Exhibit A. The Trustee shall be fully protected in acting without inquiry in accordance with the Grantor's orders, requests, and instructions. All orders, requests, and instructions by the EPA Regional Administrator to the Trustee shall be in writing, signed by the EPA Regional Administrators of the Regions in which the facilities are located, or their designees, and the Trustee shall act and shall be fully protected in acting in accordance with such orders, requests, and instructions. The Trustee shall have the right to assume, in the absence of written notice to the contrary, that no event constituting a change or a termination of the authority of any person to act on behalf of the Grantor or EPA hereunder has occurred. The Trustee shall have no duty to act in the absence of such orders, requests, and instructions from the Grantor and/or EPA, except as provided for herein.

Section 15. Notice of Nonpayment. The Trustee shall notify the Grantor and the appropriate EPA Regional Administrator, by certified mail within 10 days following the expiration of the 30-day period after the anniversary of the establishment of the Trust, if no payment is received from the Grantor during that period. After the pay-in period is completed, the Trustee shall not be required to send a notice of nonpayment.

Section 16. Amendment of Agreement. This Agreement may be amended by an instrument in writing executed by the Grantor, the Trustee, and the appropriate EPA Regional Administrator, or by the Trustee and the appropriate EPA Regional Administrator if the Grantor ceases to exist.

Section 17. Irrevocability and Termination. Subject to the right of the parties to amend this Agreement as provided in Section 16, this Trust shall be irrevocable and shall continue until terminated at the written agreement of the Grantor, the Trustee, and the EPA Regional Administrator, or by the Trustee and the EPA Regional Administrator, if the Grantor ceases to exist. Upon termination of the Trust, all remaining trust property, less final trust administration expenses, shall be delivered to the Grantor.

Section 18. Immunity and Indemnification. The Trustee shall not incur personal liability of any nature in connection with any act or omission, made in good faith, in the administration of this Trust, or in carrying out any directions by the Grantor or the EPA Regional Administrator issued in accordance with this Agreement. The Trustee shall be indemnified and saved harmless by the Grantor or from the Trust Fund, or both, from and against any personal liability to which the Trustee may be subjected by reason of any act or conduct in its official capacity, including all expenses reasonably incurred in its defense in the event the Grantor fails to provide such defense.

Section 19. Choice of Law. This Agreement shall be administered, construed, and enforced according to the laws of the State of [insert name of State].

Section 20. Interpretation. As used in this Agreement, words in the singular include the plural and words in the plural include the singular. The descriptive headings for each Section of this Agreement shall not affect the interpretation or the legal efficacy of this Agreement.

In Witness Whereof the parties have caused this Agreement to be executed by their respective officers duly authorized and their corporate seals to be hereunto affixed and attested as of the date first above written: The parties below certify that the wording of this Agreement is identical to the wording specified in 40 CFR 264.151(a)(1) as such regulations were constituted on the date first above written.

[Signature of Grantor]

[Title]

Attest:

[Title]

[Seal]

[Signature of Trustee]

Attest:

[Title]

[Seal]

(2) The following is an example of the certification of acknowledgment which must accompany the trust agreement for a trust fund as specified in §§ 264.143(a) and 264.145(a) or §§ 265.143(a) or 265.145(a) of this chapter. State requirements may differ on the proper content of this acknowledgment.

State of

County of

On this [date], before me personally came [owner or operator] to me known, who, being by me duly sworn, did depose and say that she/he resides at [address], that she/he is [title] of [corporation], the corporation described in and which executed the above instrument; that she/he knows the seal of said corporation; that the seal affixed to such instrument is such corporate seal; that it was so affixed by order of the Board of Directors of said corporation, and that she/he signed her/his name thereto by like order.

[Signature of Notary Public]

(b) A surety bond guaranteeing payment into a trust fund, as specified in § 264.143(b) or § 264.145(b) or § 265.143(b) or § 265.145(b) of this chapter, must be worded as follows, except that instructions in brackets are to be replaced with the relevant information and the brackets deleted:

Financial Guarantee Bond

Date bond executed:

Effective date:

Principal: [legal name and business address of owner or operator]

Type of Organization: [insert “individual,” “joint venture,” “partnership,” or “corporation”]

State of incorporation:

Surety(ies): [name(s) and business address(es)]

EPA Identification Number, name, address and closure and/or post-closure amount(s) for each facility guaranteed by this bond [indicate closure and post-closure

amounts separately]:

Total penal sum of

bond: $

Surety's bond number:

Know All Persons By These Presents, That we, the Principal and Surety(ies) hereto are firmly bound to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (hereinafter called EPA), in the above penal sum for the payment of which we bind ourselves, our heirs, executors, administrators, successors, and assigns jointly and severally; provided that, where the Surety(ies) are corporations acting as co-sureties, we, the Sureties, bind ourselves in such sum “jointly and severally” only for the purpose of allowing a joint action or actions against any or all of us, and for all other purposes each Surety binds itself, jointly and severally with the Principal, for the payment of such sum only as is set forth opposite the name of such Surety, but if no limit of liability is indicated, the limit of liability shall be the full amount of the penal sum.

Whereas said Principal is required, under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act as amended (RCRA), to have a permit or interim status in order to own or operate each hazardous waste management facility identified above, and

Whereas said Principal is required to provide financial assurance for closure, or closure and post-closure care, as a condition of the permit or interim status, and

Whereas said Principal shall establish a standby trust fund as is required when a surety bond is used to provide such financial assurance;

Now, Therefore, the conditions of the obligation are such that if the Principal shall faithfully, before the beginning of final closure of each facility identified above, fund the standby trust fund in the amount(s) identified above for the facility,

Or, if the Principal shall fund the standby trust fund in such amount(s) within 15 days after a final order to begin closure is issued by an EPA Regional Administrator or a U.S. district court or other court of competent jurisdiction,

Or, if the Principal shall provide alternate financial assurance, as specified in subpart H of 40 CFR part 264 or 265, as applicable, and obtain the EPA Regional Administrator's written approval of such assurance, within 90 days after the date notice of cancellation is received by both the Principal and the EPA Regional Administrator(s) from the Surety(ies), then this obligation shall be null and void; otherwise it is to remain in full force and effect.

The Surety(ies) shall become liable on this bond obligation only when the Principal has failed to fulfill the conditions described above. Upon notification by an EPA Regional Administrator that the Principal has failed to perform as guaranteed by this bond, the Surety(ies) shall place funds in the amount guaranteed for the facility(ies) into the standby trust fund as directed by the EPA Regional Administrator.

The liability of the Surety(ies) shall not be discharged by any payment or succession of payments hereunder, unless and until such payment or payments shall amount in the aggregate to the penal sum of the bond, but in no event shall the obligation of the Surety(ies) hereunder exceed the amount of said penal sum.

The Surety(ies) may cancel the bond by sending notice of cancellation by certified mail to the Principal and to the EPA Regional Administrator(s) for the Region(s) in which the facility(ies) is (are) located, provided, however, that cancellation shall not occur during the 120 days beginning on the date of receipt of the notice of cancellation by both the Principal and the EPA Regional Administrator(s), as evidenced by the return receipts.

The Principal may terminate this bond by sending written notice to the Surety(ies), provided, however, that no such notice shall become effective until the Surety(ies) receive(s) written authorization for termination of the bond by the EPA Regional Administrator(s) of the EPA Region(s) in which the bonded facility(ies) is (are) located.

[The following paragraph is an optional rider that may be included but is not required.]

Principal and Surety(ies) hereby agree to adjust the penal sum of the bond yearly so that it guarantees a new closure and/or post-closure amount, provided that the penal sum does not increase by more than 20 percent in any one year, and no decrease in the penal sum takes place without the written permission of the EPA Regional Administrator(s).

In Witness Whereof, the Principal and Surety(ies) have executed this Financial Guarantee Bond and have affixed their seals on the date set forth above.

The persons whose signatures appear below hereby certify that they are authorized to execute this surety bond on behalf of the Principal and Surety(ies) and that the wording of this surety bond is identical to the wording specified in 40 CFR 264.151(b) as such regulations were constituted on the date this bond was executed.

Principal

[Signature(s)]

[Name(s)]

[Title(s)]

[Corporate seal]

Corporate Surety(ies)

[Name and address]

State of incorporation:

Liability limit: $

[Signature(s)]

[Name(s) and title(s)]

[Corporate seal]

[For every co-surety, provide signature(s), corporate seal, and other information in the same manner as for Surety above.]

Bond premium: $

(c) A surety bond guaranteeing performance of closure and/or post-closure care, as specified in § 264.143(c) or § 264.145(c), must be worded as follows, except that the instructions in brackets are to be replaced with the relevant information and the brackets deleted:

Performance Bond

Date bond executed:

Effective date:

Principal: [legal name and business address of owner or operator]

Type of organization: [insert “individual,” “joint venture,” “partnership,” or “corporation”]

State of incorporation:

Surety(ies): [name(s) and business address(es)]

EPA Identification Number, name, address, and closure and/or post-closure amount(s) for each facility guaranteed by this bond [indicate closure and post-closure amounts separately]: _________

Total penal sum of bond: $

Surety's bond number:

Know All Persons By These Presents, That we, the Principal and Surety(ies) hereto are firmly bound to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (hereinafter called EPA), in the above penal sum for the payment of which we bind ourselves, our heirs, executors, administrators, successors, and assigns jointly and severally; provided that, where the Surety(ies) are corporations acting as co-sureties, we, the Sureties, bind ourselves in such sum “jointly and severally” only for the purpose of allowing a joint action or actions against any or all of us, and for all other purposes each Surety binds itself, jointly and severally with the Principal, for the payment of such sum only as is set forth opposite the name of such Surety, but if no limit of liability is indicated, the limit of liability shall be the full amount of the penal sum.

Whereas said Principal is required, under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act as amended (RCRA), to have a permit in order to own or operate each hazardous waste management facility identified above, and

Whereas said Principal is required to provide financial assurance for closure, or closure and post-closure care, as a condition of the permit, and

Whereas said Principal shall establish a standby trust fund as is required when a surety bond is used to provide such financial assurance;

Now, Therefore, the conditions of this obligation are such that if the Principal shall faithfully perform closure, whenever required to do so, of each facility for which this bond guarantees closure, in accordance with the closure plan and other requirements of the permit as such plan and permit may be amended, pursuant to all applicable laws, statutes, rules, and regulations, as such laws, statutes, rules, and regulations may be amended,

And, if the Principal shall faithfully perform post-closure care of each facility for which this bond guarantees post-closure care, in accordance with the post-closure plan and other requirements of the permit, as such plan and permit may be amended, pursuant to all applicable laws, statutes, rules, and regulations, as such laws, statutes, rules, and regulations may be amended,

Or, if the Principal shall provide alternate financial assurance as specified in subpart H of 40 CFR part 264, and obtain the EPA Regional Administrator's written approval of such assurance, within 90 days after the date notice of cancellation is received by both the Principal and the EPA Regional Administrator(s) from the Surety(ies), then this obligation shall be null and void, otherwise it is to remain in full force and effect.

The Surety(ies) shall become liable on this bond obligation only when the Principal has failed to fulfill the conditions described above.

Upon notification by an EPA Regional Administrator that the Principal has been found in violation of the closure requirements of 40 CFR part 264, for a facility for which this bond guarantees performance of closure, the Surety(ies) shall either perform closure in accordance with the closure plan and other permit requirements or place the closure amount guaranteed for the facility into the standby trust fund as directed by the EPA Regional Administrator.

Upon notification by an EPA Regional Administrator that the Principal has been found in violation of the post-closure requirements of 40 CFR part 264 for a facility for which this bond guarantees performance of post-closure care, the Surety(ies) shall either perform post-closure care in accordance with the post-closure plan and other permit requirements or place the post-closure amount guaranteed for the facility into the standby trust fund as directed by the EPA Regional Administrator.

Upon notification by an EPA Regional Administrator that the Principal has failed to provide alternate financial assurance as specified in subpart H of 40 CFR part 264, and obtain written approval of such assurance from the EPA Regional Administrator(s) during the 90 days following receipt by both the Principal and the EPA Regional Administrator(s) of a notice of cancellation of the bond, the Surety(ies) shall place funds in the amount guaranteed for the facility(ies) into the standby trust fund as directed by the EPA Regional Administrator.

The surety(ies) hereby waive(s) notification of amendments to closure plans, permits, applicable laws, statutes, rules, and regulations and agrees that no such amendment shall in any way alleviate its (their) obligation on this bond.

The liability of the Surety(ies) shall not be discharged by any payment or succession of payments hereunder, unless and until such payment or payments shall amount in the aggregate to the penal sum of the bond, but in no event shall the obligation of the Surety(ies) hereunder exceed the amount of said penal sum.

The Surety(ies) may cancel the bond by sending notice of cancellation by certified mail to the owner or operator and to the EPA Regional Administrator(s) for the Region(s) in which the facility(ies) is (are) located, provided, however, that cancellation shall not occur during the 120 days beginning on the date of receipt of the notice of cancellation by both the Principal and the EPA Regional Administrator(s), as evidenced by the return receipts.

The principal may terminate this bond by sending written notice to the Surety(ies), provided, however, that no such notice shall become effective until the Surety(ies) receive(s) written authorization for termination of the bond by the EPA Regional Administrator(s) of the EPA Region(s) in which the bonded facility(ies) is (are) located.

[The following paragraph is an optional rider that may be included but is not required.]

Principal and Surety(ies) hereby agree to adjust the penal sum of the bond yearly so that it guarantees a new closure and/or post-closure amount, provided that the penal sum does not increase by more than 20 percent in any one year, and no decrease in the penal sum takes place without the written permission of the EPA Regional Administrator(s).

In Witness Whereof, The Principal and Surety(ies) have executed this Performance Bond and have affixed their seals on the date set forth above.

The persons whose signatures appear below hereby certify that they are authorized to execute this surety bond on behalf of the Principal and Surety(ies) and that the wording of this surety bond is identical to the wording specified in 40 CFR 264.151(c) as such regulation was constituted on the date this bond was executed.

Principal

[Signature(s)]

[Name(s)]

[Title(s)]

[Corporate seal]

Corporate Surety(ies)

[Name and address]

State of incorporation:

Liability limit: $

[Signature(s)]

[Name(s) and title(s)]

[Corporate seal]

[For every co-surety, provide signature(s), corporate seal, and other information in the same manner as for Surety above.]

Bond premium: $

(d) A letter of credit, as specified in § 264.143(d) or § 264.145(d) or § 265.143(c) or § 265.145(c) of this chapter, must be worded as follows, except that instructions in brackets are to be replaced with the relevant information and the brackets deleted:

Irrevocable Standby Letter of Credit

Regional Administrator(s)

Region(s)

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

Dear Sir or Madam: We hereby establish our Irrevocable Standby Letter of Credit No. ___ in your favor, at the request and for the account of [owner's or operator's name and address] up to the aggregate amount of [in words] U.S. dollars $___, available upon presentation [insert, if more than one Regional Administrator is a beneficiary, “by any one of you”] of

(1) your sight draft, bearing reference to this letter of credit No. ___, and

(2) your signed statement reading as follows: “I certify that the amount of the draft is payable pursuant to regulations issued under authority of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 as amended.”

This letter of credit is effective as of [date] and shall expire on [date at least 1 year later], but such expiration date shall be automatically extended for a period of [at least 1 year] on [date] and on each successive expiration date, unless, at least 120 days before the current expiration date, we notify both you and [owner's or operator's name] by certified mail that we have decided not to extend this letter of credit beyond the current expiration date. In the event you are so notified, any unused portion of the credit shall be available upon presentation of your sight draft for 120 days after the date of receipt by both you and [owner's or operator's name], as shown on the signed return receipts.

Whenever this letter of credit is drawn on under and in compliance with the terms of this credit, we shall duly honor such draft upon presentation to us, and we shall deposit the amount of the draft directly into the standby trust fund of [owner's or operator's name] in accordance with your instructions.

We certify that the wording of this letter of credit is identical to the wording specified in 40 CFR 264.151(d) as such regulations were constituted on the date shown immediately below.

[Signature(s) and title(s) of official(s) of issuing institution] [Date]

This credit is subject to [insert “the most recent edition of the Uniform Customs and Practice for Documentary Credits, published and copyrighted by the International Chamber of Commerce,” or “the Uniform Commercial Code”].

(e) A certificate of insurance, as specified in § 264.143(e) or § 264.145(e) or § 265.143(d) or § 265.145(d) of this chapter, must be worded as follows, except that instructions in brackets are to be replaced with the relevant information and the brackets deleted:

Certificate of Insurance for Closure or Post-Closure Care

Name and Address of Insurer

(herein called the “Insurer”):

Name and Address of Insured

(herein called the “Insured”):

Facilities Covered: [List for each facility: The EPA Identification Number, name, address, and the amount of insurance for closure and/or the amount for post-closure care (these amounts for all facilities covered must total the face amount shown below).]

Face Amount:

Policy Number:

Effective Date:

The Insurer hereby certifies that it has issued to the Insured the policy of insurance identified above to provide financial assurance for [insert “closure” or “closure and post-closure care” or “post-closure care”] for the facilities identified above. The Insurer further warrants that such policy conforms in all respects with the requirements of 40 CFR 264.143(e), 264.145(e), 265.143(d), and 265.145(d), as applicable and as such regulations were constituted on the date shown immediately below. It is agreed that any provision of the policy inconsistent with such regulations is hereby amended to eliminate such inconsistency.

Whenever requested by the EPA Regional Administrator(s) of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the Insurer agrees to furnish to the EPA Regional Administrator(s) a duplicate original of the policy listed above, including all endorsements thereon.

I hereby certify that the wording of this certificate is identical to the wording specified in 40 CFR 264.151(e) as such regulations were constituted on the date shown immediately below.

[Authorized signature for Insurer]

[Name of person signing]

[Title of person signing]

Signature of witness or notary:

[Date]

(f) A letter from the chief financial officer, as specified in § 264.143(f) or 264.145(f), or § 265.143(e) or 265.145(e) of this chapter, must be worded as follows, except that instructions in brackets are to be replaced with the relevant information and the brackets deleted:

Letter From Chief Financial Officer

[Address to Regional Administrator of every Region in which facilities for which financial responsibility is to be demonstrated through the financial test are located].

I am the chief financial officer of [name and address of firm]. This letter is in support of this firm's use of the financial test to demonstrate financial assurance for closure and/or post-closure costs, as specified in subpart H of 40 CFR parts 264 and 265.

[Fill out the following five paragraphs regarding facilities and associated cost estimates. If your firm has no facilities that belong in a particular paragraph, write “None” in the space indicated. For each facility, include its EPA Identification Number, name, address, and current closure and/or post-closure cost estimates. Identify each cost estimate as to whether it is for closure or post-closure care].

1. This firm is the owner or operator of the following facilities for which financial assurance for closure or post-closure care is demonstrated through the financial test specified in subpart H of 40 CFR parts 264 and 265. The current closure and/or post-closure cost estimates covered by the test are shown for each facility: ____.

2. This firm guarantees, through the guarantee specified in subpart H of 40 CFR parts 264 and 265, the closure or post-closure care of the following facilities owned or operated by the guaranteed party. The current cost estimates for the closure or post-closure care so guaranteed are shown for each facility: ____. The firm identified above is [insert one or more: (1) The direct or higher-tier parent corporation of the owner or operator; (2) owned by the same parent corporation as the parent corporation of the owner or operator, and receiving the following value in consideration of this guarantee ____; or (3) engaged in the following substantial business relationship with the owner or operator ____, and receiving the following value in consideration of this guarantee ____]. [Attach a written description of the business relationship or a copy of the contract establishing such relationship to this letter].

3. In States where EPA is not administering the financial requirements of subpart H of 40 CFR part 264 or 265, this firm, as owner or operator or guarantor, is demonstrating financial assurance for the closure or post-closure care of the following facilities through the use of a test equivalent or substantially equivalent to the financial test specified in subpart H of 40 CFR parts 264 and 265. The current closure and/or post-closure cost estimates covered by such a test are shown for each facility: ____.

4. This firm is the owner or operator of the following hazardous waste management facilities for which financial assurance for closure or, if a disposal facility, post-closure care, is not demonstrated either to EPA or a State through the financial test or any other financial assurance mechanism specified in subpart H of 40 CFR parts 264 and 265 or equivalent or substantially equivalent State mechanisms. The current closure and/or post-closure cost estimates not covered by such financial assurance are shown for each facility: ____.

5. This firm is the owner or operator of the following UIC facilities for which financial assurance for plugging and abandonment is required under part 144. The current closure cost estimates as required by 40 CFR 144.62 are shown for each facility: ____.

This firm [insert “is required” or “is not required”] to file a Form 10K with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) for the latest fiscal year.

The fiscal year of this firm ends on [month, day]. The figures for the following items marked with an asterisk are derived from this firm's independently audited, year-end financial statements for the latest completed fiscal year, ended [date].

[Fill in Alternative I if the criteria of paragraph (f)(1)(i) of § 264.143 or § 264.145, or of paragraph (e)(1)(i) of § 265.143 or § 265.145 of this chapter are used. Fill in Alternative II if the criteria of paragraph (f)(1)(ii) of § 264.143 or § 264.145, or of paragraph (e)(1)(ii) of § 265.143 or § 265.145 of this chapter are used.]

Alternative I

1. Sum of current closure and post-closure cost estimate [total of all cost estimates shown in the five paragraphs above] $____

*2. Total liabilities [if any portion of the closure or post-closure cost estimates is included in total liabilities, you may deduct the amount of that portion from this line and add that amount to lines 3 and 4]$____

*3. Tangible net worth $____

*4. Net worth $____

*5. Current assets $____

*6. Current liabilities $____

7. Net working capital [line 5 minus line 6] $____

*8. The sum of net income plus depreciation, depletion, and amortization $____

*9. Total assets in U.S. (required only if less than 90% of firm's assets are located in the U.S.) $____

10. Is line 3 at least $10 million? (Yes/No) ____

11. Is line 3 at least 6 times line 1? (Yes/No) ____

12. Is line 7 at least 6 times line 1? (Yes/No) ____

*13. Are at least 90% of firm's assets located in the U.S.? If not, complete line 14 (Yes/No) ____

14. Is line 9 at least 6 times line 1? (Yes/No) ____

15. Is line 2 divided by line 4 less than 2.0? (Yes/No) ____

16. Is line 8 divided by line 2 greater than 0.1? (Yes/No) ____

17. Is line 5 divided by line 6 greater than 1.5? (Yes/No) ____

Alternative II

1. Sum of current closure and post-closure cost estimates [total of all cost estimates shown in the five paragraphs above] $____

2. Current bond rating of most recent issuance of this firm and name of rating service ____

3. Date of issuance of bond ____

4. Date of maturity of bond ____

*5. Tangible net worth [if any portion of the closure and post-closure cost estimates is included in “total liabilities” on your firm's financial statements, you may add the amount of that portion to this line] $____

*6. Total assets in U.S. (required only if less than 90% of firm's assets are located in the U.S.) $____

7. Is line 5 at least $10 million ? (Yes/No) ____

8. Is line 5 at least 6 times line 1? (Yes/No) ____

*9. Are at least 90% of firm's assets located in the U.S.? If not, complete line 10 (Yes/No) ____

10. Is line 6 at least 6 times line 1? (Yes/No) ____

I hereby certify that the wording of this letter is identical to the wording specified in 40 CFR 264.151(f) as such regulations were constituted on the date shown immediately below.

[Signature]

[Name]

[Title]

[Date]

(g) A letter from the chief financial officer, as specified in § 264.147(f) or § 265.147(f) of this chapter, must be worded as follows, except that instructions in brackets are to be replaced with the relevant information and the brackets deleted.

Letter From Chief Financial Officer

[Address to Regional Administrator of every Region in which facilities for which financial responsibility is to be demonstrated through the financial test are located].

I am the chief financial officer of [firm's name and address]. This letter is in support of the use of the financial test to demonstrate financial responsibility for liability coverage [insert “and closure and/or post-closure care” if applicable] as specified in subpart H of 40 CFR parts 264 and 265.

[Fill out the following paragraphs regarding facilities and liability coverage. If there are no facilities that belong in a particular paragraph, write “None” in the space indicated. For each facility, include its EPA Identification Number, name, and address].

The firm identified above is the owner or operator of the following facilities for which liability coverage for [insert “sudden” or “nonsudden” or “both sudden and nonsudden”] accidental occurrences is being demonstrated through the financial test specified in subpart H of 40 CFR parts 264 and 265:____

The firm identified above guarantees, through the guarantee specified in subpart H of 40 CFR parts 264 and 265, liability coverage for [insert “sudden” or “nonsudden” or “both sudden and nonsudden”] accidental occurrences at the following facilities owned or operated by the following: ____. The firm identified above is [insert one or more: (1) The direct or higher-tier parent corporation of the owner or operator; (2) owned by the same parent corporation as the parent corporation of the owner or operator, and receiving the following value in consideration of this guarantee ____; or (3) engaged in the following substantial business relationship with the owner or operator ____, and receiving the following value in consideration of this guarantee ____]. [Attach a written description of the business relationship or a copy of the contract establishing such relationship to this letter.]

[If you are using the financial test to demonstrate coverage of both liability and closure and post-closure care, fill in the following five paragraphs regarding facilities and associated closure and post-closure cost estimates. If there are no facilities that belong in a particular paragraph, write “None” in the space indicated. For each facility, include its EPA identification number, name, address, and current closure and/or post-closure cost estimates. Identify each cost estimate as to whether it is for closure or post-closure care.]

1. The firm identified above owns or operates the following facilities for which financial assurance for closure or post-closure care or liability coverage is demonstrated through the financial test specified in subpart H of 40 CFR parts 264 and 265. The current closure and/or post-closure cost estimate covered by the test are shown for each facility: ____.

2. The firm identified above guarantees, through the guarantee specified in subpart H of 40 CFR parts 264 and 265, the closure and post-closure care or liability coverage of the following facilities owned or operated by the guaranteed party. The current cost estimates for closure or post-closure care so guaranteed are shown for each facility: ____.

3. In States where EPA is not administering the financial requirements of subpart H of 40 CFR parts 264 and 265, this firm is demonstrating financial assurance for the closure or post-closure care of the following facilities through the use of a test equivalent or substantially equivalent to the financial test specified in subpart H or 40 CFR parts 264 and 265. The current closure or post-closure cost estimates covered by such a test are shown for each facility: ____.

4. The firm identified above owns or operates the following hazardous waste management facilities for which financial assurance for closure or, if a disposal facility, post-closure care, is not demonstrated either to EPA or a State through the financial test or any other financial assurance mechanisms specified in subpart H of 40 CFR parts 264 and 265 or equivalent or substantially equivalent State mechanisms. The current closure and/or post-closure cost estimates not covered by such financial assurance are shown for each facility: ____.

5. This firm is the owner or operator or guarantor of the following UIC facilities for which financial assurance for plugging and abandonment is required under part 144 and is assured through a financial test. The current closure cost estimates as required by 40 CFR 144.62 are shown for each facility:____.

This firm [insert “is required” or “is not required”] to file a Form 10K with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) for the latest fiscal year.

The fiscal year of this firm ends on [month, day]. The figures for the following items marked with an asterisk are derived from this firm's independently audited, year-end financial statements for the latest completed fiscal year, ended [date].

Part A. Liability Coverage for Accidental Occurrences

[Fill in Alternative I if the criteria of paragraph (f)(1)(i) of § 264.147 or § 265.147 are used. Fill in Alternative II if the criteria of paragraph (f)(1)(ii) of § 264.147 or § 265.147 are used.]

Alternative I

1. Amount of annual aggregate liability coverage to be demonstrated $____.

*2. Current assets $____.

*3. Current liabilities $____.

4. Net working capital (line 2 minus line 3) $____.

*5. Tangible net worth $____.

*6. If less than 90% of assets are located in the U.S., give total U.S. assets $____.

7. Is line 5 at least $10 million? (Yes/No) ____.

8. Is line 4 at least 6 times line 1? (Yes/No) ____.

9. Is line 5 at least 6 times line 1? (Yes/No) ____.

*10. Are at least 90% of assets located in the U.S.? (Yes/No) ____. If not, complete line 11.

11. Is line 6 at least 6 times line 1? (Yes/No) ____.

Alternative II

1. Amount of annual aggregate liability coverage to be demonstrated $____.

2. Current bond rating of most recent issuance and name of rating service ____ ____.

3. Date of issuance of bond ________.

4. Date of maturity of bond ________.

*5. Tangible net worth $____.

*6. Total assets in U.S. (required only if less than 90% of assets are located in the U.S.) $____.

7. Is line 5 at least $10 million? (Yes/No) ____.

8. Is line 5 at least 6 times line 1? ____.

9. Are at least 90% of assets located in the U.S.? If not, complete line 10. (Yes/No) ____.

10. Is line 6 at least 6 times line 1? ____.

[Fill in part B if you are using the financial test to demonstrate assurance of both liability coverage and closure or post-closure care.]

Part B. Closure or Post-Closure Care and Liability Coverage

[Fill in Alternative I if the criteria of paragraphs (f)(1)(i) of § 264.143 or § 264.145 and (f)(1)(i) of § 264.147 are used or if the criteria of paragraphs (e)(1)(i) of § 265.143 or § 265.145 and (f)(1)(i) of § 265.147 are used. Fill in Alternative II if the criteria of paragraphs (f)(1)(ii) of § 264.143 or § 264.145 and (f)(1)(ii) of § 264.147 are used or if the criteria of paragraphs (e)(1)(i) of § 265.143 or § 265.145 and (f)(1)(ii) of § 265.147 are used.]

Alternative I

1. Sum of current closure and post-closure cost estimates (total of all cost estimates listed above) $____

2. Amount of annual aggregate liability coverage to be demonstrated $____

3. Sum of lines 1 and 2 $____

*4. Total liabilities (if any portion of your closure or post-closure cost estimates is included in your total liabilities, you may deduct that portion from this line and add that amount to lines 5 and 6) $____

*5. Tangible net worth $____

*6. Net worth $____

*7. Current assets $____

*8. Current liabilities $____

9. Net working capital (line 7 minus line 8) $____

*10. The sum of net income plus depreciation, depletion, and amortization $____

*11. Total assets in U.S. (required only if less than 90% of assets are located in the U.S.) $____

12. Is line 5 at least $10 million? (Yes/No)

13. Is line 5 at least 6 times line 3? (Yes/No)

14. Is line 9 at least 6 times line 3? (Yes/No)

*15. Are at least 90% of assets located in the U.S.? (Yes/No) If not, complete line 16.

16. Is line 11 at least 6 times line 3? (Yes/No)

17. Is line 4 divided by line 6 less than 2.0? (Yes/No)

18. Is line 10 divided by line 4 greater than 0.1? (Yes/No)

19. Is line 7 divided by line 8 greater than 1.5? (Yes/No)

Alternative II

1. Sum of current closure and post-closure cost estimates (total of all cost estimates listed above) $____

2. Amount of annual aggregate liability coverage to be demonstrated $____

3. Sum of lines 1 and 2 $____

4. Current bond rating of most recent issuance and name of rating service ____ ____

5. Date of issuance of bond ________

6. Date of maturity of bond ________

*7. Tangible net worth (if any portion of the closure or post-closure cost estimates is included in “total liabilities” on your financial statements you may add that portion to this line) $____

*8. Total assets in the U.S. (required only if less than 90% of assets are located in the U.S.) $____

9. Is line 7 at least $10 million? (Yes/No)

10. Is line 7 at least 6 times line 3? (Yes/No)

*11. Are at least 90% of assets located in the U.S.? (Yes/No) If not complete line 12.

12. Is line 8 at least 6 times line 3? (Yes/No)

I hereby certify that the wording of this letter is identical to the wording specified in 40 CFR 264.151(g) as such regulations were constituted on the date shown immediately below.

[Signature]

[Name]

[Title]

[Date]

(h)

(1) A corporate guarantee, as specified in § 264.143(f) or § 264.145(f), or § 265.143(e) or § 265.145(e) of this chapter, must be worded as follows, except that instructions in brackets are to be replaced with the relevant information and the brackets deleted:

Corporate Guarantee for Closure or Post-Closure Care

Guarantee made this [date] by [name of guaranteeing entity], a business corporation organized under the laws of the State of [insert name of State], herein referred to as guarantor. This guarantee is made on behalf of the [owner or operator] of [business address], which is [one of the following: “our subsidiary”; “a subsidiary of [name and address of common parent corporation], of which guarantor is a subsidiary”; or “an entity with which guarantor has a substantial business relationship, as defined in 40 CFR [either 264.141(h) or 265.141(h)]” to the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

Recitals

1. Guarantor meets or exceeds the financial test criteria and agrees to comply with the reporting requirements for guarantors as specified in 40 CFR 264.143(f), 264.145(f), 265.143(e), and 265.145(e).

2. [Owner or operator] owns or operates the following hazardous waste management facility(ies) covered by this guarantee: [List for each facility: EPA Identification Number, name, and address. Indicate for each whether guarantee is for closure, post-closure care, or both.]

3. “Closure plans” and “post-closure plans” as used below refer to the plans maintained as required by subpart G of 40 CFR parts 264 and 265 for the closure and post-closure care of facilities as identified above.

4. For value received from [owner or operator], guarantor guarantees to EPA that in the event that [owner or operator] fails to perform [insert “closure,” “post-closure care” or “closure and post-closure care”] of the above facility(ies) in accordance with the closure or post-closure plans and other permit or interim status requirements whenever required to do so, the guarantor shall do so or establish a trust fund as specified in subpart H of 40 CFR part 264 or 265, as applicable, in the name of [owner or operator] in the amount of the current closure or post-closure cost estimates as specified in subpart H of 40 CFR parts 264 and 265.

5. Guarantor agrees that if, at the end of any fiscal year before termination of this guarantee, the guarantor fails to meet the financial test criteria, guarantor shall send within 90 days, by certified mail, notice to the EPA Regional Administrator(s) for the Region(s) in which the facility(ies) is(are) located and to [owner or operator] that he intends to provide alternate financial assurance as specified in subpart H of 40 CFR part 264 or 265, as applicable, in the name of [owner or operator]. Within 120 days after the end of such fiscal year, the guarantor shall establish such financial assurance unless [owner or operator] has done so.

6. The guarantor agrees to notify the EPA Regional Administrator by certified mail, of a voluntary or involuntary proceeding under Title 11 (Bankruptcy), U.S. Code, naming guarantor as debtor, within 10 days after commencement of the proceeding.

7. Guarantor agrees that within 30 days after being notified by an EPA Regional Administrator of a determination that guarantor no longer meets the financial test criteria or that he is disallowed from continuing as a guarantor of closure or post-closure care, he shall establish alternate financial assurance as specified in subpart H of 40 CFR part 264 or 265, as applicable, in the name of [owner or operator] unless [owner or operator] has done so.

8. Guarantor agrees to remain bound under this guarantee notwithstanding any or all of the following: amendment or modification of the closure or post-closure plan, amendment or modification of the permit, the extension or reduction of the time of performance of closure or post-closure, or any other modification or alteration of an obligation of the owner or operator pursuant to 40 CFR part 264 or 265.

9. Guarantor agrees to remain bound under this guarantee for as long as [owner or operator] must comply with the applicable financial assurance requirements of subpart H of 40 CFR parts 264 and 265 for the above-listed facilities, except as provided in paragraph 10 of this agreement.

10. [Insert the following language if the guarantor is (a) a direct or higher-tier corporate parent, or (b) a firm whose parent corporation is also the parent corporation of the owner or operator]:

Guarantor may terminate this guarantee by sending notice by certified mail to the EPA Regional Administrator(s) for the Region(s) in which the facility(ies) is(are) located and to [owner or operator], provided that this guarantee may not be terminated unless and until [the owner or operator] obtains, and the EPA Regional Administrator(s) approve(s), alternate closure and/or post-closure care coverage complying with 40 CFR 264.143, 264.145, 265.143, and/or 265.145.

[Insert the following language if the guarantor is a firm qualifying as a guarantor due to its “substantial business relationship” with its owner or operator]

Guarantor may terminate this guarantee 120 days following the receipt of notification, through certified mail, by the EPA Regional Administrator(s) for the Region(s) in which the facility(ies) is(are) located and by [the owner or operator].

11. Guarantor agrees that if [owner or operator] fails to provide alternate financial assurance as specified in subpart H of 40 CFR part 264 or 265, as applicable, and obtain written approval of such assurance from the EPA Regional Administrator(s) within 90 days after a notice of cancellation by the guarantor is received by an EPA Regional Administrator from guarantor, guarantor shall provide such alternate financial assurance in the name of [owner or operator].

12. Guarantor expressly waives notice of acceptance of this guarantee by the EPA or by [owner or operator]. Guarantor also expressly waives notice of amendments or modifications of the closure and/or post-closure plan and of amendments or modifications of the facility permit(s).

I hereby certify that the wording of this guarantee is identical to the wording specified in 40 CFR 264.151(h) as such regulations were constituted on the date first above written.

Effective date:

[Name of guarantor]

[Authorized signature for guarantor]

[Name of person signing]

[Title of person signing]

Signature of witness or notary:

(2) A guarantee, as specified in § 264.147(g) or § 265.147(g) of this chapter, must be worded as follows, except that instructions in brackets are to be replaced with the relevant information and the brackets deleted:

Guarantee for Liability Coverage

Guarantee made this [date] by [name of guaranteeing entity], a business corporation organized under the laws of [if incorporated within the United States insert “the State of ____” and insert name of State; if incorporated outside the United States insert the name of the country in which incorporated, the principal place of business within the United States, and the name and address of the registered agent in the State of the principal place of business], herein referred to as guarantor. This guarantee is made on behalf of [owner or operator] of [business address], which is one of the following: “our subsidiary;” “a subsidiary of [name and address of common parent corporation], of which guarantor is a subsidiary;” or “an entity with which guarantor has a substantial business relationship, as defined in 40 CFR [either 264.141(h) or 265.141(h)]”, to any and all third parties who have sustained or may sustain bodily injury or property damage caused by [sudden and/or nonsudden] accidental occurrences arising from operation of the facility(ies) covered by this guarantee.

Recitals

1. Guarantor meets or exceeds the financial test criteria and agrees to comply with the reporting requirements for guarantors as specified in 40 CFR 264.147(g) and 265.147(g).

2. [Owner or operator] owns or operates the following hazardous waste management facility(ies) covered by this guarantee: [List for each facility: EPA identification number, name, and address; and if guarantor is incorporated outside the United States list the name and address of the guarantor's registered agent in each State.] This corporate guarantee satisfies RCRA third-party liability requirements for [insert “sudden” or “nonsudden” or “both sudden and nonsudden”] accidental occurrences in above-named owner or operator facilities for coverage in the amount of [insert dollar amount] for each occurrence and [insert dollar amount] annual aggregate.

3. For value received from [owner or operator], guarantor guarantees to any and all third parties who have sustained or may sustain bodily injury or property damage caused by [sudden and/or nonsudden] accidental occurrences arising from operations of the facility(ies) covered by this guarantee that in the event that [owner or operator] fails to satisfy a judgment or award based on a determination of liability for bodily injury or property damage to third parties caused by [sudden and/or nonsudden] accidental occurrences, arising from the operation of the above-named facilities, or fails to pay an amount agreed to in settlement of a claim arising from or alleged to arise from such injury or damage, the guarantor will satisfy such judgment(s), award(s) or settlement agreement(s) up to the limits of coverage identified above.

4. Such obligation does not apply to any of the following:

(a) Bodily injury or property damage for which [insert owner or operator] is obligated to pay damages by reason of the assumption of liability in a contract or agreement. This exclusion does not apply to liability for damages that [insert owner or operator] would be obligated to pay in the absence of the contract or agreement.

(b) Any obligation of [insert owner or operator] under a workers' compensation, disability benefits, or unemployment compensation law or any similar law.

(c) Bodily injury to:

(1) An employee of [insert owner or operator] arising from, and in the course of, employment by [insert owner or operator]; or

(2) The spouse, child, parent, brother, or sister of that employee as a consequence of, or arising from, and in the course of employment by [insert owner or operator]. This exclusion applies:

(A) Whether [insert owner or operator] may be liable as an employer or in any other capacity; and

(B) To any obligation to share damages with or repay another person who must pay damages because of the injury to persons identified in paragraphs (1) and (2).

(d) Bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, use, or entrustment to others of any aircraft, motor vehicle or watercraft.

(e) Property damage to:

(1) Any property owned, rented, or occupied by [insert owner or operator];

(2) Premises that are sold, given away or abandoned by [insert owner or operator] if the property damage arises out of any part of those premises;

(3) Property loaned to [insert owner or operator];

(4) Personal property in the care, custody or control of [insert owner or operator];

(5) That particular part of real property on which [insert owner or operator] or any contractors or subcontractors working directly or indirectly on behalf of [insert owner or operator] are performing operations, if the property damage arises out of these operations.

5. Guarantor agrees that if, at the end of any fiscal year before termination of this guarantee, the guarantor fails to meet the financial test criteria, guarantor shall send within 90 days, by certified mail, notice to the EPA Regional Administrator[s] for the Region[s] in which the facility[ies] is[are] located and to [owner or operator] that he intends to provide alternate liability coverage as specified in 40 CFR 264.147 and 265.147, as applicable, in the name of [owner or operator]. Within 120 days after the end of such fiscal year, the guarantor shall establish such liability coverage unless [owner or operator] has done so.

6. The guarantor agrees to notify the EPA Regional Administrator by certified mail of a voluntary or involuntary proceeding under title 11 (Bankruptcy), U.S. Code, naming guarantor as debtor, within 10 days after commencement of the proceeding.

7. Guarantor agrees that within 30 days after being notified by an EPA Regional Administrator of a determination that guarantor no longer meets the financial test criteria or that he is disallowed from continuing as a guarantor, he shall establish alternate liability coverage as specified in 40 CFR 264.147 or 265.147 in the name of [owner or operator], unless [owner or operator] has done so.

8. Guarantor reserves the right to modify this agreement to take into account amendment or modification of the liability requirements set by 40 CFR 264.147 and 265.147, provided that such modification shall become effective only if a Regional Administrator does not disapprove the modification within 30 days of receipt of notification of the modification.

9. Guarantor agrees to remain bound under this guarantee for so long as [owner or operator] must comply with the applicable requirements of 40 CFR 264.147 and 265.147 for the above-listed facility(ies), except as provided in paragraph 10 of this agreement.

10. [Insert the following language if the guarantor is (a) a direct or higher-tier corporate parent, or (b) a firm whose parent corporation is also the parent corporation of the owner or operator]:

Guarantor may terminate this guarantee by sending notice by certified mail to the EPA Regional Administrator(s) for the Region(s) in which the facility(ies) is(are) located and to [owner or operator], provided that this guarantee may not be terminated unless and until [the owner or operator] obtains, and the EPA Regional Administrator(s) approve(s), alternate liability coverage complying with 40 CFR 264.147 and/or 265.147.

[Insert the following language if the guarantor is a firm qualifying as a guarantor due to its “substantial business relationship” with the owner or operator]:

Guarantor may terminate this guarantee 120 days following receipt of notification, through certified mail, by the EPA Regional Administrator(s) for the Region(s) in which the facility(ies) is(are) located and by [the owner or operator].

11. Guarantor hereby expressly waives notice of acceptance of this guarantee by any party.

12. Guarantor agrees that this guarantee is in addition to and does not affect any other responsibility or liability of the guarantor with respect to the covered facilities.

13. The Guarantor shall satisfy a third-party liability claim only on receipt of one of the following documents:

(a) Certification from the Principal and the third-party claimant(s) that the liability claim should be paid. The certification must be worded as follows, except that instructions in brackets are to be replaced with the relevant information and the brackets deleted:

Certification of Valid Claim

The undersigned, as parties [insert Principal] and [insert name and address of third-party claimant(s)], hereby certify that the claim of bodily injury and/or property damage caused by a [sudden or nonsudden] accidental occurrence arising from operating [Principal's] hazardous waste treatment, storage, or disposal facility should be paid in the amount of $ .

[Signatures]

Principal

(Notary) Date

[Signatures]

Claimant(s)

(Notary) Date

(b) A valid final court order establishing a judgment against the Principal for bodily injury or property damage caused by sudden or nonsudden accidental occurrences arising from the operation of the Principal's facility or group of facilities.

14. In the event of combination of this guarantee with another mechanism to meet liability requirements, this guarantee will be considered [insert “primary” or “excess”] coverage.

I hereby certify that the wording of the guarantee is identical to the wording specified in 40 CFR 264.151(h)(2) as such regulations were constituted on the date shown immediately below.

Effective date:

[Name of guarantor]

[Authorized signature for guarantor]

[Name of person signing]

[Title of person signing]

Signature of witness or notary:

(i) A hazardous waste facility liability endorsement as required in § 264.147 or § 265.147 must be worded as follows, except that instructions in brackets are to be replaced with the relevant information and the brackets deleted:

Hazardous Waste Facility Liability Endorsement

1. This endorsement certifies that the policy to which the endorsement is attached provides liability insurance covering bodily injury and property damage in connection with the insured's obligation to demonstrate financial responsibility under 40 CFR 264.147 or 265.147. The coverage applies at [list EPA Identification Number, name, and address for each facility] for [insert “sudden accidental occurrences,” “nonsudden accidental occurrences,” or “sudden and nonsudden accidental occurrences”; if coverage is for multiple facilities and the coverage is different for different facilities, indicate which facilities are insured for sudden accidental occurrences, which are insured for nonsudden accidental occurrences, and which are insured for both]. The limits of liability are [insert the dollar amount of the “each occurrence” and “annual aggregate” limits of the Insurer's liability], exclusive of legal defense costs.

2. The insurance afforded with respect to such occurrences is subject to all of the terms and conditions of the policy; provided, however, that any provisions of the policy inconsistent with subsections (a) through (e) of this Paragraph 2 are hereby amended to conform with subsections (a) through (e):

(a) Bankruptcy or insolvency of the insured shall not relieve the Insurer of its obligations under the policy to which this endorsement is attached.

(b) The Insurer is liable for the payment of amounts within any deductible applicable to the policy, with a right of reimbursement by the insured for any such payment made by the Insurer. This provision does not apply with respect to that amount of any deductible for which coverage is demonstrated as specified in 40 CFR 264.147(f) or 265.147(f).

(c) Whenever requested by a Regional Administrator of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Insurer agrees to furnish to the Regional Administrator a signed duplicate original of the policy and all endorsements.

(d) Cancellation of this endorsement, whether by the Insurer, the insured, a parent corporation providing insurance coverage for its subsidiary, or by a firm having an insurable interest in and obtaining liability insurance on behalf of the owner or operator of the hazardous waste management facility, will be effective only upon written notice and only after the expiration of 60 days after a copy of such written notice is received by the Regional Administrator(s) of the EPA Region(s) in which the facility(ies) is(are) located.

(e) Any other termination of this endorsement will be effective only upon written notice and only after the expiration of thirty (30) days after a copy of such written notice is received by the Regional Administrator(s) of the EPA Region(s) in which the facility(ies) is (are) located.

Attached to and forming part of policy No. ___ issued by [name of Insurer], herein called the Insurer, of [address of Insurer] to [name of insured] of [address] this _______ day of _______, 19__. The effective date of said policy is ______ day of _______, 19__.

I hereby certify that the wording of this endorsement is identical to the wording specified in 40 CFR 264.151(i) as such regulation was constituted on the date first above written, and that the Insurer is licensed to transact the business of insurance, or eligible to provide insurance as an excess or surplus lines insurer, in one or more States.

[Signature of Authorized Representative of Insurer]

[Type name]

[Title], Authorized Representative of [name of Insurer]

[Address of Representative]

(j) A certificate of liability insurance as required in § 264.147 or § 265.147 must be worded as follows, except that the instructions in brackets are to be replaced with the relevant information and the brackets deleted:

Hazardous Waste Facility Certificate of Liability Insurance

1. [Name of Insurer], (the “Insurer”), of [address of Insurer] hereby certifies that it has issued liability insurance covering bodily injury and property damage to [name of insured], (the “insured”), of [address of insured] in connection with the insured's obligation to demonstrate financial responsibility under 40 CFR 264.147 or 265.147. The coverage applies at [list EPA Identification Number, name, and address for each facility] for [insert “sudden accidental occurrences,” “nonsudden accidental occurrences,” or “sudden and nonsudden accidental occurrences”; if coverage is for multiple facilities and the coverage is different for different facilities, indicate which facilities are insured for sudden accidental occurrences, which are insured for nonsudden accidental occurrences, and which are insured for both]. The limits of liability are [insert the dollar amount of the “each occurrence” and “annual aggregate” limits of the Insurer's liability], exclusive of legal defense costs. The coverage is provided under policy number ___, issued on [date]. The effective date of said policy is [date].

2. The Insurer further certifies the following with respect to the insurance described in Paragraph 1:

(a) Bankruptcy or insolvency of the insured shall not relieve the Insurer of its obligations under the policy.

(b) The Insurer is liable for the payment of amounts within any deductible applicable to the policy, with a right of reimbursement by the insured for any such payment made by the Insurer. This provision does not apply with respect to that amount of any deductible for which coverage is demonstrated as specified in 40 CFR 264.147(f) or 265.147(f).

(c) Whenever requested by a Regional Administrator of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Insurer agrees to furnish to the Regional Administrator a signed duplicate original of the policy and all endorsements.

(d) Cancellation of the insurance, whether by the insurer, the insured, a parent corporation providing insurance coverage for its subsidiary, or by a firm having an insurable interest in and obtaining liability insurance on behalf of the owner or operator of the hazardous waste management facility, will be effective only upon written notice and only after the expiration of 60 days after a copy of such written notice is received by the Regional Administrator(s) of the EPA Region(s) in which the facility(ies) is(are) located.

(e) Any other termination of the insurance will be effective only upon written notice and only after the expiration of thirty (30) days after a copy of such written notice is received by the Regional Administrator(s) of the EPA Region(s) in which the facility(ies) is (are) located.

I hereby certify that the wording of this instrument is identical to the wording specified in 40 CFR 264.151(j) as such regulation was constituted on the date first above written, and that the Insurer is licensed to transact the business of insurance, or eligible to provide insurance as an excess or surplus lines insurer, in one or more States.

[Signature of authorized representative of Insurer]

[Type name]

[Title], Authorized Representative of [name of Insurer]

[Address of Representative]

(k) A letter of credit, as specified in § 264.147(h) or 265.147(h) of this chapter, must be worded as follows, except that instructions in brackets are to be replaced with the relevant information and the brackets deleted:

Irrevocable Standby Letter of Credit

Name and Address of Issuing Institution

Regional Administrator(s)

Region(s)

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

Dear Sir or Madam: We hereby establish our Irrevocable Standby Letter of Credit No. ______ in the favor of [“any and all third-party liability claimants” or insert name of trustee of the standby trust fund], at the request and for the account of [owner or operator's name and address] for third-party liability awards or settlements up to [in words] U.S. dollars $______ per occurrence and the annual aggregate amount of [in words] U.S. dollars $______, for sudden accidental occurrences and/or for third-party liability awards or settlements up to the amount of [in words] U.S. dollars $______ per occurrence, and the annual aggregate amount of [in words] U.S. dollars $______, for nonsudden accidental occurrences available upon presentation of a sight draft bearing reference to this letter of credit No. ______, and [insert the following language if the letter of credit is being used without a standby trust fund: (1) a signed certificate reading as follows:

Certificate of Valid Claim

The undersigned, as parties [insert principal] and [insert name and address of third party claimant(s)], hereby certify that the claim of bodily injury and/or property damage caused by a [sudden or nonsudden] accidental occurrence arising from operations of [principal's] hazardous waste treatment, storage, or disposal facility should be paid in the amount of $[ ]. We hereby certify that the claim does not apply to any of the following:

(a) Bodily injury or property damage for which [insert principal] is obligated to pay damages by reason of the assumption of liability in a contract or agreement. This exclusion does not apply to liability for damages that [insert principal] would be obligated to pay in the absence of the contract or agreement.

(b) Any obligation of [insert principal] under a workers' compensation, disability benefits, or unemployment compensation law or any similar law.

(c) Bodily injury to:

(1) An employee of [insert principal] arising from, and in the course of, employment by [insert principal]; or

(2) The spouse, child, parent, brother or sister of that employee as a consequence of, or arising from, and in the course of employment by [insert principal].

This exclusion applies:

(A) Whether [insert principal] may be liable as an employer or in any other capacity; and

(B) To any obligation to share damages with or repay another person who must pay damages because of the injury to persons identified in paragraphs (1) and (2).

(d) Bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, use, or entrustment to others of any aircraft, motor vehicle or watercraft.

(e) Property damage to:

(1) Any property owned, rented, or occupied by [insert principal];

(2) Premises that are sold, given away or abandoned by [insert principal] if the property damage arises out of any part of those premises;

(3) Property loaned to [insert principal];

(4) Personal property in the care, custody or control of [insert principal];

(5) That particular part of real property on which [insert principal] or any contractors or subcontractors working directly or indirectly on behalf of [insert principal] are performing operations, if the property damage arises out of these operations.

[Signatures]

Grantor

[Signatures]

Claimant(s)

or (2) a valid final court order establishing a judgment against the Grantor for bodily injury or property damage caused by sudden or nonsudden accidental occurrences arising from the operation of the Grantor's facility or group of facilities.]

This letter of credit is effective as of [date] and shall expire on [date at least one year later], but such expiration date shall be automatically extended for a period of [at least one year] on [date and on each successive expiration date, unless, at least 120 days before the current expiration date, we notify you, the USEPA Regional Administrator for Region [Region #], and [owner's or operator's name] by certified mail that we have decided not to extend this letter of credit beyond the current expiration date.

Whenever this letter of credit is drawn on under and in compliance with the terms of this credit, we shall duly honor such draft upon presentation to us.

[Insert the following language if a standby trust fund is not being used: “In the event that this letter of credit is used in combination with another mechanism for liability coverage, this letter of credit shall be considered [insert “primary” or “excess” coverage].”

We certify that the wording of this letter of credit is identical to the wording specified in 40 CFR 264.151(k) as such regulations were constituted on the date shown immediately below. [Signature(s) and title(s) of official(s) of issuing institution] [Date].

This credit is subject to [insert “the most recent edition of the Uniform Customs and Practice for Documentary Credits, published and copyrighted by the International Chamber of Commerce,” or “the Uniform Commercial Code”].

(l) A surety bond, as specified in § 264.147(i) or § 265.147(i) of this chapter, must be worded as follows: except that instructions in brackets are to be replaced with the relevant information and the brackets deleted:

Payment Bond

Surety Bond No. [Insert number]

Parties [Insert name and address of owner or operator], Principal, incorporated in [Insert State of incorporation] of [Insert city and State of principal place of business] and [Insert name and address of surety company(ies)], Surety Company(ies), of [Insert surety(ies) place of business].

EPA Identification Number, name, and address for each facility guaranteed by this bond: ____

Sudden accidental occurrences Nonsudden accidental occurrences
Penal Sum Per Occurrence [insert amount] [insert amount]
Annual Aggregate [insert amount] [insert amount]

Purpose: This is an agreement between the Surety(ies) and the Principal under which the Surety(ies), its(their) successors and assignees, agree to be responsible for the payment of claims against the Principal for bodily injury and/or property damage to third parties caused by [“sudden” and/or “nonsudden”] accidental occurrences arising from operations of the facility or group of facilities in the sums prescribed herein; subject to the governing provisions and the following conditions.

Governing Provisions:

(1) Section 3004 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976, as amended.

(2) Rules and regulations of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), particularly 40 CFR [“§ 264.147” or “§ 265.147”] (if applicable).

(3) Rules and regulations of the governing State agency (if applicable) [insert citation].

Conditions:

(1) The Principal is subject to the applicable governing provisions that require the Principal to have and maintain liability coverage for bodily injury and property damage to third parties caused by [“sudden” and/or “nonsudden”] accidental occurrences arising from operations of the facility or group of facilities. Such obligation does not apply to any of the following:

(a) Bodily injury or property damage for which [insert principal] is obligated to pay damages by reason of the assumption of liability in a contract or agreement. This exclusion does not apply to liability for damages that [insert principal] would be obligated to pay in the absence of the contract or agreement.

(b) Any obligation of [insert principal] under a workers' compensation, disability benefits, or unemployment compensation law or similar law.

(c) Bodily injury to:

(1) An employee of [insert principal] arising from, and in the course of, employment by [insert principal]; or

(2) The spouse, child, parent, brother or sister of that employee as a consequence of, or arising from, and in the course of employment by [insert principal]. This exclusion applies:

(A) Whether [insert principal] may be liable as an employer or in any other capacity; and

(B) To any obligation to share damages with or repay another person who must pay damages because of the injury to persons identified in paragraphs (1) and (2).

(d) Bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, use, or entrustment to others of any aircraft, motor vehicle or watercraft.

(e) Property damage to:

(1) Any property owned, rented, or occupied by [insert principal];

(2) Premises that are sold, given away or abandoned by [insert principal] if the property damage arises out of any part of those premises;

(3) Property loaned to [insert principal];

(4) Personal property in the care, custody or control of [insert principal];

(5) That particular part of real property on which [insert principal] or any contractors or subcontractors working directly or indirectly on behalf of [insert principal] are performing operations, if the property damage arises out of these operations.

(2) This bond assures that the Principal will satisfy valid third party liability claims, as described in condition 1.

(3) If the Principal fails to satisfy a valid third party liability claim, as described above, the Surety(ies) becomes liable on this bond obligation.

(4) The Surety(ies) shall satisfy a third party liability claim only upon the receipt of one of the following documents:

(a) Certification from the Principal and the third party claimant(s) that the liability claim should be paid. The certification must be worded as follows, except that instructions in brackets are to be replaced with the relevant information and the brackets deleted:

Certification of Valid Claim

The undersigned, as parties [insert name of Principal] and [insert name and address of third party claimant(s)], hereby certify that the claim of bodily injury and/or property damage caused by a [sudden or nonsudden] accidental occurrence arising from operating [Principal's] hazardous waste treatment, storage, or disposal facility should be paid in the amount of $[ ].

[Signature]

Principal

[Notary] Date

[Signature(s)]

Claimant(s)

[Notary] Date

or (b) A valid final court order establishing a judgment against the Principal for bodily injury or property damage caused by sudden or nonsudden accidental occurrences arising from the operation of the Principal's facility or group of facilities.

(5) In the event of combination of this bond with another mechanism for liability coverage, this bond will be considered [insert “primary” or “excess”] coverage.

(6) The liability of the Surety(ies) shall not be discharged by any payment or succession of payments hereunder, unless and until such payment or payments shall amount in the aggregate to the penal sum of the bond. In no event shall the obligation of the Surety(ies) hereunder exceed the amount of said annual aggregate penal sum, provided that the Surety(ies) furnish(es) notice to the Regional Administrator forthwith of all claims filed and payments made by the Surety(ies) under this bond.

(7) The Surety(ies) may cancel the bond by sending notice of cancellation by certified mail to the Principal and the USEPA Regional Administrator for Region [Region #], provided, however, that cancellation shall not occur during the 120 days beginning on the date of receipt of the notice of cancellation by the Principal and the Regional Administrator, as evidenced by the return receipt.

(8) The Principal may terminate this bond by sending written notice to the Surety(ies) and to the EPA Regional Administrator(s) of the EPA Region(s) in which the bonded facility(ies) is (are) located.

(9) The Surety(ies) hereby waive(s) notification of amendments to applicable laws, statutes, rules and regulations and agree(s) that no such amendment shall in any way alleviate its (their) obligation on this bond.

(10) This bond is effective from [insert date] (12:01 a.m., standard time, at the address of the Principal as stated herein) and shall continue in force until terminated as described above.

In Witness Whereof, the Principal and Surety(ies) have executed this Bond and have affixed their seals on the date set forth above.

The persons whose signatures appear below hereby certify that they are authorized to execute this surety bond on behalf of the Principal and Surety(ies) and that the wording of this surety bond is identical to the wording specified in 40 CFR 264.151(1), as such regulations were constituted on the date this bond was executed.

PRINCIPAL

[Signature(s)]

[Name(s)]

[Title(s)]

[Corporate Seal]

CORPORATE SURETY[IES]

[Name and address]

State of incorporation:

Liability Limit: $

[Signature(s)]

[Name(s) and title(s)]

[Corporate seal]

[For every co-surety, provide signature(s), corporate seal, and other information in the same manner as for Surety above.]

Bond premium: $

(m)

(1) A trust agreement, as specified in § 264.147(j) or § 265.147(j) of this chapter, must be worded as follows, except that instructions in brackets are to be replaced with the relevant information and the brackets deleted:

Trust Agreement

Trust Agreement, the “Agreement,” entered into as of [date] by and between [name of the owner or operator] a [name of State] [insert “corporation,” “partnership,” “association,” or “proprietorship”], the “Grantor,” and [name of corporate trustee], [insert, “incorporated in the State of ____” or “a national bank”], the “trustee.”

Whereas, the United States Environmental Protection Agency, “EPA,” an agency of the United States Government, has established certain regulations applicable to the Grantor, requiring that an owner or operator of a hazardous waste management facility or group of facilities must demonstrate financial responsibility for bodily injury and property damage to third parties caused by sudden accidental and/or nonsudden accidental occurrences arising from operations of the facility or group of facilities.

Whereas, the Grantor has elected to establish a trust to assure all or part of such financial responsibility for the facilities identified herein.

Whereas, the Grantor, acting through its duly authorized officers, has selected the Trustee to be the trustee under this agreement, and the Trustee is willing to act as trustee.

Now, therefore, the Grantor and the Trustee agree as follows:

Section 1. Definitions. As used in this Agreement:

(a) The term “Grantor” means the owner or operator who enters into this Agreement and any successors or assigns of the Grantor.

(b) The term “Trustee” means the Trustee who enters into this Agreement and any successor Trustee.

Section 2. Identification of Facilities. This agreement pertains to the facilities identified on attached schedule A [on schedule A, for each facility list the EPA Identification Number, name, and address of the facility(ies) and the amount of liability coverage, or portions thereof, if more than one instrument affords combined coverage as demonstrated by this Agreement].

Section 3. Establishment of Fund. The Grantor and the Trustee hereby establish a trust fund, hereinafter the “Fund,” for the benefit of any and all third parties injured or damaged by [sudden and/or nonsudden] accidental occurrences arising from operation of the facility(ies) covered by this guarantee, in the amounts of ______ [up to $1 million] per occurrence and ______ [up to $2 million] annual aggregate for sudden accidental occurrences and ______ [up to $3 million] per occurrence and ______ [up to $6 million] annual aggregate for nonsudden occurrences, except that the Fund is not established for the benefit of third parties for the following:

(a) Bodily injury or property damage for which [insert Grantor] is obligated to pay damages by reason of the assumption of liability in a contract or agreement. This exclusion does not apply to liability for damages that [insert Grantor] would be obligated to pay in the absence of the contract or agreement.

(b) Any obligation of [insert Grantor] under a workers' compensation, disability benefits, or unemployment compensation law or any similar law.

(c) Bodily injury to:

(1) An employee of [insert Grantor] arising from, and in the course of, employment by [insert Grantor]; or

(2) The spouse, child, parent, brother or sister of that employee as a consequence of, or arising from, and in the course of employment by [insert Grantor].

This exclusion applies:

(A) Whether [insert Grantor] may be liable as an employer or in any other capacity; and

(B) To any obligation to share damages with or repay another person who must pay damages because of the injury to persons identified in paragraphs (1) and (2).

(d) Bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, use, or entrustment to others of any aircraft, motor vehicle or watercraft.

(e) Property damage to:

(1) Any property owned, rented, or occupied by [insert Grantor];

(2) Premises that are sold, given away or abandoned by [insert Grantor] if the property damage arises out of any part of those premises;

(3) Property loaned to [insert Grantor];

(4) Personal property in the care, custody or control of [insert Grantor];

(5) That particular part of real property on which [insert Grantor] or any contractors or subcontractors working directly or indirectly on behalf of [insert Grantor] are performing operations, if the property damage arises out of these operations.

In the event of combination with another mechanism for liability coverage, the fund shall be considered [insert “primary” or “excess”] coverage.

The Fund is established initially as consisting of the property, which is acceptable to the Trustee, described in Schedule B attached hereto. Such property and any other property subsequently transferred to the Trustee is referred to as the Fund, together with all earnings and profits thereon, less any payments or distributions made by the Trustee pursuant to this Agreement. The Fund shall be held by the Trustee, IN TRUST, as hereinafter provided. The Trustee shall not be responsible nor shall it undertake any responsibility for the amount or adequacy of, nor any duty to collect from the Grantor, any payments necessary to discharge any liabilities of the Grantor established by EPA.

Section 4. Payment for Bodily Injury or Property Damage. The Trustee shall satisfy a third party liability claim by making payments from the Fund only upon receipt of one of the following documents;

(a) Certification from the Grantor and the third party claimant(s) that the liability claim should be paid. The certification must be worded as follows, except that instructions in brackets are to be replaced with the relevant information and the brackets deleted:

Certification of Valid Claim

The undersigned, as parties [insert Grantor] and [insert name and address of third party claimant(s)], hereby certify that the claim of bodily injury and/or property damage caused by a [sudden or nonsudden] accidental occurrence arising from operating [Grantor's] hazardous waste treatment, storage, or disposal facility should be paid in the amount of $[ ].

[Signatures]

Grantor

[Signatures]

Claimant(s)

(b) A valid final court order establishing a judgment against the Grantor for bodily injury or property damage caused by sudden or nonsudden accidental occurrences arising from the operation of the Grantor's facility or group of facilities.

Section 5. Payments Comprising the Fund. Payments made to the Trustee for the Fund shall consist of cash or securities acceptable to the Trustee.

Section 6. Trustee Management. The Trustee shall invest and reinvest the principal and income, in accordance with general investment policies and guidelines which the Grantor may communicate in writing to the Trustee from time to time, subject, however, to the provisions of this section. In investing, reinvesting, exchanging, selling, and managing the Fund, the Trustee shall discharge his duties with respect to the trust fund solely in the interest of the beneficiary and with the care, skill, prudence, and diligence under the circumstance then prevailing which persons of prudence, acting in a like capacity and familiar with such matters, would use in the conduct of an enterprise of a like character and with like aims; except that:

(i) Securities or other obligations of the Grantor, or any other owner or operator of the facilities, or any of their affiliates as defined in the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended, 15 U.S.C. 80a-2.(a), shall not be acquired or held unless they are securities or other obligations of the Federal or a State government;

(ii) The Trustee is authorized to invest the Fund in time or demand deposits of the Trustee, to the extent insured by an agency of the Federal or State government; and

(iii) The Trustee is authorized to hold cash awaiting investment or distribution uninvested for a reasonable time and without liability for the payment of interest thereon.

Section 7. Commingling and Investment. The Trustee is expressly authorized in its discretion:

(a) To transfer from time to time any or all of the assets of the Fund to any common commingled, or collective trust fund created by the Trustee in which the fund is eligible to participate, subject to all of the provisions thereof, to be commingled with the assets of other trusts participating therein; and

(b) To purchase shares in any investment company registered under the Investment Company Act of 1940, 15 U.S.C. 81a-1 et seq., including one which may be created, managed, underwritten, or to which investment advice is rendered or the shares of which are sold by the Trustee. The Trustee may vote such shares in its discretion.

Section 8. Express Powers of Trustee. Without in any way limiting the powers and discretions conferred upon the Trustee by the other provisions of this Agreement or by law, the Trustee is expressly authorized and empowered:

(a) To sell, exchange, convey, transfer, or otherwise dispose of any property held by it, by public or private sale. No person dealing with the Trustee shall be bound to see to the application of the purchase money or to inquire into the validity or expediency of any such sale or other disposition;

(b) To make, execute, acknowledge, and deliver any and all documents of transfer and conveyance and any and all other instruments that may be necessary or appropriate to carry out the powers herein granted;

(c) To register any securities held in the Fund in its own name or in the name of a nominee and to hold any security in bearer form or in book entry, or to combine certificates representing such securities with certificates of the same issue held by the Trustee in other fiduciary capacities, or to deposit or arrange for the deposit of such securities in a qualified central depository even though, when so deposited, such securities may be merged and held in bulk in the name of the nominee of such depository with other securities deposited therein by another person, or to deposit or arrange for the deposit of any securities issued by the United States Government, or any agency or instrumentality thereof, with a Federal Reserve bank, but the books and records of the Trustee shall at all times show that all such securities are part of the Fund;

(d) To deposit any cash in the Fund in interest-bearing accounts maintained or savings certificates issued by the Trustee, in its separate corporate capacity, or in any other banking institution affiliated with the Trustee, to the extent insured by an agency of the Federal or State government; and

(e) To compromise or otherwise adjust all claims in favor of or against the Fund.

Section 9. Taxes and Expenses. All taxes of any kind that may be assessed or levied against or in respect of the Fund and all brokerage commissions incurred by the Fund shall be paid from the Fund. All other expenses incurred by the Trustee in connection with the administration of this Trust, including fees for legal services rendered to the Trustee, the compensation of the Trustee to the extent not paid directly by the Grantor, and all other proper charges and disbursements of the Trustee shall be paid from the Fund.

Section 10. Annual Valuations. The Trustee shall annually, at least 30 days prior to the anniversary date of establishment of the Fund, furnish to the Grantor and to the appropriate EPA Regional Administrator a statement confirming the value of the Trust. Any securities in the Fund shall be valued at market value as of no more than 60 days prior to the anniversary date of establishment of the Fund. The failure of the Grantor to object in writing to the Trustee within 90 days after the statement has been furnished to the Grantor and the EPA Regional Administrator shall constitute a conclusively binding assent by the Grantor barring the Grantor from asserting any claim or liability against the Trustee with respect to matters disclosed in the statement.

Section 11. Advice of Counsel. The Trustee may from time to time consult with counsel, who may be counsel to the Grantor with respect to any question arising as to the construction of this Agreement or any action to be taken hereunder. The Trustee shall be fully protected, to the extent permitted by law, in acting upon the advice of counsel.

Section 12. Trustee Compensation. The Trustee shall be entitled to reasonable compensation for its services as agreed upon in writing from time to time with the Grantor.

Section 13. Successor Trustee. The Trustee may resign or the Grantor may replace the Trustee, but such resignation or replacement shall not be effective until the Grantor has appointed a successor trustee and this successor accepts the appointment. The successor trustee shall have the same powers and duties as those conferred upon the Trustee hereunder. Upon the successor trustee's acceptance of the appointment, the Trustee shall assign, transfer, and pay over to the successor trustee the funds and properties then constituting the Fund. If for any reason the Grantor cannot or does not act in the event of the resignation of the Trustee, the Trustee may apply to a court of competent jurisdiction for the appointment of a successor trustee or for instructions. The successor trustee shall specify the date on which it assumes administration of the trust in a writing sent to the Grantor, the EPA Regional Administrator, and the present Trustee by certified mail 10 days before such change becomes effective. Any expenses incurred by the Trustee as a result of any of the acts contemplated by this section shall be paid as provided in Section 9.

Section 14. Instructions to the Trustee. All orders, requests, and instructions by the Grantor to the Trustee shall be in writing, signed by such persons as are designated in the attached Exhibit A or such other designees as the Grantor may designate by amendments to Exhibit A. The Trustee shall be fully protected in acting without inquiry in accordance with the Grantor's orders, requests, and instructions. All orders, requests, and instructions by the EPA Regional Administrator to the Trustee shall be in writing, signed by the EPA Regional Administrators of the Regions in which the facilities are located, or their designees, and the Trustee shall act and shall be fully protected in acting in accordance with such orders, requests, and instructions. The Trustee shall have the right to assume, in the absence of written notice to the contrary, that no event constituting a change or a termination of the authority of any person to act on behalf of the Grantor or EPA hereunder has occurred. The Trustee shall have no duty to act in the absence of such orders, requests, and instructions from the Grantor and/or EPA, except as provided for herein.

Section 15. Notice of Nonpayment. If a payment for bodily injury or property damage is made under Section 4 of this trust, the Trustee shall notify the Grantor of such payment and the amount(s) thereof within five (5) working days. The Grantor shall, on or before the anniversary date of the establishment of the Fund following such notice, either make payments to the Trustee in amounts sufficient to cause the trust to return to its value immediately prior to the payment of claims under Section 4, or shall provide written proof to the Trustee that other financial assurance for liability coverage has been obtained equalling the amount necessary to return the trust to its value prior to the payment of claims. If the Grantor does not either make payments to the Trustee or provide the Trustee with such proof, the Trustee shall within 10 working days after the anniversary date of the establishment of the Fund provide a written notice of nonpayment to the EPA Regional Administrator.

Section 16. Amendment of Agreement. This Agreement may be amended by an instrument in writing executed by the Grantor, the Trustee, and the appropriate EPA Regional Administrator, or by the Trustee and the appropriate EPA Regional Administrator if the Grantor ceases to exist.

Section 17. Irrevocability and Termination. Subject to the right of the parties to amend this Agreement as provided in Section 16, this Trust shall be irrevocable and shall continue until terminated at the written agreement of the Grantor, the Trustee, and the EPA Regional Administrator, or by the Trustee and the EPA Regional Administrator, if the Grantor ceases to exist. Upon termination of the Trust, all remaining trust property, less final trust administration expenses, shall be delivered to the Grantor.

The Regional Administrator will agree to termination of the Trust when the owner or operator substitutes alternate financial assurance as specified in this section.

Section 18. Immunity and Indemnification. The Trustee shall not incur personal liability of any nature in connection with any act or omission, made in good faith, in the administration of this Trust, or in carrying out any directions by the Grantor or the EPA Regional Administrator issued in accordance with this Agreement. The Trustee shall be indemnified and saved harmless by the Grantor or from the Trust Fund, or both, from and against any personal liability to which the Trustee may be subjected by reason of any act or conduct in its official capacity, including all expenses reasonably incurred in its defense in the event the Grantor fails to provide such defense.

Section 19. Choice of Law. This Agreement shall be administered, construed, and enforced according to the laws of the State of [enter name of State].

Section 20. Interpretation. As used in this Agreement, words in the singular include the plural and words in the plural include the singular. The descriptive headings for each section of this Agreement shall not affect the interpretation or the legal efficacy of this Agreement.

In Witness Whereof the parties have caused this Agreement to be executed by their respective officers duly authorized and their corporate seals to be hereunto affixed and attested as of the date first above written. The parties below certify that the wording of this Agreement is identical to the wording specified in 40 CFR 264.151(m) as such regulations were constituted on the date first above written.

[Signature of Grantor]

[Title]

Attest:

[Title]

[Seal]

[Signature of Trustee]

Attest:

[Title]

[Seal]

(2) The following is an example of the certification of acknowledgement which must accompany the trust agreement for a trust fund as specified in §§ 264.147(j) or 265.147(j) of this chapter. State requirements may differ on the proper content of this acknowledgement.

State of

County of

On this [date], before me personally came [owner or operator] to me known, who, being by me duly sworn, did depose and say that she/he resides at [address], that she/he is [title] of [corporation], the corporation described in and which executed the above instrument; that she/he knows the seal of said corporation; that the seal affixed to such instrument is such corporate seal; that it was so affixed by order of the Board of Directors of said corporation, and that she/he signed her/his name thereto by like order.

[Signature of Notary Public]

(n)

(1) A standby trust agreement, as specified in § 264.147(h) or 265.147(h) of this chapter, must be worded as follows, except that instructions in brackets are to be replaced with the relevant information and the brackets deleted:

Standby Trust Agreement

Trust Agreement, the “Agreement,” entered into as of [date] by and between [name of the owner or operator] a [name of a State] [insert “corporation,” “partnership,” “association,” or “proprietorship”], the “Grantor,” and [name of corporate trustee], [insert, “incorporated in the State of _______” or “a national bank”], the “trustee.”

Whereas the United States Environmental Protection Agency, “EPA,” an agency of the United States Government, has established certain regulations applicable to the Grantor, requiring that an owner or operator of a hazardous waste management facility or group of facilities must demonstrate financial responsibility for bodily injury and property damage to third parties caused by sudden accidental and/or nonsudden accidental occurrences arising from operations of the facility or group of facilities.

Whereas, the Grantor has elected to establish a standby trust into which the proceeds from a letter of credit may be deposited to assure all or part of such financial responsibility for the facilities identified herein.

Whereas, the Grantor, acting through its duly authorized officers, has selected the Trustee to be the trustee under this agreement, and the Trustee is willing to act as trustee.

Now, therefore, the Grantor and the Trustee agree as follows:

Section 1. Definitions. As used in this Agreement:

(a) The term Grantor means the owner or operator who enters into this Agreement and any successors or assigns of the Grantor.

(b) The term Trustee means the Trustee who enters into this Agreement and any successor Trustee.

Section 2. Identification of Facilities. This agreement pertains to the facilities identified on attached schedule A [on schedule A, for each facility list the EPA Identification Number, name, and address of the facility(ies) and the amount of liability coverage, or portions thereof, if more than one instrument affords combined coverage as demonstrated by this Agreement].

Section 3. Establishment of Fund. The Grantor and the Trustee hereby establish a standby trust fund, hereafter the “Fund,” for the benefit of any and all third parties injured or damaged by [sudden and/or nonsudden] accidental occurrences arising from operation of the facility(ies) covered by this guarantee, in the amounts of ______ [up to $1 million] per occurrence and ______ [up to $2 million] annual aggregate for sudden accidental occurrences and ______ [up to $3 million] per occurrence and ______ [up to $6 million] annual aggregate for nonsudden occurrences, except that the Fund is not established for the benefit of third parties for the following:

(a) Bodily injury or property damage for which [insert Grantor] is obligated to pay damages by reason of the assumption of liability in a contract or agreement. This exclusion does not apply to liability for damages that [insert Grantor] would be obligated to pay in the absence of the contract or agreement.

(b) Any obligation of [insert Grantor] under a workers' compensation, disability benefits, or unemployment compensation law or any similar law.

(c) Bodily injury to:

(1) An employee of [insert Grantor] arising from , and in the course of, employment by [insert Grantor]; or

(2) The spouse, child, parent, brother or sister of that employee as a consequence of, or arising from, and in the course of employment by [insert Grantor].

This exclusion applies:

(A) Whether [insert Grantor] may be liable as an employer or in any other capacity; and

(B) To any obligation to share damages with or repay another person who must pay damages because of the injury to persons identified in paragraphs (1) and (2).

(d) Bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, use, or entrustment to others of any aircraft, motor vehicle or watercraft.

(e) Property damage to:

(1) Any property owned, rented, or occupied by [insert Grantor];

(2) Premises that are sold, given away or abandoned by [insert Grantor] if the property damage arises out of any part of those premises;

(3) Property loaned by [insert Grantor];

(4) Personal property in the care, custody or control of [insert Grantor];

(5) That particular part of real property on which [insert Grantor] or any contractors or subcontractors working directly or indirectly on behalf of [insert Grantor] are performing operations, if the property damage arises out of these operations.

In the event of combination with another mechanism for liability coverage, the fund shall be considered [insert “primary” or “excess”] coverage.

The Fund is established initially as consisting of the proceeds of the letter of credit deposited into the Fund. Such proceeds and any other property subsequently transferred to the Trustee is referred to as the Fund, together with all earnings and profits thereon, less any payments or distributions made by the Trustee pursuant to this Agreement. The Fund shall be held by the Trustee, IN TRUST, as hereinafter provided. The Trustee shall not be responsible nor shall it undertake any responsibility for the amount or adequacy of, nor any duty to collect from the Grantor, any payments necessary to discharge any liabilities of the Grantor established by EPA.

Section 4. Payment for Bodily Injury or Property Damage. The Trustee shall satisfy a third party liability claim by drawing on the letter of credit described in Schedule B and by making payments from the Fund only upon receipt of one of the following documents:

(a) Certification from the Grantor and the third party claimant(s) that the liability claim should be paid. The certification must be worded as follows, except that instructions in brackets are to be replaced with the relevant information and the brackets deleted:

Certification of Valid Claim

The undersigned, as parties [insert Grantor] and [insert name and address of third party claimant(s)], hereby certify that the claim of bodily injury and/or property damage caused by a [sudden or nonsudden] accidental occurrence arising from operating [Grantor's] hazardous waste treatment, storage, or disposal facility should be paid in the amount of $[ ].

[Signature]

Grantor

[Signatures]

Claimant(s)

(b) A valid final court order establishing a judgment against the Grantor for bodily injury or property damage caused by sudden or nonsudden accidental occurrences arising from the operation of the Grantor's facility or group of facilities.

Section 5. Payments Comprising the Fund. Payments made to the Trustee for the Fund shall consist of the proceeds from the letter of credit drawn upon by the Trustee in accordance with the requirements of 40 CFR 264.151(k) and Section 4 of this Agreement.

Section 6. Trustee Management. The Trustee shall invest and reinvest the principal and income, in accordance with general investment policies and guidelines which the Grantor may communicate in writing to the Trustee from time to time, subject, however, to the provisions of this Section. In investing, reinvesting, exchanging, selling, and managing the Fund, the Trustee shall discharge his duties with respect to the trust fund solely in the interest of the beneficiary and with the care, skill, prudence, and diligence under the circumstances then prevailing which persons of prudence, acting in a like capacity and familiar with such matters, would use in the conduct of an enterprise of a like character and with like aims; except that:

(i) Securities or other obligations of the Grantor, or any other owner or operator of the facilities, or any of their affiliates as defined in the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended, 15 U.S.C. 80a-2(a), shall not be acquired or held, unless they are securities or other obligations of the Federal or a State government;

(ii) The Trustee is authorized to invest the Fund in time or demand deposits of the Trustee, to the extent insured by an agency of the Federal or a State government; and

(iii) The Trustee is authorized to hold cash awaiting investment or distribution uninvested for a reasonable time and without liability for the payment of interest thereon.

Section 7. Commingling and Investment. The Trustee is expressly authorized in its discretion:

(a) To transfer from time to time any or all of the assets of the Fund to any common, commingled, or collective trust fund created by the Trustee in which the Fund is eligible to participate, subject to all of the provisions thereof, to be commingled with the assets of other trusts participating therein; and

(b) To purchase shares in any investment company registered under the Investment Company Act of 1940, 15 U.S.C. 80a-1 et seq., including one which may be created, managed, underwritten, or to which investment advice is rendered or the shares of which are sold by the Trustee. The Trustee may vote such shares in its discretion.

Section 8. Express Powers of Trustee. Without in any way limiting the powers and discretions conferred upon the Trustee by the other provisions of this Agreement or by law, the Trustee is expressly authorized and empowered:

(a) To sell, exchange, convey, transfer, or otherwise dispose of any property held by it, by public or private sale. No person dealing with the Trustee shall be bound to see to the application of the purchase money or to inquire into the validity or expediency of any such sale or other disposition;

(b) To make, execute, acknowledge, and deliver any and all documents of transfer and conveyance and any and all other instruments that may be necessary or appropriate to carry out the powers herein granted;

(c) To register any securities held in the Fund in its own name or in the name of a nominee and to hold any security in bearer form or in book entry, or to combine certificates representing such securities with certificates of the same issue held by the Trustee in other fiduciary capacities, or to deposit or arrange for the deposit of such securities in a qualified central depositary even though, when so deposited, such securities may be merged and held in bulk in the name of the nominee of such depositary with other securities deposited therein by another person, or to deposit or arrange for the deposit of any securities issued by the United States Government, or any agency or instrumentality thereof, with a Federal Reserve Bank, but the books and records of the Trustee shall at all times show that all such securities are part of the Fund;

(d) To deposit any cash in the Fund in interest-bearing accounts maintained or savings certificates issued by the Trustee, in its separate corporate capacity, or in any other banking institution affiliated with the Trustee, to the extent insured by an agency of the Federal or State government; and

(e) To compromise or otherwise adjust all claims in favor of or against the Fund.

Section 9. Taxes and Expenses. All taxes of any kind that may be assessed or levied against or in respect of the Fund and all brokerage commissions incurred by the Fund shall be paid from the Fund. All other expenses incurred by the Trustee in connection with the administration of this Trust, including fees for legal services rendered to the Trustee, the compensation of the Trustee to the extent not paid directly by the Grantor, and all other proper charges and disbursements to the Trustee shall be paid from the Fund.

Section 10. Advice of Counsel. The Trustee may from time to time consult with counsel, who may be counsel to the Grantor, with respect to any question arising as to the construction of this Agreement or any action to be taken hereunder. The Trustee shall be fully protected, to the extent permitted by law, in acting upon the advice of counsel.

Section 11. Trustee Compensation. The Trustee shall be entitled to reasonable compensation for its services as agreed upon in writing from time to time with the Grantor.

Section 12. Successor Trustee. The Trustee may resign or the Grantor may replace the Trustee, but such resignation or replacement shall not be effective until the Grantor has appointed a successor trustee and this successor accepts the appointment. The successor trustee shall have the same powers and duties as those conferred upon the Trustee hereunder. Upon the successor trustee's acceptance of the appointment, the Trustee shall assign, transfer, and pay over to the successor trustee the funds and properties then constituting the Fund. If for any reason the Grantor cannot or does not act in the event of the resignation of the Trustee, the Trustee may apply to a court of competent jurisdiction for the appointment of a successor trustee or for instructions. The successor trustee shall specify the date on which it assumes administration of the trust in a writing sent to the Grantor, the EPA Regional Administrator and the present Trustee by certified mail 10 days before such change becomes effective. Any expenses incurred by the Trustee as a result of any of the acts contemplated by this Section shall be paid as provided in Section 9.

Section 13. Instructions to the Trustee. All orders, requests, certifications of valid claims, and instructions to the Trustee shall be in writing, signed by such persons as are designated in the attached Exhibit A or such other designees as the Grantor may designate by amendments to Exhibit A. The Trustee shall be fully protected in acting without inquiry in accordance with the Grantor's orders, requests, and instructions. The Trustee shall have the right to assume, in the absence of written notice to the contrary, that no event constituting a change or a termination of the authority of any person to act on behalf of the Grantor or the EPA Regional Administrator hereunder has occurred. The Trustee shall have no duty to act in the absence of such orders, requests, and instructions from the Grantor and/or EPA, except as provided for herein.

Section 14. Amendment of Agreement. This Agreement may be amended by an instrument in writing executed by the Grantor, the Trustee, and the EPA Regional Administrator, or by the Trustee and the EPA Regional Administrator if the Grantor ceases to exist.

Section 15. Irrevocability and Termination. Subject to the right of the parties to amend this Agreement as provided in Section 14, this Trust shall be irrevocable and shall continue until terminated at the written agreement of the Grantor, the Trustee, and the EPA Regional Administrator, or by the Trustee and the EPA Regional Administrator, if the Grantor ceases to exist. Upon termination of the Trust, all remaining trust property, less final trust administration expenses, shall be paid to the Grantor.

The Regional Administrator will agree to termination of the Trust when the owner or operator substitutes alternative financial assurance as specified in this section.

Section 16. Immunity and indemnification. The Trustee shall not incur personal liability of any nature in connection with any act or omission, made in good faith, in the administration of this Trust, or in carrying out any directions by the Grantor and the EPA Regional Administrator issued in accordance with this Agreement. The Trustee shall be indemnified and saved harmless by the Grantor or from the Trust Fund, or both, from and against any personal liability to which the Trustee may be subjected by reason of any act or conduct in its official capacity, including all expenses reasonably incurred in its defense in the event the Grantor fails to provide such defense.

Section 17. Choice of Law. This Agreement shall be administered, construed, and enforced according to the laws of the State of [enter name of State].

Section 18. Interpretation. As used in this Agreement, words in the singular include the plural and words in the plural include the singular. The descriptive headings for each Section of this Agreement shall not affect the interpretation of the legal efficacy of this Agreement.

In Witness Whereof the parties have caused this Agreement to be executed by their respective officers duly authorized and their corporate seals to be hereunto affixed and attested as of the date first above written. The parties below certify that the wording of this Agreement is identical to the wording specified in 40 CFR 264.151(n) as such regulations were constituted on the date first above written.

[Signature of Grantor]

[Title]

Attest:

[Title]

[Seal]

[Signature of Trustee]

Attest:

[Title]

[Seal]

(2) The following is an example of the certification of acknowledgement which must accompany the trust agreement for a standby trust fund as specified in section 264.147(h) or 265.147(h) of this chapter. State requirements may differ on the proper content of this acknowledgement.

State of

County of

On this [date], before me personally came [owner or operator] to me known, who, being by me duly sworn, did depose and say that she/he resides at [address], that she/he is [title] of [corporation], the corporation described in and which executed the above instrument; that she/he knows the seal of said corporation; that the seal affixed to such instrument is such corporate seal; that it was so affixed by order of the Board of Directors of said corporation, and that she/he signed her/his name thereto by like order.

[Signature of Notary Public]

[47 FR 15059, Apr. 7, 1982, as amended at 47 FR 16556, Apr. 16, 1982; 47 FR 17989, Apr. 27, 1982; 47 FR 19995, May 10, 1982; 47 FR 28627, July 1, 1982; 51 FR 16450, May 2, 1986; 51 FR 25354, July 11, 1986; 52 FR 44320, Nov. 18, 1987; 53 FR 33952, Sept. 1, 1988; 57 FR 42836, Sept. 16, 1992; 59 FR 29960, June 10, 1994; 71 FR 40272, July 14, 2006]

Subpart I - Use and Management of Containers
Source:

46 FR 2866, Jan. 12, 1981, unless otherwise noted.

§ 264.170 Applicability.

The regulations in this subpart apply to owners and operators of all hazardous waste facilities that store hazardous waste in containers, except as § 264.1 provides otherwise.

[Comment: Under § 261.7 and § 261.33(c) of this chapter, if a hazardous waste is emptied from a container the residue remaining in the container is not considered a hazardous waste if the container is “empty” as defined in § 261.7. In that event, management of the container is exempt from the requirements of this subpart.]

[81 FR 85826, Nov. 28, 2016]

§ 264.171 Condition of containers.

If a container holding hazardous waste is not in good condition (e.g., severe rusting, apparent structural defects) or if it begins to leak, the owner or operator must transfer the hazardous waste from this container to a container that is in good condition or manage the waste in some other way that complies with the requirements of this part.

§ 264.172 Compatibility of waste with containers.

The owner or operator must use a container made of or lined with materials which will not react with, and are otherwise compatible with, the hazardous waste to be stored, so that the ability of the container to contain the waste is not impaired.

§ 264.173 Management of containers.

(a) A container holding hazardous waste must always be closed during storage, except when it is necessary to add or remove waste.

(b) A container holding hazardous waste must not be opened, handled, or stored in a manner which may rupture the container or cause it to leak.

[Comment: Reuse of containers in transportation is governed by U.S. Department of Transportation regulations including those set forth in 49 CFR 173.28.]

§ 264.174 Inspections.

At least weekly, the owner or operator must inspect areas where containers are stored. The owner or operator must look for leaking containers and for deterioration of containers and the containment system cause by corrosion or other factors. See §§ 264.15(c) and 264.171 for remedial action required if deterioration or leaks are detected.

[81 FR 85826, Nov. 28, 2016]

§ 264.175 Containment.

(a) Container storage areas must have a containment system that is designed and operated in accordance with paragraph (b) of this section, except as otherwise provided by paragraph (c) of this section.

(b) A containment system must be designed and operated as follows:

(1) A base must underlie the containers which is free of cracks or gaps and is sufficiently impervious to contain leaks, spills, and accumulated precipitation until the collected material is detected and removed;

(2) The base must be sloped or the containment system must be otherwise designed and operated to drain and remove liquids resulting from leaks, spills, or precipitation, unless the containers are elevated or are otherwise protected from contact with accumulated liquids;

(3) The containment system must have sufficient capacity to contain 10% of the volume of containers or the volume of the largest container, whichever is greater. Containers that do not contain free liquids need not be considered in this determination;

(4) Run-on into the containment system must be prevented unless the collection system has sufficient excess capacity in addition to that required in paragraph (b)(3) of this section to contain any run-on which might enter the system; and

(5) Spilled or leaked waste and accumulated precipitation must be removed from the sump or collection area in as timely a manner as is necessary to prevent overflow of the collection system.

[Comment: If the collected material is a hazardous waste under part 261 of this Chapter, it must be managed as a hazardous waste in accordance with all applicable requirements of parts 262 through 266 of this chapter. If the collected material is discharged through a point source to waters of the United States, it is subject to the requirements of section 402 of the Clean Water Act, as amended.]

(c) Storage areas that store containers holding only wastes that do not contain free liquids need not have a containment system defined by paragraph (b) of this section, except as provided by paragraph (d) of this section or provided that:

(1) The storage area is sloped or is otherwise designed and operated to drain and remove liquid resulting from precipitation, or

(2) The containers are elevated or are otherwise protected from contact with accumulated liquid.

(d) Storage areas that store containers holding the wastes listed below that do not contain free liquids must have a containment system defined by paragraph (b) of this section:

(1) FO20, FO21, FO22, FO23, FO26, and FO27.

(2) [Reserved]

[46 FR 55112, Nov. 6, 1981, as amended at 50 FR 2003, Jan. 14, 1985; 71 FR 40273, July 14, 2006]

§ 264.176 Special requirements for ignitable or reactive waste.

Containers holding ignitable or reactive waste must be located at least 15 meters (50 feet) from the facility's property line.

[Comment: See § 264.17(a) for additional requirements.]

§ 264.177 Special requirements for incompatible wastes.

(a) Incompatible wastes, or incompatible wastes and materials (see appendix V for examples), must not be placed in the same container, unless § 264.17(b) is complied with.

(b) Hazardous waste must not be placed in an unwashed container that previously held an incompatible waste or material.

[Comment: As required by § 264.13, the waste analysis plan must include analyses needed to comply with § 264.177. Also, § 264.17(c) requires wastes analyses, trial tests or other documentation to assure compliance with § 264.17(b). As required by § 264.73, the owner or operator must place the results of each waste analysis and trial test, and any documented information, in the operating record of the facility.]

(c) A storage container holding a hazardous waste that is incompatible with any waste or other materials stored nearby in other containers, piles, open tanks, or surface impoundments must be separated from the other materials or protected from them by means of a dike, berm, wall, or other device.

[Comment: The purpose of this section is to prevent fires, explosions, gaseous emission, leaching, or other discharge of hazardous waste or hazardous waste constituents which could result from the mixing of incompatible wastes or materials if containers break or leak.]

§ 264.178 Closure.

At closure, all hazardous waste and hazardous waste residues must be removed from the containment system. Remaining containers, liners, bases, and soil containing or contaminated with hazardous waste or hazardous waste residues must be decontaminated or removed.

[Comment: At closure, as throughout the operating period, unless the owner or operator can demonstrate in accordance with § 261.3(d) of this chapter that the solid waste removed from the containment system is not a hazardous waste, the owner or operator becomes a generator of hazardous waste and must manage it in accordance with all applicable requirements of parts 262 through 266 of this chapter].

§ 264.179 Air emission standards.

The owner or operator shall manage all hazardous waste placed in a container in accordance with the applicable requirements of subparts AA, BB, and CC of this part.

[61 FR 59950, Nov. 25, 1996]

Subpart J - Tank Systems
Source:

51 FR 25472, July 14, 1986, unless otherwise noted.

§ 264.190 Applicability.

The requirements of this subpart apply to owners and operators of facilities that use tank systems for storing or treating hazardous waste except as otherwise provided in paragraphs (a), (b), and (c) of this section or in § 264.1 of this part.

(a) Tank systems that are used to store or treat hazardous waste which contains no free liquids and are situated inside a building with an impermeable floor are exempted from the requirements in § 264.193. To demonstrate the absence or presence of free liquids in the stored/treated waste, the following test must be used: Method 9095B (Paint Filter Liquids Test) as described in “Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste, Physical/Chemical Methods,” EPA Publication SW-846, as incorporated by reference in § 260.11 of this chapter.

(b) Tank systems, including sumps, as defined in § 260.10, that serve as part of a secondary containment system to collect or contain releases of hazardous wastes are exempted from the requirements in § 264.193(a).

(c) Tanks, sumps, and other such collection devices or systems used in conjunction with drip pads, as defined in § 260.10 of this chapter and regulated under 40 CFR part 264 subpart W, must meet the requirements of this subpart.

[51 FR 25472, July 14, 1986; 51 FR 29430, Aug. 15, 1986, as amended at 53 FR 34086, Sept. 2, 1988; 55 FR 50484, Dec. 6, 1990; 58 FR 46050, Aug. 31, 1993; 70 FR 34581, June 14, 2005]

§ 264.191 Assessment of existing tank system's integrity.

(a) For each existing tank system that does not have secondary containment meeting the requirements of § 264.193, the owner or operator must determine that the tank system is not leaking or is fit for use. Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, the owner or operator must obtain and keep on file at the facility a written assessment reviewed and certified by a qualified Professional Engineer, in accordance with § 270.11(d) of this chapter, that attests to the tank system's integrity by January 12, 1988.

(b) This assessment must determine that the tank system is adequately designed and has sufficient structural strength and compatibility with the waste(s) to be stored or treated, to ensure that it will not collapse, rupture, or fail. At a minimum, this assessment must consider the following:

(1) Design standard(s), if available, according to which the tank and ancillary equipment were constructed;

(2) Hazardous characteristics of the waste(s) that have been and will be handled;

(3) Existing corrosion protection measures;

(4) Documented age of the tank system, if available (otherwise, an estimate of the age); and

(5) Results of a leak test, internal inspection, or other tank integrity examination such that:

(i) For non-enterable underground tanks, the assessment must include a leak test that is capable of taking into account the effects of temperature variations, tank end deflection, vapor pockets, and high water table effects, and

(ii) For other than non-enterable underground tanks and for ancillary equipment, this assessment must include either a leak test, as described above, or other integrity examination that is certified by a qualified Professional Engineer in accordance with § 270.11(d) of this chapter, that addresses cracks, leaks, corrosion, and erosion.

Note:

The practices described in the American Petroleum Institute (API) Publication, Guide for Inspection of Refinery Equipment, Chapter XIII, “Atmospheric and Low-Pressure Storage Tanks,” 4th edition, 1981, may be used, where applicable, as guidelines in conducting other than a leak test.

(c) Tank systems that store or treat materials that become hazardous wastes subsequent to July 14, 1986, must conduct this assessment within 12 months after the date that the waste becomes a hazardous waste.

(d) If, as a result of the assessment conducted in accordance with paragraph (a), a tank system is found to be leaking or unfit for use, the owner or operator must comply with the requirements of § 264.196.

[51 FR 25472, July 14, 1986; 51 FR 29430, Aug. 15, 1986, as amended at 71 FR 16905, Apr. 4, 2006; 81 FR 85826, Nov. 28, 2016]

§ 264.192 Design and installation of new tank systems or components.

(a) Owners or operators of new tank systems or components must obtain and submit to the Regional Administrator, at time of submittal of part B information, a written assessment, reviewed and certified by a qualified Professional Engineer, in accordance with § 270.11(d) of this chapter, attesting that the tank system has sufficient structural integrity and is acceptable for the storing and treating of hazardous waste. The assessment must show that the foundation, structural support, seams, connections, and pressure controls (if applicable) are adequately designed and that the tank system has sufficient structural strength, compatibility with the waste(s) to be stored or treated, and corrosion protection to ensure that it will not collapse, rupture, or fail. This assessment, which will be used by the Regional Administrator to review and approve or disapprove the acceptability of the tank system design, must include, at a minimum, the following information:

(1) Design standard(s) according to which tank(s) and/or the ancillary equipment are constructed;

(2) Hazardous characteristics of the waste(s) to be handled;

(3) For new tank systems or components in which the external shell of a metal tank or any external metal component of the tank system will be in contact with the soil or with water, a determination by a corrosion expert of:

(i) Factors affecting the potential for corrosion, including but not limited to:

(A) Soil moisture content;

(B) Soil pH;

(C) Soil sulfides level;

(D) Soil resistivity;

(E) Structure to soil potential;

(F) Influence of nearby underground metal structures (e.g., piping);

(G) Existence of stray electric current;

(H) Existing corrosion-protection measures (e.g., coating, cathodic protection), and

(ii) The type and degree of external corrosion protection that are needed to ensure the integrity of the tank system during the use of the tank system or component, consisting of one or more of the following:

(A) Corrosion-resistant materials of construction such as special alloys, fiberglass reinforced plastic, etc.;

(B) Corrosion-resistant coating (such as epoxy, fiberglass, etc.) with cathodic protection (e.g., impressed current or sacrificial anodes); and

(C) Electrical isolation devices such as insulating joints, flanges, etc.

Note:

The practices described in the National Association of Corrosion Engineers (NACE) standard, “Recommended Practice (RP-02-85) - Control of External Corrosion on Metallic Buried, Partially Buried, or Submerged Liquid Storage Systems,” and the American Petroleum Institute (API) Publication 1632, “Cathodic Protection of Underground Petroleum Storage Tanks and Piping Systems,” may be used, where applicable, as guidelines in providing corrosion protection for tank systems.

(4) For underground tank system components that are likely to be adversely affected by vehicular traffic, a determination of design or operational measures that will protect the tank system against potential damage; and

(5) Design considerations to ensure that:

(i) Tank foundations will maintain the load of a full tank;

(ii) Tank systems will be anchored to prevent flotation or dislodgment where the tank system is placed in a saturated zone, or is located within a seismic fault zone subject to the standards of § 264.18(a); and

(iii) Tank systems will withstand the effects of frost heave.

(b) The owner or operator of a new tank system must ensure that proper handling procedures are adhered to in order to prevent damage to the system during installation. Prior to covering, enclosing, or placing a new tank system or component in use, an independent, qualified, installation inspector or a qualified Professional Engineer, either of whom is trained and experienced in the proper installation of tanks systems or components, must inspect the system for the presence of any of the following items:

(1) Weld breaks;

(2) Punctures;

(3) Scrapes of protective coatings;

(4) Cracks;

(5) Corrosion;

(6) Other structural damage or inadequate construction/installation.

All discrepancies must be remedied before the tank system is covered, enclosed, or placed in use.

(c) New tank systems or components that are placed underground and that are backfilled must be provided with a backfill material that is a noncorrosive, porous, homogeneous substance and that is installed so that the backfill is placed completely around the tank and compacted to ensure that the tank and piping are fully and uniformly supported.

(d) All new tanks and ancillary equipment must be tested for tightness prior to being covered, enclosed, or placed in use. If a tank system is found not to be tight, all repairs necessary to remedy the leak(s) in the system must be performed prior to the tank system being covered, enclosed, or placed into use.

(e) Ancillary equipment must be supported and protected against physical damage and excessive stress due to settlement, vibration, expansion, or contraction.

Note:

The piping system installation procedures described in American Petroleum Institute (API) Publication 1615 (November 1979), “Installation of Underground Petroleum Storage Systems,” or ANSI Standard B31.3, “Petroleum Refinery Piping,” and ANSI Standard B31.4 “Liquid Petroleum Transportation Piping System,” may be used, where applicable, as guidelines for proper installation of piping systems.

(f) The owner or operator must provide the type and degree of corrosion protection recommended by an independent corrosion expert, based on the information provided under paragraph (a)(3) of this section, or other corrosion protection if the Regional Administrator believes other corrosion protection is necessary to ensure the integrity of the tank system during use of the tank system. The installation of a corrosion protection system that is field fabricated must be supervised by an independent corrosion expert to ensure proper installation.

(g) The owner or operator must obtain and keep on file at the facility written statements by those persons required to certify the design of the tank system and supervise the installation of the tank system in accordance with the requirements of paragraphs (b) through (f) of this section, that attest that the tank system was properly designed and installed and that repairs, pursuant to paragraphs (b) and (d) of this section, were performed. These written statements must also include the certification statement as required in § 270.11(d) of this chapter.

[51 FR 25472, July 14, 1986; 51 FR 29430, Aug. 15, 1986, as amended at 71 FR 16905, Apr. 4, 2006]

§ 264.193 Containment and detection of releases.

(a) In order to prevent the release of hazardous waste or hazardous constituents to the environment, secondary containment that meets the requirements of this section must be provided (except as provided in paragraphs (f) and (g) of this section):

(1) For all new and existing tank systems or components, prior to their being put into service.

(2) For tank systems that store or treat materials that become hazardous wastes, within two years of the hazardous waste listing, or when the tank system has reached 15 years of age, whichever comes later.

(b) Secondary containment systems must be:

(1) Designed, installed, and operated to prevent any migration of wastes or accumulated liquid out of the system to the soil, ground water, or surface water at any time during the use of the tank system; and

(2) Capable of detecting and collecting releases and accumulated liquids until the collected material is removed.

(c) To meet the requirements of paragraph (b) of this section, secondary containment systems must be at a minimum:

(1) Constructed of or lined with materials that are compatible with the wastes(s) to be placed in the tank system and must have sufficient strength and thickness to prevent failure owing to pressure gradients (including static head and external hydrological forces), physical contact with the waste to which it is exposed, climatic conditions, and the stress of daily operation (including stresses from nearby vehicular traffic).

(2) Placed on a foundation or base capable of providing support to the secondary containment system, resistance to pressure gradients above and below the system, and capable of preventing failure due to settlement, compression, or uplift;

(3) Provided with a leak-detection system that is designed and operated so that it will detect the failure of either the primary or secondary containment structure or the presence of any release of hazardous waste or accumulated liquid in the secondary containment system within 24 hours, or at the earliest practicable time if the owner or operator can demonstrate to the Regional Administrator that existing detection technologies or site conditions will not allow detection of a release within 24 hours; and

(4) Sloped or otherwise designed or operated to drain and remove liquids resulting from leaks, spills, or precipitation. Spilled or leaked waste and accumulated precipitation must be removed from the secondary containment system within 24 hours, or in as timely a manner as is possible to prevent harm to human health and the environment, if the owner or operator can demonstrate to the Regional Administrator that removal of the released waste or accumulated precipitation cannot be accomplished within 24 hours.

Note:

If the collected material is a hazardous waste under part 261 of this chapter, it is subject to management as a hazardous waste in accordance with all applicable requirements of parts 262 through 265 of this chapter. If the collected material is discharged through a point source to waters of the United States, it is subject to the requirements of sections 301, 304, and 402 of the Clean Water Act, as amended. If discharged to a Publicly Owned Treatment Works (POTW), it is subject to the requirements of section 307 of the Clean Water Act, as amended. If the collected material is released to the environment, it may be subject to the reporting requirements of 40 CFR part 302.

(d) Secondary containment for tanks must include one or more of the following devices:

(1) A liner (external to the tank);

(2) A vault;

(3) A double-walled tank; or

(4) An equivalent device as approved by the Regional Administrator.

(e) In addition to the requirements of paragraphs (b), (c), and (d) of this section, secondary containment systems must satisfy the following requirements:

(1) External liner systems must be:

(i) Designed or operated to contain 100 percent of the capacity of the largest tank within its boundary;

(ii) Designed or operated to prevent run-on or infiltration of precipitation into the secondary containment system unless the collection system has sufficient excess capacity to contain run-on or infiltration. Such additional capacity must be sufficient to contain precipitation from a 25-year, 24-hour rainfall event.

(iii) Free of cracks or gaps; and

(iv) Designed and installed to surround the tank completely and to cover all surrounding earth likely to come into contact with the waste if the waste is released from the tank(s) (i.e., capable of preventing lateral as well as vertical migration of the waste).

(2) Vault systems must be:

(i) Designed or operated to contain 100 percent of the capacity of the largest tank within its boundary;

(ii) Designed or operated to prevent run-on or infiltration of precipitation into the secondary containment system unless the collection system has sufficient excess capacity to contain run-on or infiltration. Such additional capacity must be sufficient to contain precipitation from a 25-year, 24-hour rainfall event;

(iii) Constructed with chemical-resistant water stops in place at all joints (if any);

(iv) Provided with an impermeable interior coating or lining that is compatible with the stored waste and that will prevent migration of waste into the concrete;

(v) Provided with a means to protect against the formation of and ignition of vapors within the vault, if the waste being stored or treated:

(A) Meets the definition of ignitable waste under § 261.21 of this chapter; or

(B) Meets the definition of reactive waste under § 261.23 of this chapter, and may form an ignitable or explosive vapor; and

(vi) Provided with an exterior moisture barrier or be otherwise designed or operated to prevent migration of moisture into the vault if the vault is subject to hydraulic pressure.

(3) Double-walled tanks must be:

(i) Designed as an integral structure (i.e., an inner tank completely enveloped within an outer shell) so that any release from the inner tank is contained by the outer shell;

(ii) Protected, if constructed of metal, from both corrosion of the primary tank interior and of the external surface of the outer shell; and

(iii) Provided with a built-in continuous leak detection system capable of detecting a release within 24 hours, or at the earliest practicable time, if the owner or operator can demonstrate to the Regional Administrator, and the Regional Administrator concludes, that the existing detection technology or site conditions would not allow detection of a release within 24 hours.

Note:

The provisions outlined in the Steel Tank Institute's (STI) “Standard for Dual Wall Underground Steel Storage Tanks” may be used as guidelines for aspects of the design of underground steel double-walled tanks.

(f) Ancillary equipment must be provided with secondary containment (e.g., trench, jacketing, double-walled piping) that meets the requirements of paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section except for:

(1) Aboveground piping (exclusive of flanges, joints, valves, and other connections) that are visually inspected for leaks on a daily basis;

(2) Welded flanges, welded joints, and welded connections, that are visually inspected for leaks on a daily basis;

(3) Sealless or magnetic coupling pumps and sealless valves, that are visually inspected for leaks on a daily basis; and

(4) Pressurized aboveground piping systems with automatic shut-off devices (e.g., excess flow check valves, flow metering shutdown devices, loss of pressure actuated shut-off devices) that are visually inspected for leaks on a daily basis.

(g) The owner or operator may obtain a variance from the requirements of this section if the Regional Administrator finds, as a result of a demonstration by the owner or operator that alternative design and operating practices, together with location characteristics, will prevent the migration of any hazardous waste or hazardous constituents into the ground water; or surface water at least as effectively as secondary containment during the active life of the tank system or that in the event of a release that does migrate to ground water or surface water, no substantial present or potential hazard will be posed to human health or the environment. New underground tank systems may not, per a demonstration in accordance with paragraph (g)(2) of this section, be exempted from the secondary containment requirements of this section.

(1) In deciding whether to grant a variance based on a demonstration of equivalent protection of ground water and surface water, the Regional Administrator will consider:

(i) The nature and quantity of the wastes;

(ii) The proposed alternate design and operation;

(iii) The hydrogeologic setting of the facility, including the thickness of soils present between the tank system and ground water; and

(iv) All other factors that would influence the quality and mobility of the hazardous constituents and the potential for them to migrate to ground water or surface water.

(2) In deciding whether to grant a variance based on a demonstration of no substantial present or potential hazard, the Regional Administrator will consider:

(i) The potential adverse effects on ground water, surface water, and land quality taking into account:

(A) The physical and chemical characteristics of the waste in the tank system, including its potential for migration,

(B) The hydrogeological characteristics of the facility and surrounding land,

(C) The potential for health risks caused by human exposure to waste constituents,

(D) The potential for damage to wildlife, crops, vegetation, and physical structures caused by exposure to waste constituents, and

(E) The persistence and permanence of the potential adverse effects;

(ii) The potential adverse effects of a release on ground-water quality, taking into account:

(A) The quantity and quality of ground water and the direction of ground-water flow,

(B) The proximity and withdrawal rates of ground-water users,

(C) The current and future uses of ground water in the area, and

(D) The existing quality of ground water, including other sources of contamination and their cumulative impact on the ground-water quality;

(iii) The potential adverse effects of a release on surface water quality, taking into account:

(A) The quantity and quality of ground water and the direction of ground-water flow,

(B) The patterns of rainfall in the region,

(C) The proximity of the tank system to surface waters,

(D) The current and future uses of surface waters in the area and any water quality standards established for those surface waters, and

(E) The existing quality of surface water, including other sources of contamination and the cumulative impact on surface-water quality; and

(iv) The potential adverse effects of a release on the land surrounding the tank system, taking into account:

(A) The patterns of rainfall in the region, and

(B) The current and future uses of the surrounding land.

(3) The owner or operator of a tank system, for which a variance from secondary containment had been granted in accordance with the requirements of paragraph (g)(1) of this section, at which a release of hazardous waste has occurred from the primary tank system but has not migrated beyond the zone of engineering control (as established in the variance), must:

(i) Comply with the requirements of § 264.196, except paragraph (d), and

(ii) Decontaminate or remove contaminated soil to the extent necessary to:

(A) Enable the tank system for which the variance was granted to resume operation with the capability for the detection of releases at least equivalent to the capability it had prior to the release; and

(B) Prevent the migration of hazardous waste or hazardous constituents to ground water or surface water; and

(iii) If contaminated soil cannot be removed or decontaminated in accordance with paragraph (g)(3)(ii) of this section, comply with the requirement of § 264.197(b).

(4) The owner or operator of a tank system, for which a variance from secondary containment had been granted in accordance with the requirements of paragraph (g)(1) of this section, at which a release of hazardous waste has occurred from the primary tank system and has migrated beyond the zone of engineering control (as established in the variance), must:

(i) Comply with the requirements of § 264.196 (a), (b), (c), and (d); and

(ii) Prevent the migration of hazardous waste or hazardous constituents to ground water or surface water, if possible, and decontaminate or remove contaminated soil. If contaminated soil cannot be decontaminated or removed or if ground water has been contaminated, the owner or operator must comply with the requirements of § 264.197(b); and

(iii) If repairing, replacing, or reinstalling the tank system, provide secondary containment in accordance with the requirements of paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section or reapply for a variance from secondary containment and meet the requirements for new tank systems in § 264.192 if the tank system is replaced. The owner or operator must comply with these requirements even if contaminated soil can be decontaminated or removed and ground water or surface water has not been contaminated.

(h) The following procedures must be followed in order to request a variance from secondary containment:

(1) The Regional Administrator must be notified in writing by the owner or operator that he intends to conduct and submit a demonstration for a variance from secondary containment as allowed in paragraph (g) of this section according to the following schedule:

(i) For existing tank systems, at least 24 months prior to the date that secondary containment must be provided in accordance with paragraph (a) of this section.

(ii) For new tank systems, at least 30 days prior to entering into a contract for installation.

(2) As part of the notification, the owner or operator must also submit to the Regional Administrator a description of the steps necessary to conduct the demonstration and a timetable for completing each of the steps. The demonstration must address each of the factors listed in paragraph (g)(1) or paragraph (g)(2) of this section;

(3) The demonstration for a variance must be completed within 180 days after notifying the Regional Administrator of an intent to conduct the demonstration; and

(4) If a variance is granted under this paragraph, the Regional Administrator will require the permittee to construct and operate the tank system in the manner that was demonstrated to meet the requirements for the variance.

(i) All tank systems, until such time as secondary containment that meets the requirements of this section is provided, must comply with the following:

(1) For non-enterable underground tanks, a leak test that meets the requirements of § 264.191(b)(5) or other tank integrity method, as approved or required by the Regional Administrator, must be conducted at least annually.

(2) For other than non-enterable underground tanks, the owner or operator must either conduct a leak test as in paragraph (i)(1) of this section or develop a schedule and procedure for an assessment of the overall condition of the tank system by a qualified Professional Engineer. The schedule and procedure must be adequate to detect obvious cracks, leaks, and corrosion or erosion that may lead to cracks and leaks. The owner or operator must remove the stored waste from the tank, if necessary, to allow the condition of all internal tank surfaces to be assessed. The frequency of these assessments must be based on the material of construction of the tank and its ancillary equipment, the age of the system, the type of corrosion or erosion protection used, the rate of corrosion or erosion observed during the previous inspection, and the characteristics of the waste being stored or treated.

(3) For ancillary equipment, a leak test or other integrity assessment as approved by the Regional Administrator must be conducted at least annually.

Note:

The practices described in the American Petroleum Institute (API) Publication Guide for Inspection of Refinery Equipment, Chapter XIII, “Atmospheric and Low-Pressure Storage Tanks,” 4th edition, 1981, may be used, where applicable, as guidelines for assessing the overall condition of the tank system.

(4) The owner or operator must maintain on file at the facility a record of the results of the assessments conducted in accordance with paragraphs (i)(1) through (i)(3) of this section.

(5) If a tank system or component is found to be leaking or unfit for use as a result of the leak test or assessment in paragraphs (i)(1) through (i)(3) of this section, the owner or operator must comply with the requirements of § 264.196.

[51 FR 25472, July 14, 1986; 51 FR 29430, Aug. 15, 1986, as amended at 53 FR 34086, Sept. 2, 1988; 71 FR 16905, Apr. 4, 2006; 71 FR 40273, July 14, 2006]

§ 264.194 General operating requirements.

(a) Hazardous wastes or treatment reagents must not be placed in a tank system if they could cause the tank, its ancillary equipment, or the containment system to rupture, leak, corrode, or otherwise fail.

(b) The owner or operator must use appropriate controls and practices to prevent spills and overflows from tank or containment systems. These include at a minimum:

(1) Spill prevention controls (e.g., check valves, dry disconnect couplings);

(2) Overfill prevention controls (e.g., level sensing devices, high level alarms, automatic feed cutoff, or bypass to a standby tank); and

(3) Maintenance of sufficient freeboard in uncovered tanks to prevent overtopping by wave or wind action or by precipitation.

(c) The owner or operator must comply with the requirements of § 264.196 if a leak or spill occurs in the tank system.

§ 264.195 Inspections.

(a) The owner or operator must develop and follow a schedule and procedure for inspecting overfill controls.

(b) The owner or operator must inspect at least once each operating day data gathered from monitoring and leak detection equipment (e.g., pressure or temperature gauges, monitoring wells) to ensure that the tank system is being operated according to its design.

Note:

Section 264.15(c) requires the owner or operator to remedy any deterioration or malfunction he finds. Section 264.196 requires the owner or operator to notify the Regional Administrator within 24 hours of confirming a leak. Also, 40 CFR part 302 may require the owner or operator to notify the National Response Center of a release.

(c) In addition, except as noted under paragraph (d) of this section, the owner or operator must inspect at least once each operating day:

(1) Above ground portions of the tank system, if any, to detect corrosion or releases of waste.

(2) The construction materials and the area immediately surrounding the externally accessible portion of the tank system, including the secondary containment system (e.g., dikes) to detect erosion or signs of releases of hazardous waste (e.g., wet spots, dead vegetation).

(d) Owners or operators of tank systems that either use leak detection systems to alert facility personnel to leaks, or implement established workplace practices to ensure leaks are promptly identified, must inspect at least weekly those areas described in paragraphs (c)(1) and (c)(2) of this section. Use of the alternate inspection schedule must be documented in the facility's operating record. This documentation must include a description of the established workplace practices at the facility.

(e) [Reserved]

(f) Ancillary equipment that is not provided with secondary containment, as described in § 264.193(f)(1) through (4), must be inspected at least once each operating day.

(g) The owner or operator must inspect cathodic protection systems, if present, according to, at a minimum, the following schedule to ensure that they are functioning properly:

(1) The proper operation of the cathodic protection system must be confirmed within six months after initial installation and annually thereafter; and

(2) All sources of impressed current must be inspected and/or tested, as appropriate, at least bimonthly (i.e., every other month).

Note:

The practices described in the National Association of Corrosion Engineers (NACE) standard, “Recommended Practice (RP-02-85) - Control of External Corrosion on Metallic Buried, Partially Buried, or Submerged Liquid Storage Systems,” and the American Petroleum Institute (API) Publication 1632, “Cathodic Protection of Underground Petroleum Storage Tanks and Piping Systems,” may be used, where applicable, as guidelines in maintaining and inspecting cathodic protection systems.

(h) The owner or operator must document in the operating record of the facility an inspection of those items in paragraphs (a) through (c) of this section.

[51 FR 25472, July 14, 1986, as amended at 71 FR 16906, Apr. 4, 2006; 81 FR 85826, Nov. 28, 2016]

§ 264.196 Response to leaks or spills and disposition of leaking or unfit-for-use tank systems.

A tank system or secondary containment system from which there has been a leak or spill, or which is unfit for use, must be removed from service immediately, and the owner or operator must satisfy the following requirements:

(a) Cessation of use; prevent flow or addition of wastes. The owner or operator must immediately stop the flow of hazardous waste into the tank system or secondary containment system and inspect the system to determine the cause of the release.

(b) Removal of waste from tank system or secondary containment system.

(1) If the release was from the tank system, the owner/operator must, within 24 hours after detection of the leak or, if the owner/operator demonstrates that it is not possible, at the earliest practicable time, remove as much of the waste as is necessary to prevent further release of hazardous waste to the environment and to allow inspection and repair of the tank system to be performed.

(2) If the material released was to a secondary containment system, all released materials must be removed within 24 hours or in as timely a manner as is possible to prevent harm to human health and the environment.

(c) Containment of visible releases to the environment. The owner/operator must immediately conduct a visual inspection of the release and, based upon that inspection:

(1) Prevent further migration of the leak or spill to soils or surface water; and

(2) Remove, and properly dispose of, any visible contamination of the soil or surface water.

(d) Notifications, reports.

(1) Any release to the environment, except as provided in paragraph (d)(2) of this section, must be reported to the Regional Administrator within 24 hours of its detection. If the release has been reported pursuant to 40 CFR part 302, that report will satisfy this requirement.

(2) A leak or spill of hazardous waste is exempted from the requirements of this paragraph if it is:

(i) Less than or equal to a quantity of one (1) pound, and

(ii) Immediately contained and cleaned up.

(3) Within 30 days of detection of a release to the environment, a report containing the following information must be submitted to the Regional Administrator:

(i) Likely route of migration of the release;

(ii) Characteristics of the surrounding soil (soil composition, geology, hydrogeology, climate);

(iii) Results of any monitoring or sampling conducted in connection with the release (if available). If sampling or monitoring data relating to the release are not available within 30 days, these data must be submitted to the Regional Administrator as soon as they become available.

(iv) Proximity to downgradient drinking water, surface water, and populated areas; and

(v) Description of response actions taken or planned.

(e) Provision of secondary containment, repair, or closure.

(1) Unless the owner/operator satisfies the requirements of paragraphs (e)(2) through (4) of this section, the tank system must be closed in accordance with § 264.197.

(2) If the cause of the release was a spill that has not damaged the integrity of the system, the owner/operator may return the system to service as soon as the released waste is removed and repairs, if necessary, are made.

(3) If the cause of the release was a leak from the primary tank system into the secondary containment system, the system must be repaired prior to returning the tank system to service.

(4) If the source of the release was a leak to the environment from a component of a tank system without secondary containment, the owner/operator must provide the component of the system from which the leak occurred with secondary containment that satisfies the requirements of § 264.193 before it can be returned to service, unless the source of the leak is an aboveground portion of a tank system that can be inspected visually. If the source is an aboveground component that can be inspected visually, the component must be repaired and may be returned to service without secondary containment as long as the requirements of paragraph (f) of this section are satisfied. If a component is replaced to comply with the requirements of this subparagraph, that component must satisfy the requirements for new tank systems or components in §§ 264.192 and 264.193. Additionally, if a leak has occurred in any portion of a tank system component that is not readily accessible for visual inspection (e.g., the bottom of an inground or onground tank), the entire component must be provided with secondary containment in accordance with § 264.193 prior to being returned to use.

(f) Certification of major repairs. If the owner/operator has repaired a tank system in accordance with paragraph (e) of this section, and the repair has been extensive (e.g., installation of an internal liner; repair of a ruptured primary containment or secondary containment vessel), the tank system must not be returned to service unless the owner/operator has obtained a certification by a qualified Professional Engineer in accordance with § 270.11(d) of this chapter that the repaired system is capable of handling hazardous wastes without release for the intended life of the system. This certification must be placed in the operating record and maintained until closure of the facility.

Note:

The Regional Administrator may, on the basis of any information received that there is or has been a release of hazardous waste or hazardous constituents into the environment, issue an order under RCRA section 3004(v), 3008(h), or 7003(a) requiring corrective action or such other response as deemed necessary to protect human health or the environment.]

[Note:

See § 264.15(c) for the requirements necessary to remedy a failure. Also, 40 CFR part 302 may require the owner or operator to notify the National Response Center of certain releases.

[51 FR 25472, July 14, 1986; 51 FR 29430, Aug. 15, 1986, as amended at 53 FR 34086, Sept. 2, 1988; 71 FR 16906, Apr. 4, 2006]

§ 264.197 Closure and post-closure care.

(a) At closure of a tank system, the owner or operator must remove or decontaminate all waste residues, contaminated containment system components (liners, etc.), contaminated soils, and structures and equipment contaminated with waste, and manage them as hazardous waste, unless § 261.3(d) of this chapter applies. The closure plan, closure activities, cost estimates for closure, and financial responsibility for tank systems must meet all of the requirements specified in subparts G and H of this part.

(b) If the owner or operator demonstrates that not all contaminated soils can be practicably removed or decontaminated as required in paragraph (a) of this section, then the owner or operator must close the tank system and perform post-closure care in accordance with the closure and post-closure care requirements that apply to landfills (§ 264.310). In addition, for the purposes of closure, post-closure, and financial responsibility, such a tank system is then considered to be a landfill, and the owner or operator must meet all of the requirements for landfills specified in subparts G and H of this part.

(c) If an owner or operator has a tank system that does not have secondary containment that meets the requirements of § 264.193 (b) through (f) and has not been granted a variance from the secondary containment requirements in accordance with § 264.193(g), then:

(1) The closure plan for the tank system must include both a plan for complying with paragraph (a) of this section and a contingent plan for complying with paragraph (b) of this section.

(2) A contingent post-closure plan for complying with paragraph (b) of this section must be prepared and submitted as part of the permit application.

(3) The cost estimates calculated for closure and post-closure care must reflect the costs of complying with the contingent closure plan and the contingent post-closure plan, if those costs are greater than the costs of complying with the closure plan prepared for the expected closure under paragraph (a) of this section.

(4) Financial assurance must be based on the cost estimates in paragraph (c)(3) of this section.

(5) For the purposes of the contingent closure and post-closure plans, such a tank system is considered to be a landfill, and the contingent plans must meet all of the closure, post-closure, and financial responsibility requirements for landfills under subparts G and H of this part.

[51 FR 25472, July 14, 1986; 51 FR 29430, Aug. 15, 1986]

§ 264.198 Special requirements for ignitable or reactive wastes.

(a) Ignitable or reactive waste must not be placed in tank systems, unless:

(1) The waste is treated, rendered, or mixed before or immediately after placement in the tank system so that:

(i) The resulting waste, mixture, or dissolved material no longer meets the definition of ignitable or reactive waste under §§ 261.21 or 261.23 of this chapter, and

(ii) Section 264.17(b) is complied with; or

(2) The waste is stored or treated in such a way that it is protected from any material or conditions that may cause the waste to ignite or react; or

(3) The tank system is used solely for emergencies.

(b) The owner or operator of a facility where ignitable or reactive waste is stored or treated in a tank must comply with the requirements for the maintenance of protective distances between the waste management area and any public ways, streets, alleys, or an adjoining property line that can be built upon as required in Tables 2-1 through 2-6 of the National Fire Protection Association's “Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code,” (1977 or 1981), (incorporated by reference, see § 260.11).

§ 264.199 Special requirements for incompatible wastes.

(a) Incompatible wastes, or incompatible wastes and materials, must not be placed in the same tank system, unless § 264.17(b) is complied with.

(b) Hazardous waste must not be placed in a tank system that has not been decontaminated and that previously held an incompatible waste or material, unless § 264.17(b) is complied with.

§ 264.200 Air emission standards.

The owner or operator shall manage all hazardous waste placed in a tank in accordance with the applicable requirements of subparts AA, BB, and CC of this part.

[61 FR 59950, Nov. 25, 1996]

Subpart K - Surface Impoundments
Source:

47 FR 32357, July 26, 1982, unless otherwise noted.

§ 264.220 Applicability.

The regulations in this subpart apply to owners and operators of facilities that use surface impoundments to treat, store, or dispose of hazardous waste except as § 264.1 provides otherwise.

§ 264.221 Design and operating requirements.

(a) Any surface impoundment that is not covered by paragraph (c) of this section or § 265.221 of this chapter must have a liner for all portions of the impoundment (except for existing portions of such impoundments). The liner must be designed, constructed, and installed to prevent any migration of wastes out of the impoundment to the adjacent subsurface soil or ground water or surface water at any time during the active life (including the closure period) of the impoundment. The liner may be constructed of materials that may allow wastes to migrate into the liner (but not into the adjacent subsurface soil or ground water or surface water) during the active life of the facility, provided that the impoundment is closed in accordance with § 264.228(a)(1). For impoundments that will be closed in accordance with § 264.228(a)(2), the liner must be constructed of materials that can prevent wastes from migrating into the liner during the active life of the facility. The liner must be:

(1) Constructed of materials that have appropriate chemical properties and sufficient strength and thickness to prevent failure due to pressure gradients (including static head and external hydrogeologic forces), physical contact with the waste or leachate to which they are exposed, climatic conditions, the stress of installation, and the stress of daily operation;

(2) Placed upon a foundation or base capable of providing support to the liner and resistance to pressure gradients above and below the liner to prevent failure of the liner due to settlement, compression, or uplift; and

(3) Installed to cover all surrounding earth likely to be in contact with the waste or leachate.

(b) The owner or operator will be exempted from the requirements of paragraph (a) of this section if the Regional Administrator finds, based on a demonstration by the owner or operator, that alternate design and operating practices, together with location characteristics, will prevent the migration of any hazardous constituents (see § 264.93) into the ground water or surface water at any future time. In deciding whether to grant an exemption, the Regional Administrator will consider:

(1) The nature and quantity of the wastes;

(2) The proposed alternate design and operation;

(3) The hydrogeologic setting of the facility, including the attenuative capacity and thickness of the liners and soils present between the impoundment and ground water or surface water; and

(4) All other factors which would influence the quality and mobility of the leachate produced and the potential for it to migrate to ground water or surface water.

(c) The owner or operator of each new surface impoundment unit on which construction commences after January 29, 1992, each lateral expansion of a surface impoundment unit on which construction commences after July 29, 1992 and each replacement of an existing surface impoundment unit that is to commence reuse after July 29, 1992 must install two or more liners and a leachate collection and removal system between such liners. “Construction commences” is as defined in § 260.10 of this chapter under “existing facility”.

(1)

(i) The liner system must include:

(A) A top liner designed and constructed of materials (e.g., a geomembrane) to prevent the migration of hazardous constituents into such liner during the active life and post-closure care period; and

(B) A composite bottom liner, consisting of at least two components. The upper component must be designed and constructed of materials (e.g., a geomembrane) to prevent the migration of hazardous constituents into this component during the active life and post-closure care period. The lower component must be designed and constructed of materials to minimize the migration of hazardous constituents if a breach in the upper component were to occur. The lower component must be constructed of at least 3 feet (91 cm) of compacted soil material with a hydraulic conductivity of no more than 1 × 10−7 cm/sec.

(ii) The liners must comply with paragraphs (a) (1), (2), and (3) of this section.

(2) The leachate collection and removal system between the liners, and immediately above the bottom composite liner in the case of multiple leachate collection and removal systems, is also a leak detection system. This leak detection system must be capable of detecting, collecting, and removing leaks of hazardous constituents at the earliest practicable time through all areas of the top liner likely to be exposed to waste or leachate during the active life and post-closure care period. The requirements for a leak detection system in this paragraph are satisfied by installation of a system that is, at a minimum:

(i) Constructed with a bottom slope of one percent or more;

(ii) Constructed of granular drainage materials with a hydraulic conductivity of 1 × 10−1 cm/sec or more and a thickness of 12 inches (30.5 cm) or more; or constructed of synthetic or geonet drainage materials with a transmissivity of 3 × 10−4 m2sec or more;

(iii) Constructed of materials that are chemically resistant to the waste managed in the surface impoundment and the leachate expected to be generated, and of sufficient strength and thickness to prevent collapse under the pressures exerted by overlying wastes and any waste cover materials or equipment used at the surface impoundment;

(iv) Designed and operated to minimize clogging during the active life and post-closure care period; and

(v) Constructed with sumps and liquid removal methods (e.g., pumps) of sufficient size to collect and remove liquids from the sump and prevent liquids from backing up into the drainage layer. Each unit must have its own sump(s). The design of each sump and removal system must provide a method for measuring and recording the volume of liquids present in the sump and of liquids removed.

(3) The owner or operator shall collect and remove pumpable liquids in the sumps to minimize the head on the bottom liner.

(4) The owner or operator of a leak detection system that is not located completely above the seasonal high water table must demonstrate that the operation of the leak detection system will not be adversely affected by the presence of ground water.

(d) The Regional Administrator may approve alternative design or operating practices to those specified in paragraph (c) of this section if the owner or operator demonstrates to the Regional Administrator that such design and operating practices, together with location characteristics:

(1) Will prevent the migration of any hazardous constituent into the ground water or surface water at least as effectively as the liners and leachate collection and removal system specified in paragraph (c) of this section; and

(2) Will allow detection of leaks of hazardous constituents through the top liner at least as effectively.

(e) The double liner requirement set forth in paragraph (c) of this section may be waived by the Regional Administrator for any monofill, if:

(1) The monofill contains only hazardous wastes from foundry furnace emission controls or metal casting molding sand, and such wastes do not contain constituents which would render the wastes hazardous for reasons other than the toxicity characteristic in § 261.24 of this chapter; and

(2)

(i)

(A) The monofill has at least one liner for which there is no evidence that such liner is leaking. For the purposes of this paragraph, the term “liner” means a liner designed, constructed, installed, and operated to prevent hazardous waste from passing into the liner at any time during the active life of the facility, or a liner designed, constructed, installed, and operated to prevent hazardous waste from migrating beyond the liner to adjacent subsurface soil, ground water, or surface water at any time during the active life of the facility. In the case of any surface impoundment which has been exempted from the requirements of paragraph (c) of this section on the basis of a liner designed, constructed, installed, and operated to prevent hazardous waste from passing beyond the liner, at the closure of such impoundment, the owner or operator must remove or decontaminate all waste residues, all contaminated liner material, and contaminated soil to the extent practicable. If all contaminated soil is not removed or decontaminated, the owner or operator of such impoundment will comply with appropriate post-closure requirements, including but not limited to ground-water monitoring and corrective action;

(B) The monofill is located more than one-quarter mile from an “underground source of drinking water” (as that term is defined in 40 CFR 270.2); and

(C) The monofill is in compliance with generally applicable ground-water monitoring requirements for facilities with permits under RCRA section 3005(c); or

(ii) The owner or operator demonstrates that the monofill is located, designed and operated so as to assure that there will be no migration of any hazardous constituent into ground water or surface water at any future time.

(f) The owner or operator of any replacement surface impoundment unit is exempt from paragraph (c) of this section if:

(1) The existing unit was constructed in compliance with the design standards of sections 3004 (o)(1)(A)(i) and (o)(5) of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act; and

(2) There is no reason to believe that the liner is not functioning as designed.

(g) A surface impoundment must be designed, constructed, maintained, and operated to prevent overtopping resulting from normal or abnormal operations; overfilling; wind and wave action; rainfall; run-on; malfunctions of level controllers, alarms, and other equipment; and human error.

(h) A surface impoundment must have dikes that are designed, constructed, and maintained with sufficient structural integrity to prevent massive failure of the dikes. In ensuring structural integrity, it must not be presumed that the liner system will function without leakage during the active life of the unit.

(i) The Regional Administrator will specify in the permit all design and operating practices that are necessary to ensure that the requirements of this section are satisfied.

[47 FR 32357, July 26, 1982, as amended at 50 FR 4514, Jan. 31, 1985; 50 FR 28747, July 15, 1985; 57 FR 3487, Jan. 29, 1992; 71 FR 40273, July 14, 2006]

§ 264.222 Action leakage rate.

(a) The Regional Administrator shall approve an action leakage rate for surface impoundment units subject to § 264.221 (c) or (d). The action leakage rate is the maximum design flow rate that the leak detection system (LDS) can remove without the fluid head on the bottom liner exceeding 1 foot. The action leakage rate must include an adequate safety margin to allow for uncertainties in the design (e.g., slope, hydraulic conductivity, thickness of drainage material), construction, operation, and location of the LDS, waste and leachate characteristics, likelihood and amounts of other sources of liquids in the LDS, and proposed response actions (e.g., the action leakage rate must consider decreases in the flow capacity of the system over time resulting from siltation and clogging, rib layover and creep of synthetic components of the system, overburden pressures, etc.).

(b) To determine if the action leakage rate has been exceeded, the owner or operator must convert the weekly or monthly flow rate from the monitoring data obtained under § 264.226(d) to an average daily flow rate (gallons per acre per day) for each sump. Unless the Regional Administrator approves a different calculation, the average daily flow rate for each sump must be calculated weekly during the active life and closure period, and if the unit is closed in accordance with § 264.228(b), monthly during the post-closure care period when monthly monitoring is required under § 264.226(d).

[57 FR 3487, Jan. 29, 1992]

§ 264.223 Response actions.

(a) The owner or operator of surface impoundment units subject to § 264.221 (c) or (d) must have an approved response action plan before receipt of waste. The response action plan must set forth the actions to be taken if the action leakage rate has been exceeded. At a minimum, the response action plan must describe the actions specified in paragraph (b) of this section.

(b) If the flow rate into the leak detection system exceeds the action leakage rate for any sump, the owner or operator must:

(1) Notify the Regional Administrator in writing of the exceedance within 7 days of the determination;

(2) Submit a preliminary written assessment to the Regional Administrator within 14 days of the determination, as to the amount of liquids, likely sources of liquids, possible location, size, and cause of any leaks, and short-term actions taken and planned;

(3) Determine to the extent practicable the location, size, and cause of any leak;

(4) Determine whether waste receipt should cease or be curtailed, whether any waste should be removed from the unit for inspection, repairs, or controls, and whether or not the unit should be closed;

(5) Determine any other short-term and longer-term actions to be taken to mitigate or stop any leaks; and

(6) Within 30 days after the notification that the action leakage rate has been exceeded, submit to the Regional Administrator the results of the analyses specified in paragraphs (b) (3), (4), and (5) of this section, the results of actions taken, and actions planned. Monthly thereafter, as long as the flow rate in the leak detection system exceeds the action leakage rate, the owner or operator must submit to the Regional Administrator a report summarizing the results of any remedial actions taken and actions planned.

(c) To make the leak and/or remediation determinations in paragraphs (b) (3), (4), and (5) of this section, the owner or operator must:

(1)

(i) Assess the source of liquids and amounts of liquids by source,

(ii) Conduct a fingerprint, hazardous constituent, or other analyses of the liquids in the leak detection system to identify the source of liquids and possible location of any leaks, and the hazard and mobility of the liquid; and

(iii) Assess the seriousness of any leaks in terms of potential for escaping into the environment; or

(2) Document why such assessments are not needed.

[57 FR 3488, Jan. 29, 1992,as amended at 71 FR 40273, July 14, 2006]

§§ 264.224-264.225 [Reserved]
§ 264.226 Monitoring and inspection.

(a) During construction and installation, liners (except in the case of existing portions of surface impoundments exempt from § 264.221(a)) and cover systems (e.g., membranes, sheets, or coatings) must be inspected for uniformity, damage, and imperfections (e.g., holes, cracks, thin spots, or foreign materials). Immediately after construction or installation:

(1) Synthetic liners and covers must be inspected to ensure tight seams and joints and the absence of tears, punctures, or blisters; and

(2) Soil-based and admixed liners and covers must be inspected for imperfections including lenses, cracks, channels, root holes, or other structural non-uniformities that may cause an increase in the permeability of the liner or cover.

(b) While a surface impoundment is in operation, it must be inspected weekly and after storms to detect evidence of any of the following:

(1) Deterioration, malfunctions, or improper operation of overtopping control systems;

(2) Sudden drops in the level of the impoundment's contents; and

(3) Severe erosion or other signs of deterioration in dikes or other containment devices.

(c) Prior to the issuance of a permit, and after any extended period of time (at least six months) during which the impoundment was not in service, the owner or operator must obtain a certification from a qualified engineer that the impoundment's dike, including that portion of any dike which provides freeboard, has structural integrity. The certification must establish, in particular, that the dike:

(1) Will withstand the stress of the pressure exerted by the types and amounts of wastes to be placed in the impoundment; and

(2) Will not fail due to scouring or piping, without dependence on any liner system included in the surface impoundment construction.

(d)

(1) An owner or operator required to have a leak detection system under § 264.221 (c) or (d) must record the amount of liquids removed from each leak detection system sump at least once each week during the active life and closure period.

(2) After the final cover is installed, the amount of liquids removed from each leak detection system sump must be recorded at least monthly. If the liquid level in the sump stays below the pump operating level for two consecutive months, the amount of liquids in the sumps must be recorded at least quarterly. If the liquid level in the sump stays below the pump operating level for two consecutive quarters, the amount of liquids in the sumps must be recorded at least semi-annually. If at any time during the post-closure care period the pump operating level is exceeded at units on quarterly or semi-annual recording schedules, the owner or operator must return to monthly recording of amounts of liquids removed from each sump until the liquid level again stays below the pump operating level for two consecutive months.

(3) “Pump operating level” is a liquid level proposed by the owner or operator and approved by the Regional Administrator based on pump activation level, sump dimensions, and level that avoids backup into the drainage layer and minimizes head in the sump.

[47 FR 32357, July 26, 1982, as amended at 50 FR 4514, Jan. 31, 1985; 50 FR 28748, July 15, 1985; 57 FR 3488, Jan. 29, 1992; 71 FR 40273, July 14, 2006]

§ 264.227 Emergency repairs; contingency plans.

(a) A surface impoundment must be removed from service in accordance with paragraph (b) of this section when:

(1) The level of liquids in the impoundment suddenly drops and the drop is not known to be caused by changes in the flows into or out of the impoundment; or

(2) The dike leaks.

(b) When a surface impoundment must be removed from service as required by paragraph (a) of this section, the owner or operator must:

(1) Immediately shut off the flow or stop the addition of wastes into the impoundment;

(2) Immediately contain any surface leakage which has occurred or is occurring;

(3) Immediately stop the leak;

(4) Take any other necessary steps to stop or prevent catastrophic failure;

(5) If a leak cannot be stopped by any other means, empty the impoundment; and

(6) Notify the Regional Administrator of the problem in writing within seven days after detecting the problem.

(c) As part of the contingency plan required in subpart D of this part, the owner or operator must specify a procedure for complying with the requirements of paragraph (b) of this section.

(d) No surface impoundment that has been removed from service in accordance with the requirements of this section may be restored to service unless the portion of the impoundment which was failing is repaired and the following steps are taken:

(1) If the impoundment was removed from service as the result of actual or imminent dike failure, the dike's structural integrity must be recertified in accordance with § 264.226(c).

(2) If the impoundment was removed from service as the result of a sudden drop in the liquid level, then:

(i) For any existing portion of the impoundment, a liner must be installed in compliance with § 264.221(a); and

(ii) For any other portion of the impoundment, the repaired liner system must be certified by a qualified engineer as meeting the design specifications approved in the permit.

(e) A surface impoundment that has been removed from service in accordance with the req