Site Feedback

Title 49

You are viewing the current version of the eCFR. The eCFR is up to date as of 7/23/2021.

Title 49

eCFR Content

Editorial codification of the general and permanent rules published in the Federal Register.

PART 178 - SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS
Authority:

49 U.S.C. 5101-5128; 49 CFR 1.81 and 1.97.

§ 178.1 Purpose and scope.

This part prescribes the manufacturing and testing specifications for packaging and containers used for the transportation of hazardous materials in commerce.

[Amdt. 178-40, 42 FR 2689, Jan. 13, 1977. Redesignated by Amdt. 178-97, 55 FR 52715, Dec. 21, 1990]

§ 178.2 Applicability and responsibility.

(a) Applicability.

(1) The requirements of this part apply to packagings manufactured -

(i) To a DOT specification, regardless of country of manufacture; or

(ii) To a UN standard, for packagings manufactured within the United States. For UN standard packagings manufactured outside the United States, see § 173.24(d)(2) of this subchapter. For UN standard packagings for which standards are not prescribed in this part, see § 178.3(b).

(2) A manufacturer of a packaging subject to the requirements of this part is primarily responsible for compliance with the requirements of this part. However, any person who performs a function prescribed in this part shall perform that function in accordance with this part.

(b) Specification markings. When this part requires that a packaging be marked with a DOT specification or UN standard marking, marking of the packaging with the appropriate DOT or UN markings is the certification that -

(1) Except as otherwise provided in this section, all requirements of the DOT specification or UN standard, including performance tests, are met; and

(2) All functions performed by, or on behalf of, the person whose name or symbol appears as part of the marking conform to requirements specified in this part.

(c) Notification.

(1) Except as specifically provided in §§ 178.337-18, 178.338-19, and 178.345-15 of this part, the manufacturer or other person certifying compliance with the requirements of this part, and each subsequent distributor of that packaging must:

(i) Notify each person to whom that packaging is transferred -

(A) Of all requirements in this part not met at the time of transfer, and

(B) With information specifying the type(s) and dimensions of the closures, including gaskets and any other components needed to ensure that the packaging is capable of successfully passing the applicable performance tests. This information must include any procedures to be followed, including closure instructions for inner packagings and receptacles, to effectively assemble and close the packaging for the purpose of preventing leakage in transportation. Closure instructions must provide for a consistent and repeatable means of closure that is sufficient to ensure the packaging is closed in the same manner as it was tested. For packagings sold or represented as being in conformance with the requirements of this subchapter applicable to transportation by aircraft, this information must include relevant guidance to ensure that the packaging, as prepared for transportation, will withstand the pressure differential requirements in § 173.27 of this subchapter.

(ii) Retain copies of each written notification for at least one year from date of issuance; and

(iii) Make copies of all written notifications available for inspection by a representative of the Department.

(2) The notification required in accordance with this paragraph (c) may be in writing or by electronic means, including e-mailed transmission or transmission on a CD or similar device. If a manufacturer or subsequent distributor of the packaging utilizes electronic means to make the required notifications, the notification must be specific to the packaging in question and must be in a form that can be printed in hard copy by the person receiving the notification.

(d) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, a packaging not conforming to the applicable specifications or standards in this part may not be marked to indicate such conformance.

(e) Definitions. For the purpose of this part -

Manufacturer means the person whose name and address or symbol appears as part of the specification markings required by this part or, for a packaging marked with the symbol of an approval agency, the person on whose behalf the approval agency certifies the packaging.

Specification markings mean the packaging identification markings required by this part including, where applicable, the name and address or symbol of the packaging manufacturer or approval agency.

(f) No packaging may be manufactured or marked to a packaging specification that was in effect on September 30, 1991, and that was removed from this part 178 by a rule published in the Federal Register on December 21, 1990 and effective October 1, 1991.

[Amdt. 178-97, 55 FR 52715, Dec. 21, 1990; 56 FR 66284, Dec. 20, 1991, as amended by Amdt. 178-106, 59 FR 67519, Dec. 29, 1994; Amdt. 178-117, 62 FR 14338, Mar. 26, 1997; 68 FR 45041, July 31, 2003; 69 FR 34612, June 22, 2004; 75 FR 5395, Feb. 2, 2010; 75 FR 60339, Sept. 30, 2010; 78 FR 1118, Jan. 7, 2013; 78 FR 15328, Mar. 11, 2013]

§ 178.3 Marking of packagings.

(a) Each packaging represented as manufactured to a DOT specification or a UN standard must be marked on a non-removable component of the packaging with specification markings conforming to the applicable specification, and with the following:

(1) In an unobstructed area, with letters, and numerals identifying the standards or specification (e.g. UN 1A1, DOT 4B240ET, etc.).

(2) Unless otherwise specified in this part, the name and address or symbol of the packaging manufacturer or the person certifying compliance with a UN standard. Symbols, if used, must be registered with the Associate Administrator. Unless authorized in writing by the holder of the symbol, symbols must represent either the packaging manufacturer or the approval agency responsible for providing the most recent certification for the packaging through design certification testing or periodic retesting, as applicable. Duplicative symbols are not authorized.

(3) The markings must be stamped, embossed, burned, printed or otherwise marked on the packaging to provide adequate accessibility, permanency, contrast, and legibility so as to be readily apparent and understood.

(4) Unless otherwise specified, letters and numerals must be at least 12.0 mm (0.47 inches) in height except that for packagings of less than or equal to 30 L (7.9 gallons) capacity for liquids or 30 kg (66 pounds) capacity for solids the height must be at least 6.0 mm (0.2 inches). For packagings having a capacity of 5 L (1 gallon) or 5 kg (11 pounds) or less, letters and numerals must be of an appropriate size.

(5) For packages with a gross mass of more than 30 kg (66 pounds), the markings or a duplicate thereof must appear on the top or on a side of the packaging.

(b) A UN standard packaging for which the UN standard is set forth in this part may be marked with the United Nations symbol and other specification markings only if it fully conforms to the requirements of this part. A UN standard packaging for which the UN standard is not set forth in this part may be marked with the United Nations symbol and other specification markings for that standard as provided in the ICAO Technical Instructions or the IMDG Code subject to the following conditions:

(1) The U.S. manufacturer must establish that the packaging conforms to the applicable provisions of the ICAO Technical Instructions (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter) or the IMDG Code (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter), respectively.

(2) If an indication of the name of the manufacturer or other identification of the packaging as specified by the competent authority is required, the name and address or symbol of the manufacturer or the approval agency certifying compliance with the UN standard must be entered. Symbols, if used, must be registered with the Associate Administrator.

(3) The letters “USA” must be used to indicate the State authorizing the allocation of the specification marks if the packaging is manufactured in the United States.

(c) Where a packaging conforms to more than one UN standard or DOT specification, the packaging may bear more than one marking, provided the packaging meets all the requirements of each standard or specification. Where more than one marking appears on a packaging, each marking must appear in its entirety.

(d) No person may mark or otherwise certify a packaging or container as meeting the requirements of a manufacturing special permit unless that person is the holder of or a party to that special permit, an agent of the holder or party for the purpose of marking or certification, or a third party tester.

[Amdt. 178-97, 55 FR 52716, Dec. 21, 1990; 56 FR 66284, Dec. 20, 1991, as amended by Amdt. 178-106, 59 FR 67519, Dec. 29, 1994; Amdt. 178-113, 61 FR 21102, May 9, 1996; 65 FR 50462, Aug. 18, 2000; 66 FR 45386, Aug. 28, 2001; 67 FR 61015, Sept. 27, 2002; 68 FR 75748, Dec. 31, 2003; 70 FR 73166, Dec. 9, 2005; 78 FR 14714, Mar. 7, 2013]

Subpart A [Reserved]
Subpart B - Specifications for Inside Containers, and Linings
Source:

29 FR 18823, Dec. 29, 1964, unless otherwise noted. Redesignated at 32 FR 5606, Apr. 5, 1967.

§ 178.33 Specification 2P; inner nonrefillable metal receptacles.
§ 178.33-1 Compliance.

(a) Required in all details.

(b) [Reserved]

§ 178.33-2 Type and size.

(a) Single-trip inside containers. Must be seamless, or with seams, welded, soldered, brazed, double seamed, or swedged.

(b) The maximum capacity of containers in this class shall not exceed one liter (61.0 cubic inches). The maximum inside diameter shall not exceed 3 inches.

[29 FR 18813, Dec. 29, 1964, as amended by Order 71, 31 FR 9074, July 1, 1966. Redesignated at 32 FR 5606, Apr. 5, 1967, and amended by Amdt. 178-101, 58 FR 50237, Sept. 24, 1993; 66 FR 45386, Aug. 28, 2001]

§ 178.33-3 Inspection.

(a) By competent inspector.

(b) [Reserved]

§ 178.33-4 Duties of inspector.

(a) To inspect material and completed containers and witness tests, and to reject defective materials or containers.

(b) [Reserved]

§ 178.33-5 Material.

(a) Uniform quality steel plate such as black plate, electro-tin plate, hot dipped tin plate, tern plate or other commercially accepted can making plate; or nonferrous metal of uniform drawing quality.

(b) Material with seams, cracks, laminations or other injurious defects not authorized.

§ 178.33-6 Manufacture.

(a) By appliances and methods that will assure uniformity of completed containers; dirt and scale to be removed as necessary; no defect acceptable that is likely to weaken the finished container appreciably; reasonably smooth and uniform surface finish required.

(b) Seams when used must be as follows:

(1) Circumferential seams: By welding, swedging, brazing, soldering, or double seaming.

(2) Side seams: By welding, brazing, or soldering.

(c) Ends: The ends shall be of pressure design.

[29 FR 18823, Dec. 29, 1964, as amended by Order 71, 31 FR 9074, July 1, 1966. Redesignated at 32 FR 5606, Apr. 5, 1967]

§ 178.33-7 Wall thickness.

(a) The minimum wall thickness for any container shall be 0.007 inch.

(b) [Reserved]

[Order 71, 31 FR 9074, July 1, 1966. Redesignated at 32 FR 5606, Apr. 5, 1967]

§ 178.33-8 Tests.

(a) One out of each lot of 25,000 containers or less, successively produced per day shall be pressure tested to destruction and must not burst below 240 psig gauge pressure. The container tested shall be complete with end assembled.

(b) Each such 25,000 containers or less, successively produced per day, shall constitute a lot and if the test container shall fail, the lot shall be rejected or ten additional containers may be selected at random and subjected to the test under which failure occurred. These containers shall be complete with ends assembled. Should any of the ten containers thus tested fail, the entire lot must be rejected. All containers constituting a lot shall be of like material, size, design construction, finish, and quality.

[Order 71, 31 FR 9074, July 1, 1966. Redesignated at 32 FR 5606, Apr. 5, 1967, as amended by 66 FR 45387, Aug. 28, 2001]

§ 178.33-9 Marking.

(a) By means of printing, lithographing, embossing, or stamping, each container must be marked to show:

(1) DOT-2P.

(2) Name or symbol of person making the mark specified in paragraph (a)(1) of this section. Symbol, if used, must be registered with the Associate Administrator.

(b) [Reserved]

[Amdt. 178-40, 41 FR 38181, Sept. 9, 1976, as amended by Amdt. 178-97, 56 FR 66287, Dec. 20, 1991; 66 FR 45386, Aug. 28, 2001]

§ 178.33a Specification 2Q; inner nonrefillable metal receptacles.
§ 178.33a-1 Compliance.

(a) Required in all details.

(b) [Reserved]

[Order 71, 31 FR 9074, July 1, 1966. Redesignated at 32 FR 5606, Apr. 5, 1967]

§ 178.33a-2 Type and size.

(a) Single-trip inside containers. Must be seamless, or with seams welded, soldered, brazed, double seamed, or swedged.

(b) The maximum capacity of containers in this class shall not exceed 1 L (61.0 cubic inches). The maximum inside diameter shall not exceed 3 inches.

[Order 71, 31 FR 9074, July 1, 1966. Redesignated at 32 FR 5606, Apr. 5, 1967, and amended by Amdt. 178-43, 42 FR 42208, Aug. 22, 1977; Amdt. 178-101, 58 FR 50237, Sept. 24, 1993; 66 FR 45387, Aug. 28, 2001]

§ 178.33a-3 Inspection.

(a) By competent inspector.

(b) [Reserved]

[Order 71, 31 FR 9074, July 1, 1966. Redesignated at 32 FR 5606, Apr. 5, 1967]

§ 178.33a-4 Duties of inspector.

(a) To inspect material and completed containers and witness tests, and to reject defective materials or containers.

(b) [Reserved]

[Order 71, 31 FR 9074, July 1, 1966. Redesignated at 32 FR 5606, Apr. 5, 1967]

§ 178.33a-5 Material.

(a) Uniform quality steel plate such as black plate, electrotin plate, hot dipped tinplate, ternplate or other commercially accepted can making plate; or nonferrous metal of uniform drawing quality.

(b) Material with seams, cracks, laminations or other injurious defects not authorized.

[Order 71, 31 FR 9074, July 1, 1966. Redesignated at 32 FR 5606, Apr. 5, 1967]

§ 178.33a-6 Manufacture.

(a) By appliances and methods that will assure uniformity of completed containers; dirt and scale to be removed as necessary; no defect acceptable that is likely to weaken the finished container appreciably; reasonably smooth and uniform surface finish required.

(b) Seams when used must be as follows:

(1) Circumferential seams. By welding, swedging, brazing, soldering, or double seaming.

(2) Side seams. By welding, brazing or soldering.

(c) Ends. The ends shall be of pressure design.

[Order 71, 31 FR 9074, July 1, 1966. Redesignated at 32 FR 5606, Apr. 5, 1967]

§ 178.33a-7 Wall thickness.

(a) The minimum wall thickness for any container shall be 0.008 inch.

(b) [Reserved]

[Order 71, 31 FR 9074, July 1, 1966. Redesignated at 32 FR 5606, Apr. 5, 1967]

§ 178.33a-8 Tests.

(a) One out of each lot of 25,000 containers or less, successively produced per day, shall be pressure tested to destruction and must not burst below 270 psig gauge pressure. The container tested shall be complete with end assembled.

(b) Each such 25,000 containers or less, successively produced per day, shall constitute a lot and if the test container shall fail, the lot shall be rejected or ten additional containers may be selected at random and subjected to the test under which failure occurred. These containers shall be complete with ends assembled. Should any of the ten containers thus tested fail, the entire lot must be rejected. All containers constituting a lot shall be of like material, size, design, construction, finish and quality.

[Order 71, 31 FR 9074, July 1, 1966. Redesignated at 32 FR 5606, Apr. 5, 1967, as amended by 66 FR 45387, Aug. 28, 2001]

§ 178.33a-9 Marking.

(a) By means of printing, lithographing, embossing, or stamping, each container must be marked to show:

(1) DOT-2Q.

(2) Name or symbol of person making the mark specified in paragraph (a)(1) of this section. Symbol, if used, must be registered with the Associate Administrator.

(b) [Reserved]

[Amdt. 178-40, 41 FR 38181, Sept. 9, 1976, as amended by Amdt. 178-97, 56 FR 66287, Dec. 20, 1991; 66 FR 45386, Aug. 28, 2001]

§ 178.33b Specification 2S; inner nonrefillable plastic receptacles.
§ 178.33b-1 Compliance.

(a) Required in all details.

(b) [Reserved]

[74 FR 2268, Jan. 14, 2009]

§ 178.33b-2 Type and size.

(a) Single-trip inside containers.

(b) The maximum capacity of containers in this class shall not exceed one liter (61.0 cubic inches). The maximum inside diameter shall not exceed 3 inches.

[74 FR 2268, Jan. 14, 2009]

§ 178.33b-3 Inspection.

(a) By competent inspector.

(b) [Reserved]

[74 FR 2268, Jan. 14, 2009]

§ 178.33b-4 Duties of inspector.

(a) To inspect material and completed containers and witness tests, and to reject defective materials or containers.

(b) [Reserved]

[74 FR 2268, Jan. 14, 2009]

§ 178.33b-5 Material.

(a) The receptacles must be constructed of polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polyethylene napthalate (PEN), polyamide (Nylon) or a blend of PET, PEN, ethyl vinyl alcohol (EVOH) and/or Nylon.

(b) Material with seams, cracks, laminations or other injurious defects are forbidden.

[74 FR 2268, Jan. 14, 2009]

§ 178.33b-6 Manufacture.

(a) Each container must be manufactured by thermoplastic processes that will assure uniformity of the completed container. No used material other than production residues or regrind from the same manufacturing process may be used. The packaging must be adequately resistant to aging and to degradation caused either by the substance contained or by ultraviolet radiation.

(b) [Reserved]

[74 FR 2268, Jan. 14, 2009]

§ 178.33b-7 Design qualification test.

(a) Drop testing.

(1) To ensure that creep does not affect the ability of the container to retain the contents, each new design must be drop tested as follows: Three groups of twenty-five filled containers must be dropped from 1.8 m (5.9 ft) on to a rigid, non-resilient, flat and horizontal surface. One group must be conditioned at 38 °C (100 °F) for 26 weeks, the second group for 100 hours at 50 °C (122 °F) and the third group for 18 hours at 55 °C (131 °F), prior to performing the drop test. The closure, or sealing component of the container, must not be protected during the test. The orientation of the test container at drop must be statistically random, but direct impact on the valve or valve closure must be avoided.

(2) Criteria for passing the drop test: The containers must not break or leak.

(b) Design qualification testing must be completed if the design is manufactured with a new mold or if there is any change in the properties of the material of construction.

[75 FR 73, Jan. 4, 2010]

§ 178.33b-8 Production tests.

(a) Burst Testing.

(1) One out of each lot of 5,000 containers or less, successively produced per day must be pressure tested to destruction and must not burst below 240 psig. The container tested must be complete as intended for transportation.

(2) Each such 5,000 containers or less, successively produced per day, shall constitute a lot and if the test container shall fail, the lot shall be rejected or ten additional containers may be selected at random and subjected to the test under which failure occurred. These containers shall be complete as intended for transportation. Should any of the ten containers thus tested fail, the entire lot must be rejected. All containers constituting a lot shall be of like material, size, design construction, finish, and quality.

(b) [Reserved]

[74 FR 2268, Jan. 14, 2009, as amended at 75 FR 74, Jan. 4, 2010]

§ 178.33b-9 Marking.

(a) Each container must be clearly and permanently marked to show:

(1) DOT-2S.

(2) Name or symbol of person making the mark specified in paragraph (a)(1) of this section. Symbol, if used, must be registered with the Associate Administrator.

(b) [Reserved]

[74 FR 2268, Jan. 14, 2009]

§ 178.33c Specification 2P; inner nonrefillable metal receptacle variation.
§ 178.33c-1 Compliance.

Required in all details.

[81 FR 3685, Jan. 21, 2016]

§ 178.33c-2 Variation.

Notwithstanding the variation provided in this section, each container must otherwise conform to a DOT 2P container in accordance with § 178.33. The following conditions also apply under Variation 1 -

(a) Manufacture. Side seams: not permitted. Ends: The ends shall be designed to withstand pressure and be equipped with a pressure relief system (e.g., rim-venting release or a dome expansion device) designed to function prior to bursting of the container.

(b) Tests.

(1) One out of each lot of 25,000 containers or less, successively produced per day complete with ends assembled (and without a pressure relief system assembled) shall be pressure tested to destruction at gauge pressure and must not burst below 240 psig. For containers with a pressure relief system as described in paragraph (a) of this section and assembled, failure at a location other than the pressure relief system will reject the lot. For containers with an end expansion device, the lot must be rejected if the container bursts prior to buckling of the device.

(2) Each such 25,000 containers or less, successively produced per day, shall constitute a lot and if the test container(s) shall fail, the lot shall be rejected. Otherwise, ten (10) additional containers of each container design produced may be selected at random and subjected to the test. These containers shall be complete with ends assembled. Should any of the containers thus tested fail, the entire lot must be rejected. All containers constituting a lot shall be of like material, size, design construction, finish, and quality.

(c) Marking. By means of printing, lithographing, embossing, or stamping, each container must be marked:

(1) DOT-2P1.

(2) With the name or symbol of the person making the mark. A symbol, if used, must be registered with the Associate Administrator.

[81 FR 3685, Jan. 21, 2016]

§ 178.33d Specification 2Q; inner nonrefillable metal receptacle variations.
§ 178.33d-1 Compliance.

Required in all details.

[81 FR 3685, Jan. 21, 2016]

§ 178.33d-2 Variation 1.

Notwithstanding the variation provided in this paragraph, each container must otherwise conform to a DOT 2Q container in accordance with § 178.33a. The following conditions also apply under Variation 1 -

(a) Type and size. The maximum capacity of containers in this class may not exceed 0.40 L (24.4 cubic inches). The maximum inside diameter shall not exceed 2.1 inches.

(b) Manufacture. Ends: The top of the container must be designed with a pressure relief system consisting of radial scores on the top seam(s). The bottom of the container must be designed to buckle at a pressure greater than the pressure at which the top buckles and vents.

(c) Wall thickness. The minimum wall thickness for any container shall be 0.0085 inches.

(d) Tests.

(1) Two containers (one without a pressure relief system and one with) out of each lot of 25,000 or less, successively produced per day shall be pressure tested to destruction at gauge pressure. The container without a pressure relief system must not burst below 320 psig. The container assembled with a pressure relief system as described in paragraph (b) of this section must be tested to destruction. The bottom of the container must buckle at a pressure greater than the pressure at which the top buckles and vents.

(2) Each such 25,000 containers or less, successively produced per day, shall constitute a lot and if the test container(s) shall fail, the lot shall be rejected. Otherwise, ten (10) additional pairs of containers may be selected at random and subjected to the test under which failure occurred. Should any of the containers thus tested fail, the entire lot must be rejected. All containers constituting a lot shall be of like material, size, design construction, finish, and quality.

(e) Marking. By means of printing, lithographing, embossing, or stamping, each container must be marked:

(1) DOT-2Q1.

(2) With the name or symbol of the person making the mark. A symbol, if used, must be registered with the Associate Administrator.

[81 FR 3685, Jan. 21, 2016]

§ 178.33d-3 Variation 2.

Notwithstanding the variation provided in this paragraph, each container must otherwise conform to a DOT 2Q container in accordance with § 178.33a. The following conditions also apply under Variation 2 -

(a) Manufacture. Ends: The ends shall be designed to withstand pressure and the container equipped with a pressure relief system (e.g., rim-venting release or a dome expansion device) designed to buckle prior to the burst of the container.

(b) Tests.

(1) One out of each lot of 25,000 containers or less, successively produced per day shall be pressure tested to destruction at gauge pressure and must not burst below 270 psig. For containers with a pressure relief system as described in paragraph (a) of this section and assembled, failure at a location other than the pressure relief system will reject the lot.

(2) Each such 25,000 containers or less, successively produced per day, shall constitute a lot and if the test container(s) shall fail, the lot shall be rejected. Otherwise, ten (10) additional containers of each container design produced may be selected at random and subjected to the test. These containers shall be complete with ends assembled. Should any of the containers thus tested fail, the entire lot must be rejected. All containers constituting a lot shall be of like material, size, design construction, finish, and quality.

(c) Marking. By means of printing, lithographing, embossing, or stamping, each container must be marked:

(1) DOT-2Q2.

(2) With the name or symbol of the person making the mark. A symbol, if used, must be registered with the Associate Administrator.

[81 FR 3685, Jan. 21, 2016]

Subpart C - Specifications for Cylinders
§ 178.35 General requirements for specification cylinders.

(a) Compliance. Compliance with the requirements of this subpart is required in all details.

(b) Inspections and analyses. Chemical analyses and tests required by this subchapter must be made within the United States, unless otherwise approved in writing by the Associate Administrator, in accordance with subpart I of part 107 of this chapter. Inspections and verification must be performed by -

(1) An independent inspection agency approved in writing by the Associate Administrator, in accordance with subpart I of part 107 of this chapter; or

(2) For DOT Specifications 3B, 3BN, 3E, 4B, 4BA, 4B240ET, 4AA480, 4L, 8, 8AL, 4BW, 4E, 4D (with a water capacity less than 1,100 cubic inches) and Specification 39 (with a marked service pressure 900 psig or lower), and manufactured within the United States, a competent inspector of the manufacturer.

(c) Duties of inspector. The inspector shall determine that each cylinder made is in conformance with the applicable specification. Inspections shall conform to CGA C-11 (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter) except as otherwise specified in the applicable specification.

(1) Seamless cylinders. Seamless cylinders shall be inspected in accordance with Section 5 of CGA C-11. For cylinders made by the billet-piercing process, billets must be inspected and shown to be free from piping (laminations), cracks, excessive segregation and other injurious defects after parting or, when applicable, after nick and cold break.

(2) Welded cylinders. Welded cylinders shall be inspected in accordance with Section 6 of CGA C-11. Note: The recommended locations for test specimens are depicted in Figures 1 through 5 in appendix A to subpart C of part 178.

(3) Non-refillable cylinders. Non-refillable cylinders shall be inspected in accordance with Section 7 of CGA C-11

(4) Inspector's report. The inspector shall prepare a report containing, at a minimum, the applicable information listed in CGA C-11. Any additional information or markings that are required by the applicable specification must be shown on the test report. The signature of the inspector on the reports certifies that the processes of manufacture and heat treatment of cylinders were observed and found satisfactory. The inspector must furnish the completed test reports required by this subpart to the maker of the cylinder and, upon request, to the purchaser. The test report must be retained by the inspector for 15 years from the original test date of the cylinder.

(d) Defects and attachments. Cylinders must conform to the following:

(1) A cylinder may not be constructed of material with seams, cracks or laminations, or other injurious defects.

(2) Metal attachments to cylinders must have rounded or chamfered corners or must be protected in such a manner as to prevent the likelihood of causing puncture or damage to other hazardous materials packages. This requirement applies to anything temporarily or permanently attached to the cylinder, such as metal skids.

(e) Safety devices. Pressure relief devices and protection for valves, safety devices, and other connections, if applied, must be as required or authorized by the appropriate specification, and as required in § 173.301 of this subchapter.

(f) Markings. Markings on a DOT Specification cylinder must conform to applicable requirements.

(1) Each cylinder must be marked with the following information:

(i) The DOT specification marking must appear first, followed immediately by the service pressure. For example, DOT-3A1800.

(ii) The serial number must be placed just below or immediately following the DOT specification marking.

(iii) A symbol (letters) must be placed just below, immediately before or following the serial number. Other variations in sequence of markings are authorized only when necessitated by a lack of space. The symbol and numbers must be those of the manufacturer. The symbol must be registered with the Associate Administrator; duplications are not authorized.

(iv) The inspector's official mark and date of test (such as 5-95 for May 1995) must be placed near the serial number. This information must be placed so that dates of subsequent tests can be easily added. An example of the markings prescribed in this paragraph (f)(1) is as follows:

DOT-3A1800

1234

XY

AB 5-95

Or;

DOT-3A1800-1234-XY

AB 5-95

Where:

DOT-3A = specification number

1800 = service pressure

1234 = serial number

XY = symbol of manufacturer

AB = inspector's mark

5-95 = date of test

(2) Additional required marking must be applied to the cylinder as follows:

(i) The word “spun” or “plug” must be placed near the DOT specification marking when an end closure in the finished cylinder has been welded by the spinning process, or effected by plugging.

(ii) As prescribed in specification 3HT (§ 178.44) or 3T (§ 178.45), if applicable.

(3) Marking exceptions. A DOT 3E cylinder is not required to be marked with an inspector's mark or a serial number.

(4) Unless otherwise specified in the applicable specification, the markings on each cylinder must be stamped plainly and permanently on the shoulder, top head, or neck.

(5) The size of each marking must be at least 0.25 inch or as space permits.

(6) Other markings are authorized provided they are made in low stress areas other than the side wall and are not of a size and depth that will create harmful stress concentrations. Such marks may not conflict with any DOT required markings.

(7) Marking exceptions. A DOT 8 or 8AL cylinder is not required to be marked with the service pressure.

(8) Tare weight or mass weight, and water capacity marking. DOT-specification 4B, 4BA, 4BW, and 4E cylinders used in liquefied compressed gas service manufactured after December 28, 2022, must be marked with the tare weight or mass weight. Additionally, the cylinder must be permanently marked with the water capacity. The owner of the cylinder must ensure it is marked with the following information, as applicable:

(i) Tare weight. The tare weight for a cylinder 25 pounds or less at the time of manufacture, with a lower tolerance of 3 percent and an upper tolerance of 1 percent; or for a cylinder exceeding 25 pounds at the time of manufacture, with a lower tolerance of 2 percent and an upper tolerance of 1 percent. The tare weight marking must be the actual weight of the fully assembled cylinder, including the valve(s) and other permanently affixed appurtenances. Removable protective cap(s) or cover(s) must not be included in the cylinder tare weight. Tare weight shall be abbreviated “TW”; or

(ii) Mass weight. The mass weight for a cylinder 25 pounds or less at the time of manufacture, with a lower tolerance of 3 percent and an upper tolerance of 1 percent; or the mass weight marking for a cylinder exceeding 25 pounds at the time of manufacture, with a lower tolerance of 2 percent and an upper tolerance of 1 percent. The mass weight marking must be the actual weight of the fully assembled cylinder, excluding valve(s) and removable protective cap(s) or cover(s). Mass weight shall be abbreviated “MW”; and

(iii) Water capacity. The water capacity for a cylinder 25 pounds water capacity or less, with a tolerance of minus 1 percent and no upper tolerance; or for a cylinder exceeding 25 pounds water capacity, with a tolerance of minus 0.5 percent and no upper tolerance. The marked water capacity of the cylinder must be the capacity of the cylinder at the time of manufacture. Water capacity shall be abbreviated “WC”.

(g) Manufacturer's reports. At or before the time of delivery to the purchaser, the cylinder manufacturer must have all completed certification documents listed in CGA C-11. The manufacturer of the cylinders must retain the reports required by this subpart for 15 years from the original test date of the cylinder.

[Amdt. 178-114, 61 FR 25942, May 23, 1996, as amended at 66 FR 45185, Aug. 28, 2001; 67 FR 51652, Aug. 8, 2002; 68 FR 75748, Dec. 31, 2003; 76 FR 43531, July 20, 2011; 83 FR 55810, Nov. 7, 2018; 85 FR 75716, Nov. 25, 2020; 85 FR 85419, Dec. 28, 2020]

§ 178.36 Specification 3A and 3AX seamless steel cylinders.

(a) Type size and service pressure. In addition to the requirements of § 178.35, cylinders must conform to the following:

(1) A DOT-3A cylinder is a seamless steel cylinder with a water capacity (nominal) not over 1,000 pounds and a service pressure of at least 150 psig.

(2) A DOT-3AX is a seamless steel cylinder with a water capacity not less than 1,000 pounds and a service pressure of at least 500 psig, conforming to the following requirements:

(i) Assuming the cylinder is to be supported horizontally at its two ends only and to be uniformly loaded over its entire length consisting of the weight per unit of length of the straight cylindrical portion filled with water and compressed to the specified test pressure; the sum of two times the maximum tensile stress in the bottom fibers due to bending, plus that in the same fibers (longitudinal stress), due to hydrostatic test may not exceed 80 percent of the minimum yield strength of the steel at such maximum stress. Wall thickness must be increased when necessary to meet the requirement.

(ii) To calculate the maximum longitudinal tensile stress due to bending, the following formula must be used:

S = Mc/I

(iii) To calculate the maximum longitudinal tensile stress due to hydrostatic test pressure, the following formula must be used:

S = A1 P/A2

where:

S = tensile stress - p.s.i.;

M = bending moment-inch pounds - (wl2)/8;

w = weight per inch of cylinder filled with water;

l = length of cylinder-inches;

c = radius (D)/(2) of cylinder-inches;

I = moment of inertia - 0.04909 (D4−d4) inches fourth;

D = outside diameter-inches;

d = inside diameter-inches;

A1 = internal area in cross section of cylinder-square inches;

A2 = area of metal in cross section of cylinder-square inches;

P = hydrostatic test pressure-psig.

(b) Steel. Open-hearth or electric steel of uniform quality must be used. Content percent may not exceed the following: Carbon, 0.55; phosphorous, 0.045; sulphur, 0.050.

(c) Identification of material. Material must be identified by any suitable method, except that plates and billets for hot-drawn cylinders must be marked with the heat number.

(d) Manufacture. Cylinders must be manufactured using equipment and processes adequate to ensure that each cylinder produced conforms to the requirements of this subpart. No fissure or other defect is permitted that is likely to weaken the finished cylinder appreciably. A reasonably smooth and uniform surface finish is required. If not originally free from such defects, the surface may be machined or otherwise treated to eliminate these defects. The thickness of the bottoms of cylinders welded or formed by spinning is, under no condition, to be less than two times the minimum wall thickness of the cylindrical shell; such bottom thicknesses must be measured within an area bounded by a line representing the points of contact between the cylinder and floor when the cylinder is in a vertical position.

(e) Welding or brazing. Welding or brazing for any purpose whatsoever is prohibited except as follows:

(1) Welding or brazing is authorized for the attachment of neckrings and footrings which are non-pressure parts and only to the tops and bottoms of cylinders having a service pressure of 500 psig or less. Cylinders, neckrings, and footrings must be made of weldable steel, the carbon content of which may not exceed 0.25 percent except in the case of 4130X steel which may be used with proper welding procedures.

(2) As permitted in paragraph (d) of this section.

(3) Cylinders used solely in anhydrous ammonia service may have a1/2 inch diameter bar welded within their concave bottoms.

(f) Wall thickness. For cylinders with service pressure less than 900 psig, the wall stress may not exceed 24,000 psig. A minimum wall thickness of 0.100 inch is required for any cylinder over 5 inches outside diameter. Wall stress calculation must be made by using the following formula:

S = [P(1.3D2 + 0.4d2)]/(D2−d2)

Where:

S = wall stress in psi;

P = minimum test pressure prescribed for water jacket test or 450 psig whichever is the greater;

D = outside diameter in inches;

d = inside diameter in inches.

(g) Heat treatment. The completed cylinder must be uniformly and properly heat-treated prior to tests.

(h) Openings in cylinders and connections (valves, fuse plugs, etc.) for those openings. Threads are required on openings.

(1) Threads must be clean cut, even, without checks, and to gauge.

(2) Taper threads, when used, must be of length not less than as specified for American Standard taper pipe threads.

(3) Straight threads having at least 6 engaged threads are authorized. Straight threads must have a tight fit and calculated shear strength of at least 10 times the test pressure of the cylinder. Gaskets, adequate to prevent leakage, are required.

(i) Pressure testing. Each cylinder must successfully withstand a pressure test as follows:

(1) The test must be by water-jacket or direct expansion method as prescribed in CGA C-1 (IBR; see § 171.7 of this subchapter). The testing equipment must be calibrated as prescribed in CGA C-1. All testing equipment and pressure indicating devices must be accurate within the parameters defined in CGA C-1.

(2) Each cylinder must be tested to a minimum of5/3 times service pressure.

(3) The minimum test pressure must be maintained for at least 30 seconds and sufficiently longer to ensure complete expansion. Any internal pressure applied after heat-treatment and previous to the official test may not exceed 90 percent of the test pressure. If, due to failure of the test apparatus or operator error, the test pressure cannot be maintained, the test may be repeated in accordance with CGA C-1, section 5.7.2.

(4) Permanent, volumetric expansion may not exceed 10 percent of the total volumetric expansion at test pressure.

(j) Flattening test. A flattening test must be performed on one cylinder taken at random out of each lot of 200 or less, by placing the cylinder between wedge shaped knife edges having a 60° included angle, rounded to1/2-inch radius. The longitudinal axis of the cylinder must be at a 90-degree angle to knife edges during the test. For lots of 30 or less, flattening tests are authorized to be made on a ring at least 8 inches long cut from each cylinder and subjected to same heat treatment as the finished cylinder.

(k) Physical test. A physical test must be conducted to determine yield strength, tensile strength, elongation, and reduction of area of material as follows:

(1) The test is required on 2 specimens cut from 1 cylinder taken at random out of each lot of 200 or less. For lots of 30 or less, physical tests are authorized to be made on a ring at least 8 inches long cut from each cylinder and subjected to same heat treatment as the finished cylinder.

(2) Specimens must conform to the following:

(i) Gauge length of 8 inches with a width of not over 11/2 inches, a gauge length of 2 inches with a width of not over 11/2 inches, or a gauge length of at least 24 times thickness with width not over 6 times thickness is authorized when cylinder wall is not over3/16 inch thick.

(ii) The specimen, exclusive of grip ends, may not be flattened. Grip ends may be flattened to within 1 inch of each end of the reduced section.

(iii) When size of cylinder does not permit securing straight specimens, the specimens may be taken in any location or direction and may be straightened or flattened cold, by pressure only, not by blows. When specimens are so taken and prepared, the inspector's report must show in connection with record of physical tests detailed information in regard to such specimens.

(iv) Heating of a specimen for any purpose is not authorized.

(3) The yield strength in tension must be the stress corresponding to a permanent strain of 0.2 percent of the gauge length. The following conditions apply:

(i) The yield strength must be determined by either the “offset” method or the “extension under load” method as prescribed in ASTM E 8 (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter).

(ii) In using the “extension under load” method, the total strain (or “extension under load”) corresponding to the stress at which the 0.2-percent permanent strain occurs may be determined with sufficient accuracy by calculating the elastic extension of the gauge length under appropriate load and adding thereto 0.2 percent of the gauge length. Elastic extension calculations must be based on an elastic modulus of 30,000,000. In the event of controversy the entire stress-strain diagram must be plotted and the yield strength determined from the 0.2 percent offset.

(iii) For the purpose of strain measurement, the initial strain must be set while the specimen is under a stress of 12,000 psig and the strain indicator reading must be set at the calculated corresponding strain.

(iv) Cross-head speed of the testing machine may not exceed1/8 inch per minute during yield strength determination.

(l) Acceptable results for physical and flattening tests. Either of the following is an acceptable result:

(1) An elongation at least 40 percent for a 2-inch gauge length or at least 20 percent in other cases and yield strength not over 73 percent of tensile strength. In this instance, the flattening test is not required.

(2) An elongation at least 20 percent for a 2-inch gauge length or 10 percent in other cases and a yield strength not over 73 percent of tensile strength. In this instance, the flattening test is required, without cracking, to 6 times the wall thickness.

(m) Leakage test. All spun cylinders and plugged cylinders must be tested for leakage by gas or air pressure after the bottom has been cleaned and is free from all moisture subject to the following conditions and limitations:

(1) Pressure, approximately the same as but no less than service pressure, must be applied to one side of the finished bottom over an area of at least1/16 of the total area of the bottom but not less than3/4 inch in diameter, including the closure, for at least 1 minute, during which time the other side of the bottom exposed to pressure must be covered with water and closely examined for indications of leakage. Except as provided in paragraph (n) of this section, a cylinder that is leaking must be rejected.

(2) A spun cylinder is one in which an end closure in the finished cylinder has been welded by the spinning process.

(3) A plugged cylinder is one in which a permanent closure in the bottom of a finished cylinder has been effected by a plug.

(4) As a safety precaution, if the manufacturer elects to make this test before the hydrostatic test, the manufacturer should design the test apparatus so that the pressure is applied to the smallest area practicable, around the point of closure, and so as to use the smallest possible volume of air or gas.

(n) Rejected cylinders. Reheat treatment is authorized for rejected cylinders. Subsequent thereto, cylinders must pass all prescribed tests to be acceptable. Repair by welding or spinning is not authorized. Spun cylinders rejected under the provisions of paragraph (m) of this section may be removed from the spun cylinder category by drilling to remove defective material, tapping and plugging.

[Amdt. 178-114, 61 FR 25942, May 23, 1996, as amended at 62 FR 51561, Oct. 1, 1997; 66 FR 45185, 45386, Aug. 28, 2001; 67 FR 51652, Aug. 8, 2002; 68 FR 75748, Dec. 31, 2003; 73 FR 57006, Oct. 1, 2008; 85 FR 85420, Dec. 28, 2020]

§ 178.37 Specification 3AA and 3AAX seamless steel cylinders.

(a) Type, size and service pressure. In addition to the requirements of § 178.35, cylinders must conform to the following:

(1) A DOT-3AA cylinder is a seamless steel cylinder with a water capacity (nominal) of not over 1,000 pounds and a service pressure of at least 150 psig.

(2) A DOT-3AAX cylinder is a seamless steel cylinder with a water capacity of not less than 1,000 pounds and a service pressure of at least 500 psig, conforming to the following requirements:

(i) Assuming the cylinder is to be supported horizontally at its two ends only and to be uniformly loaded over its entire length consisting of the weight per unit of length of the straight cylindrical portion filled with water and compressed to the specified test pressure; the sum of two times the maximum tensile stress in the bottom fibers due to bending, plus that in the same fibers (longitudinal stress), due to hydrostatic test pressure may not exceed 80 percent of the minimum yield strength of the steel at such maximum stress. Wall thickness must be increased when necessary to meet the requirement.

(ii) To calculate the maximum tensile stress due to bending, the following formula must be used:

S = Mc/I

(iii) To calculate the maximum longitudinal tensile stress due to hydrostatic test pressure, the following formula must be used:

S = A1P/A2

Where:

S = tensile stress-p.s.i.;

M = bending moment-inch pounds (wl2)/8;

w = weight per inch of cylinder filled with water;

l = length of cylinder-inches;

c = radius (D)/(2) of cylinder-inches;

I = moment of inertia-0.04909 (D4−d4) inches fourth;

D = outside diameter-inches;

d = inside diameter-inches;

A1 = internal area in cross section of cylinder-square inches;

A2 = area of metal in cross section of cylinder-square inches;

P = hydrostatic test pressure-psig.

(b) Authorized steel. Open-hearth, basic oxygen, or electric steel of uniform quality must be used. A heat of steel made under the specifications in table 1 of this paragraph (b), check chemical analysis of which is slightly out of the specified range, is acceptable, if satisfactory in all other respects, provided the tolerances shown in table 2 of this paragraph (b) are not exceeded. When a carbon-boron steel is used, a hardenability test must be performed on the first and last ingot of each heat of steel. The results of this test must be recorded on the Record of Chemical Analysis of Material for Cylinders required by § 178.35. This hardness test must be made5/16-inch from the quenched end of the Jominy quench bar and the hardness must be at least Rc 33 and no more than Rc 53. The following chemical analyses are authorized:

Table 1 - Authorized Materials

Designation 4130X (percent) (see Note 1) NE-8630 (percent) (see Note 1) 9115 (percent) (see Note 1) 9125 (percent) (see Note 1) Carbon-boron (percent) Inter- mediate manganese (percent)
Carbon 0.25/0.35 0.28/0.33 0.10/0.20 0.20/0.30 0.27-0.37 0.40 max.
Manganese 0.40/0.90 0.70/0.90 0.50/0.75 0.50/0.75 0.80-1.40 1.35/1.65.
Phosphorus 0.04 max 0.04 max 0.04 max 0.04 max 0.035 max 0.04 max.
Sulfur 0.05 max 0.04 max 0.04 max 0.04 max 0.045 max 0.05 max.
Silicon 0.15/0.35 0.20/0.35 0.60/0.90 0.60/0.90 0.3 max. 0.10/0.30.
Chromium 0.80/1.10 0.40/0.60 0.50/0.65 0.50/0.65.
Molybdenum 0.15/0.25 0.15/0.25
Zirconium 0.05/0.15 0.05/0.15
Nickel 0.40/0.70
Boron 0.0005/0.003.

Table 2 - Check Analysis Tolerances

Element Limit or maximum specified
(percent)
Tolerance (percent) over the maximum limit or under the minimum limit
Under minimum limit Over maximum limit
Carbon To 0.15 incl 0.02 0.03
Over 0.15 to 0.40 incl .03 .04
Manganese To 0.60 incl .03 .03
Over 0.60 to 1.15 incl 0.04 0.04
Over 1.15 to 2.50 incl 0.05 0.05
Phosphorus1 All ranges .01
Sulphur All ranges .01
Silicon To 0.30 incl .02 .03
Over 0.30 to 1.00 incl .05 .05
Nickel To 1.00 incl .03 .03
Chromium To 0.90 incl .03 .03
0.90 to 2.90 incl .05 .05
Molybdenum To 0.20 incl .01 .01
Over 0.20 to 0.40 .02 .02
Zirconium All ranges .01 .05

(c) Identification of material. Material must be identified by any suitable method except that plates and billets for hot-drawn cylinders must be marked with the heat number.

(d) Manufacture. Cylinders must be manufactured using equipment and processes adequate to ensure that each cylinder produced conforms to the requirements of this subpart. No fissure or other defects is permitted that is likely to weaken the finished cylinder appreciably. A reasonably smooth and uniform surface finish is required. If not originally free from such defects, the surface may be machined or otherwise treated to eliminate these defects. The thickness of the bottoms of cylinders welded or formed by spinning is, under no condition, to be less than two times the minimum wall thickness of the cylindrical shell; such bottom thicknesses must be measured within an area bounded by a line representing the points of contact between the cylinder and floor when the cylinder is in a vertical position.

(e) Welding or brazing. Welding or brazing for any purpose whatsoever is prohibited except as follows:

(1) Welding or brazing is authorized for the attachment of neckrings and footrings which are non-pressure parts, and only to the tops and bottoms of cylinders having a service pressure of 500 psig or less. Cylinders, neckrings, and footrings must be made of weldable steel, the carbon content of which may not exceed 0.25 percent except in the case of 4130X steel which may be used with proper welding procedure.

(2) As permitted in paragraph (d) of this section.

(f) Wall thickness. The thickness of each cylinder must conform to the following:

(1) For cylinders with a service pressure of less than 900 psig, the wall stress may not exceed 24,000 psi. A minimum wall thickness of 0.100 inch is required for any cylinder with an outside diameter of over 5 inches.

(2) For cylinders with service pressure of 900 psig or more the minimum wall must be such that the wall stress at the minimum specified test pressure may not exceed 67 percent of the minimum tensile strength of the steel as determined from the physical tests required in paragraphs (k) and (l) of this section and must be not over 70,000 psi.

(3) Calculation must be made by the formula:

S = [P(1.3D2 + 0.4d2)]/(D2−d2)

Where:

S = wall stress in psi;

P = minimum test pressure prescribed for water jacket test or 450 psig whichever is the greater;

D = outside diameter in inches;

d = inside diameter in inches.

(g) Heat treatment. The completed cylinders must be uniformly and properly heat treated prior to tests. Heat treatment of cylinders of the authorized analyses must be as follows:

(1) All cylinders must be quenched by oil, or other suitable medium except as provided in paragraph (g)(5) of this section.

(2) The steel temperature on quenching must be that recommended for the steel analysis, but may not exceed 1750 °F.

(3) All steels must be tempered at a temperature most suitable for that steel.

(4) The minimum tempering temperature may not be less than 1000 °F except as noted in paragraph (g)(6) of this section.

(5) Steel 4130X may be normalized at a temperature of 1650 °F instead of being quenched and cylinders so normalized need not be tempered.

(6) Intermediate manganese steels may be tempered at temperatures not less than 1150 °F., and after heat treating each cylinder must be submitted to a magnetic test to detect the presence of quenching cracks. Cracked cylinders must be rejected and destroyed.

(7) Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (g)(6) of this section, all cylinders, if water quenched or quenched with a liquid producing a cooling rate in excess of 80 percent of the cooling rate of water, must be inspected by the magnetic particle, dye penetrant or ultrasonic method to detect the presence of quenching cracks. Any cylinder designed to the requirements for specification 3AA and found to have a quenching crack must be rejected and may not be requalified. Cylinders designed to the requirements for specification 3AAX and found to have cracks must have cracks removed to sound metal by mechanical means. Such specification 3AAX cylinders will be acceptable if the repaired area is subsequently examined to assure no defect, and it is determined that design thickness requirements are met.

(h) Openings in cylinders and connections (valves, fuse plugs, etc.) for those openings. Threads are required on openings.

(1) Threads must be clean cut, even, without checks, and to gauge.

(2) Taper threads, when used, must be of a length not less than as specified for American Standard taper pipe threads.

(3) Straight threads having at least 6 engaged threads are authorized. Straight threads must have a tight fit and a calculated shear strength of at least 10 times the test pressure of the cylinder. Gaskets, adequate to prevent leakage, are required.

(i) Pressure testing. Each cylinder must successfully withstand a pressure test as follows:

(1) The test must be by water-jacket or direct expansion method as prescribed in CGA C-1 (IBR; see § 171.7 of this subchapter). The testing equipment must be calibrated as prescribed in CGA C-1. All testing equipment and pressure indicating devices must be accurate within the parameters defined in CGA C-1.

(2) Each cylinder must be tested to a minimum of5/3 times service pressure.

(3) The minimum test pressure must be maintained for at least 30 seconds and sufficiently longer to ensure complete expansion. Any internal pressure applied after heat-treatment and previous to the official test may not exceed 90 percent of the test pressure. If, due to failure of the test apparatus or operator error, the test pressure cannot be maintained, the test may be repeated in accordance with CGA C-1, section 5.7.2.

(4) Permanent, volumetric expansion may not exceed 10 percent of the total volumetric expansion at test pressure.

(j) Flattening test. A flattening test must be performed on one cylinder taken at random out of each lot of 200 or less, by placing the cylinder between wedge shaped knife edges having a 60° included angle, rounded to1/2-inch radius. The longitudinal axis of the cylinder must be at a 90-degree angle to knife edges during the test. For lots of 30 or less, flattening tests are authorized to be made on a ring at least 8 inches long cut from each cylinder and subjected to the same heat treatment as the finished cylinder. Cylinders may be subjected to a bend test in lieu of the flattening test. Two bend test specimens must be taken in accordance with ISO 9809-1 or ASTM E 290 (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter), and must be subjected to the bend test specified therein.

(k) Physical test. A physical test must be conducted to determine yield strength, tensile strength, elongation, and reduction of area of material as follows:

(1) The test is required on 2 specimens cut from 1 cylinder taken at random out of each lot of 200 or less. For lots of 30 or less, physical tests are authorized to be made on a ring at least 8 inches long cut from each cylinder and subjected to the same heat treatment as the finished cylinder.

(2) Specimens must conform to the following:

(i) Gauge length of 8 inches with a width of not over 11/2 inches, a gauge length of 2 inches with a width of not over 11/2 inches, or a gauge length of at least 24 times the thickness with width not over 6 times thickness when the thickness of the cylinder wall is not over3/16 inch.

(ii) The specimen, exclusive of grip ends, may not be flattened. Grip ends may be flattened to within 1 inch of each end of the reduced section.

(iii) When size of cylinder does not permit securing straight specimens, the specimens may be taken in any location or direction and may be straightened or flattened cold, by pressure only, not by blows. When specimens are so taken and prepared, the inspector's report must show in connection with record of physical tests detailed information in regard to such specimens.

(iv) Heating of a specimen for any purpose is not authorized.

(3) The yield strength in tension must be the stress corresponding to a permanent strain of 0.2 percent of the gauge length. The following conditions apply:

(i) The yield strength must be determined by either the “offset” method or the “extension under load” method as prescribed in ASTM E 8 (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter).

(ii) In using the “extension under load” method, the total strain (or “extension under load”) corresponding to the stress at which the 0.2 percent permanent strain occurs may be determined with sufficient accuracy by calculating the elastic extension of the gauge length under appropriate load and adding thereto 0.2 percent of the gauge length. Elastic extension calculations must be based on an elastic modulus of 30,000,000. In the event of controversy, the entire stress-strain diagram must be plotted and the yield strength determined from the 0.2 percent offset.

(iii) For the purpose of strain measurement, the initial strain must be set while the specimen is under a stress of 12,000 psi, the strain indicator reading being set at the calculated corresponding strain.

(iv) Cross-head speed of the testing machine may not exceed1/8 inch per minute during yield strength determination.

(l) Acceptable results for physical, flattening and bend tests. An acceptable result for physical and flattening tests is elongation of at least 20 percent for 2 inches of gauge length or at least 10 percent in other cases. Flattening is required, without cracking, to 6 times the wall thickness of the cylinder. An acceptable result for the alternative bend test is no crack when the cylinder is bent inward around the mandrel until the interior edges are not further apart than the diameter of the mandrel.

(m) Leakage test. All spun cylinders and plugged cylinders must be tested for leakage by gas or air pressure after the bottom has been cleaned and is free from all moisture. Pressure, approximately the same as but no less than the service pressure, must be applied to one side of the finished bottom over an area of at least1/16 of the total area of the bottom but not less than3/4 inch in diameter, including the closure, for at least one minute, during which time the other side of the bottom exposed to pressure must be covered with water and closely examined for indications of leakage. Except as provided in paragraph (n) of this section, a cylinder must be rejected if there is any leaking.

(1) A spun cylinder is one in which an end closure in the finished cylinder has been welded by the spinning process.

(2) A plugged cylinder is one in which a permanent closure in the bottom of a finished cylinder has been effected by a plug.

(3) As a safety precaution, if the manufacturer elects to make this test before the hydrostatic test, the manufacturer should design the test apparatus so that the pressure is applied to the smallest area practicable, around the point of closure, and so as to use the smallest possible volume of air or gas.

(n) Rejected cylinders. Reheat treatment is authorized for rejected cylinders. Subsequent thereto, cylinders must pass all prescribed tests to be acceptable. Repair by welding or spinning is not authorized. Spun cylinders rejected under the provision of paragraph (m) of this section may be removed from the spun cylinder category by drilling to remove defective material, tapping and plugging.

[Amdt. 178-114, 61 FR 25942, May 23, 1996, as amended at 65 FR 58631, Sept. 29, 2000; 66 FR 45386, Aug. 28, 2001; 67 FR 51652, Aug. 8, 2002; 68 FR 75748, Dec. 31, 2003; 76 FR 43531, July 20, 2011; 85 FR 85420, Dec. 28, 2020]

§ 178.38 Specification 3B seamless steel cylinders.

(a) Type, size, and service pressure. A DOT 3B cylinder is seamless steel cylinder with a water capacity (nominal) of not over 1,000 pounds and a service pressure of at least 150 to not over 500 psig.

(b) Steel. Open-hearth or electric steel of uniform quality must be used. Content percent may not exceed the following: carbon, 0.55; phosphorus, 0.045; sulphur, 0.050.

(c) Identification of material. Material must be identified by any suitable method except that plates and billets for hot-drawn cylinders must be marked with the heat number.

(d) Manufacture. Cylinders must be manufactured using equipment and processes adequate to ensure that each cylinder produced conforms to the requirements of this subpart. No fissure or other defect is permitted that is likely to weaken the finished cylinder appreciably. A reasonably smooth and uniform surface finish is required. If not originally free from such defects, the surface may be machined or otherwise treated to eliminate these defects. The thickness of the bottoms of cylinders welded or formed by spinning is, under no condition, to be less than two times the minimum wall thickness of the cylindrical shell; such bottom thicknesses to be measured within an area bounded by a line representing the points of contact between the cylinder and floor when the cylinder is in a vertical position.

(e) Welding or brazing. Welding or brazing for any purpose whatsoever is prohibited except as follows:

(1) Welding or brazing is authorized for the attachment of neckrings and footrings which are non-pressure parts, and only to the tops and bottoms of cylinders having a service pressure of 500 psig or less. Cylinders, neckrings, and footrings must be made of weldable steel, carbon content of which may not exceed 0.25 percent except in the case of 4130X steel which may be used with proper welding procedure.

(2) As permitted in paragraph (d) of this section.

(f) Wall thickness. The wall stress may not exceed 24,000 psi. The minimum wall thickness is 0.090 inch for any cylinder with an outside diameter of 6 inches. Calculation must be made by the following formula:

S = [P(1.3D2 + 0.4d2)]/(D2−d2)

Where:

S = wall stress in psi;

P = at least two times service pressure or 450 psig, whichever is the greater;

D = outside diameter in inches;

d = inside diameter in inches.

(g) Heat treatment. The completed cylinders must be uniformly and properly heat-treated prior to tests.

(h) Openings in cylinders and connections (valves, fuse plugs, etc.) for those openings. Threads, conforming to the following, are required on all openings:

(1) Threads must be clean cut, even, without checks, and to gauge.

(2) Taper threads when used, must be of a length not less than as specified for American Standard taper pipe threads.

(3) Straight threads having at least 4 engaged threads are authorized. Straight threads must have a tight fit, and calculated shear strength at least 10 times the test pressure of the cylinder. Gaskets, adequate to prevent leakage, are required.

(i) Pressure testing. Each cylinder must successfully withstand a pressure test as follows:

(1) The test must be by water-jacket or direct expansion method as defined in CGA C-1 (IBR; see § 171.7 of this subchapter). The testing equipment must be calibrated as prescribed in CGA C-1. All testing equipment and pressure indicating devices must be accurate within the parameters defined in CGA C-1.

(2) Cylinders must be tested as follows:

(i) Each cylinder to at least two (2) times its service pressure; or

(ii) One (1) cylinder out of each lot of 200 or fewer to at least three (3) times its service pressure. When one (1) cylinder out of each lot of 200 or less is tested to at least 3 times service pressure, the balance of the lot must be pressure tested by the proof pressure, water-jacket or direct expansion test method as prescribed in CGA C-1. The cylinders must be subjected to at least 2 times service pressure and show no defect. If, due to failure of the test apparatus or operator error, the test pressure cannot be maintained, the test may be repeated in accordance with CGA C-1 5.7.2 or 7.1.2, as appropriate. Determination of expansion properties is not required.

(3) When each cylinder is tested to the minimum test pressure, the minimum test pressure must be maintained at least 30 seconds and sufficiently longer to ensure complete expansion. Any internal pressure applied after heat-treatment and previous to the official test may not exceed 90 percent of the test pressure. If, due to failure of the test apparatus or operator error, the test pressure cannot be maintained, the test may be repeated in accordance with CGA C-1, section 5.7.2.

(4) Permanent volumetric expansion may not exceed 10 percent of total volumetric expansion at test pressure.

(j) Flattening test. A flattening test must be performed on one cylinder taken at random out of each lot of 200 or less, by placing the cylinder between wedge shaped knife edges having a 60° included angle, rounded to1/2-inch radius. The longitudinal axis of the cylinder must be at a 90-degree angle to knife edges during the test. For lots of 30 or less, flattening tests are authorized to be made on a ring at least 8 inches long cut from each cylinder and subjected to same heat treatment as the finished cylinder.

(k) Physical test. A physical test must be conducted to determine yield strength, tensile strength, elongation, and reduction of area of material, as follows:

(1) The test is required on 2 specimens cut from 1 cylinder taken at random out of each lot of 200 or less. For lots of 30 or less, physical tests are authorized to be made on a ring at least 8 inches long cut from each cylinder and subjected to same heat treatment as the finished cylinder.

(2) Specimens must conform to the following:

(i) Gauge length of 8 inches with a width of not over 11/2 inches; or a gauge length of 2 inches with a width of not over 11/2 inches; or a gauge length at least 24 times the thickness with a width not over 6 times thickness is authorized when a cylinder wall is not over3/16 inch thick.

(ii) The specimen, exclusive of grip ends, may not be flattened. Grip ends may be flattened to within one inch of each end of the reduced section.

(iii) When size of cylinder does not permit securing straight specimens, the specimens may be taken in any location or direction and may be straightened or flattened cold, by pressure only, not by blows. When specimens are so taken and prepared, the inspector's report must show in connection with record of physical tests detailed information in regard to such specimens.

(iv) Heating of a specimen for any purpose is not authorized.

(3) The yield strength in tension must be the stress corresponding to a permanent strain of 0.2 percent of the gauge length. The following conditions apply:

(i) The yield strength must be determined by either the “offset” method or the “extension under load” method as prescribed in ASTM E 8 (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter).

(ii) In using the “extension under load” method, the total strain (or “extension under load”) corresponding to the stress at which the 0.2 percent permanent strain occurs may be determined with sufficient accuracy by calculating the elastic extension of the gauge length under appropriate load and adding thereto 0.2 percent of the gauge length. Elastic extension calculations must be based on an elastic modulus of 30,000,000. In the event of controversy, the entire stress-strain diagram must be plotted and the yield strength determined from the 0.2 percent offset.

(iii) For the purpose of strain measurement, the initial strain must be set while the specimen is under a stress of 12,000 psi, and the strain indicator reading being set at the calculated corresponding strain.

(iv) Cross-head speed of the testing machine may not exceed1/8 inch per minute during yield strength determination.

(l) Acceptable results for physical and flattening tests. Either of the following is an acceptable result:

(1) An elongation of at least 40 percent for a 2-inch gauge length or at least 20 percent in other cases and yield strength not over 73 percent of tensile strength. In this instance, the flattening test is not required.

(2) An elongation of at least 20 percent for a 2-inch gauge length or 10 percent in other cases and yield strength not over 73 percent of tensile strength. Flattening is required, without cracking, to 6 times the wall thickness.

(m) Leakage test. All spun cylinders and plugged cylinders must be tested for leakage by gas or air pressure after the bottom has been cleaned and is free from all moisture, subject to the following conditions and limitations:

(1) Pressure, approximately the same as but no less than service pressure, must be applied to one side of the finished bottom over an area of at least1/16 of the total area of the bottom but not less than3/4 inch in diameter, including the closure, for at least one minute, during which time the other side of the bottom exposed to pressure must be covered with water and closely examined for indications of leakage. Except as provided in paragraph (n) of this section, a cylinder must be rejected if there is any leaking.

(2) A spun cylinder is one in which an end closure in the finished cylinder has been welded by the spinning process.

(3) A plugged cylinder is one in which a permanent closure in the bottom of a finished cylinder has been effected by a plug.

(4) As a safety precaution, if the manufacturer elects to make this test before the hydrostatic test, he should design his apparatus so that the pressure is applied to the smallest area practicable, around the point of closure, and so as to use the smallest possible volume of air or gas.

(n) Rejected cylinders. Reheat treatment of rejected cylinders is authorized. Subsequent thereto, cylinders must pass all prescribed tests to be acceptable. Repair by welding or spinning is not authorized. Spun cylinders rejected under the provisions of paragraph (m) of this section may be removed from the spun cylinder category by drilling to remove defective material, tapping and plugging.

(o) Marking. Markings may be stamped into the sidewalls of cylinders having a service pressure of 150 psig if all of the following conditions are met:

(1) Wall stress at test pressure may not exceed 24,000 psi.

(2) Minimum wall thickness must be not less than 0.090 inch.

(3) Depth of stamping must be no greater than 15 percent of the minimum wall thickness, but may not exceed 0.015 inch.

(4) Maximum outside diameter of cylinder may not exceed 5 inches.

(5) Carbon content of cylinder may not exceed 0.25 percent. If the carbon content exceeds 0.25 percent, the complete cylinder must be normalized after stamping.

(6) Stamping must be adjacent to the top head.

[Amdt. 178-114, 61 FR 25942, May 23, 1996, as amended by 66 FR 45185, 45386, Aug. 28, 2001; 67 FR 51652, Aug. 8, 2002; 68 FR 75748, Dec. 31, 2003; 85 FR 85420, Dec. 28, 2020]

§ 178.39 Specification 3BN seamless nickel cylinders.

(a) Type, size and service pressure. A DOT 3BN cylinder is a seamless nickel cylinder with a water capacity (nominal) not over 125 pounds water capacity (nominal) and a service pressure at least 150 to not over 500 psig.

(b) Nickel. The percentage of nickel plus cobalt must be at least 99.0 percent.

(c) Identification of material. The material must be identified by any suitable method except that plates and billets for hot-drawn cylinders must be marked with the heat number.

(d) Manufacture. Cylinders must be manufactured using equipment and processes adequate to ensure that each cylinder produced conforms to the requirements of this subpart. No defect is permitted that is likely to weaken the finished cylinder appreciably. A reasonably smooth and uniform surface finish is required. Cylinders closed in by spinning process are not authorized.

(e) Welding or brazing. Welding or brazing for any purpose whatsoever is prohibited except that welding is authorized for the attachment of neckrings and footrings which are nonpressure parts, and only to the tops and bottoms of cylinders. Neckrings and footrings must be of weldable material, the carbon content of which may not exceed 0.25 percent. Nickel welding rod must be used.

(f) Wall thickness. The wall stress may not exceed 15,000 psi. A minimum wall thickness of 0.100 inch is required for any cylinder over 5 inches in outside diameter. Wall stress calculation must be made by using the following formula:

S = [P(1.3D2 + 0.4d2)] / (D2 − d2)

Where:

S = wall stress in psi;

P = minimum test pressure prescribed for water jacket test or 450 psig whichever is the greater;

D = outside diameter in inches;

d = inside diameter in inches.

(g) Heat treatment. The completed cylinders must be uniformly and properly heat-treated prior to tests.

(h) Openings in cylinders and connections (valves, fuse plugs, etc.) for those openings. Threads conforming to the following are required on openings:

(1) Threads must be clean cut, even, without checks, and to gauge.

(2) Taper threads, when used, to be of length not less than as specified for American Standard taper pipe threads.

(3) Straight threads having at least 6 engaged threads are authorized. Straight threads must have a tight fit and a calculated shear strength of at least 10 times the test pressure of the cylinder. Gaskets, adequate to prevent leakage, are required.

(i) Pressure testing. Each cylinder must successfully withstand a pressure test as follows:

(1) The test must be by water-jacket or direct expansion method as prescribed in CGA C-1 (IBR; see § 171.7 of this subchapter). The testing equipment must be calibrated as prescribed in CGA C-1. All testing equipment and pressure indicating devices must be accurate within the parameters defined in CGA C-1.

(2) Each cylinder must be tested to a minimum of at least two (2) times its service pressure.

(3) The minimum test pressure must be maintained at least 30 seconds and sufficiently longer to ensure complete expansion. Any internal pressure applied after heat-treatment and previous to the official test may not exceed 90 percent of the test pressure. If, due to failure of the test apparatus or operator error, the test pressure cannot be maintained, the test may be repeated in accordance with CGA C-1, section 5.7.2.

(4) Permanent volumetric expansion may not exceed 10 percent of total volumetric expansion at test pressure.

(j) Flattening test. A flattening test must be performed on one cylinder taken at random out of each lot of 200 or less, by placing the cylinder between wedge shaped knife edges having a 60° included angle, rounded to1/2-inch radius. The longitudinal axis of the cylinder must be at a 90-degree angle to knife edges during the test. For lots of 30 or less, flattening tests are authorized to be made on a ring at least 8 inches long cut from each cylinder and subjected to same heat treatment as the finished cylinder.

(k) Physical test. A physical test must be conducted to determine yield strength, tensile strength, elongation, and reduction of area of material, as follows:

(1) The test is required on 2 specimens cut from 1 cylinder taken at random out of each lot of 200 or less. For lots of 30 or less, physical tests are authorized to be made on a ring at least 8 inches long cut from each cylinder and subjected to same heat treatment as the finished cylinder.

(2) Specimens must conform to the following:

(i) A gauge length of 8 inches with a width of not over 11/2 inches, a gauge length of 2 inches with a width of not over 11/2 inches, or a gauge length of at least 24 times the thickness with a width not over 6 times thickness is authorized when a cylinder wall is not over3/16 inch thick.

(ii) The specimen, exclusive of grip ends, may not be flattened. Grip ends may be flattened to within one inch of each end of the reduced section.

(iii) When size of cylinder does not permit securing straight specimens, the specimens may be taken in any location or direction and may be straightened or flattened cold, by pressure only, not by blows. When specimens are so taken and prepared, the inspector's report must show in connection with record of physical tests detailed information in regard to such specimens.

(iv) Heating of a specimen for any purpose is not authorized.

(3) The yield strength in tension must be the stress corresponding to a permanent strain of 0.2 percent of the gauge length. The following conditions apply:

(i) The yield strength must be determined by either the “offset” method or the “extension under load” method as prescribed in ASTM E 8 (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter).

(ii) In using the “extension under load” method, the total strain (or “extension under load”) corresponding to the stress at which the 0.2 percent permanent strain occurs may be determined with sufficient accuracy by calculating the elastic extension of the gauge length under appropriate load and adding thereto 0.2 percent of the gauge length. Elastic extension calculations must be based on an elastic modulus of 30,000,000. In the event of controversy, the entire stress-strain diagram must be plotted and the yield strength determined from the 0.2 percent offset.

(iii) For the purpose of strain measurement, the initial strain must be set while the specimen is under a stress of 12,000 psi, and the strain indicator reading must be set at the calculated corresponding strain.

(iv) Cross-head speed of the testing machine may not exceed1/8 inch per minute during yield strength determination.

(l) Acceptable results for physical and flattening tests. Either of the following is an acceptable result:

(1) An elongation of at least 40 percent for a 2 inch gauge length or at least 20 percent in other cases and yield point not over 50 percent of tensile strength. In this instance, the flattening test is not required.

(2) An elongation of at least 20 percent for a 2 inch gauge length or 10 percent in other cases and a yield point not over 50 percent of tensile strength. Flattening is required, without cracking, to 6 times the wall thickness.

(m) Rejected cylinders. Reheat treatment is authorized for rejected cylinders. Subsequent thereto, cylinders must pass all prescribed tests to be acceptable. Repair by welding is not authorized.

[Amdt. 178-114, 61 FR 25942, May 23, 1996, as amended by 66 FR 45185, 45386, 45388, Aug. 28, 2001; 67 FR 51652, Aug. 8, 2002; 68 FR 75748, Dec. 31, 2003; 85 FR 85420, Dec. 28, 2020]

§ 178.42 Specification 3E seamless steel cylinders.

(a) Type, size, and service pressure. A DOT 3E cylinder is a seamless steel cylinder with an outside diameter not greater than 2 inches nominal, a length less than 2 feet and a service pressure of 1,800 psig.

(b) Steel. Open-hearth or electric steel of uniform quality must be used. Content percent may not exceed the following: Carbon, 0.55; phosphorus, 0.045; sulphur, 0.050.

(c) Identification of steel. Materials must be identified by any suitable method.

(d) Manufacture. Cylinders must be manufactured by best appliances and methods. No defect is permitted that is likely to weaken the finished cylinder appreciably. A reasonably smooth and uniform surface finish is required. The thickness of the spun bottom is, under no condition, to be less than two times the minimum wall thickness of the cylindrical shell; such bottom thickness must be measured within an area bounded by a line representing the points of contact between the cylinder and floor when the cylinder is in a vertical position.

(e) Openings in cylinders and connections (valves, fuse plugs, etc.) for those openings. Threads conforming to the following are required on openings.

(1) Threads must be clean cut, even, without checks, and to gauge.

(2) Taper threads, when used, must be of length not less than as specified for American Standard taper pipe threads.

(3) Straight threads having at least 4 engaged threads are authorized. Straight threads must have a tight fit and a calculated shear strength of at least 10 times the test pressure of the cylinder. Gaskets, adequate to prevent leakage, are required.

(f) Pressure testing. Cylinders must be tested as follows:

(1) One cylinder out of each lot of 500 or fewer must be subjected to a hydrostatic test pressure of 6,000 psig or higher.

(2) The cylinder referred to in paragraph (f)(1) of this section must burst at a pressure higher than 6,000 psig without fragmenting or otherwise showing lack of ductility, or must hold a pressure of 12,000 psig for 30 seconds without bursting. In which case, it must be subjected to a flattening test without cracking to six times wall thickness between knife edges, wedge shaped 60 degree angle, rounded out to a1/2 inch radius. The inspector's report must be suitably changed to show results of latter alternate and flattening test. The testing equipment must be calibrated as prescribed in CGA C-1 (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter). All testing equipment and pressure indicating devices must be accurate within the parameters defined in CGA C-1.

(3) The remaining cylinders of the lot must be pressure tested by the proof pressure water-jacket or direct expansion test method as prescribed in CGA C-1. Cylinders must be examined under pressure of at least 3,000 psig and not to exceed 4,500 psig and show no defect. Cylinders tested at a pressure in excess of 3,600 psig must burst at a pressure higher than 7,500 psig when tested as specified in paragraph (f)(2) of this section. The pressure must be maintained for at least 30 seconds and sufficiently longer to ensure complete examination. The testing equipment must be calibrated as prescribed in CGA C-1. All testing equipment and pressure indicating devices must be accurate within the parameters defined in CGA C-1. If, due to failure of the test apparatus or operator error, the test pressure cannot be maintained, the test may be repeated in accordance with CGA C-1 5.7.2 or 7.1.2, as appropriate. Determination of expansion properties is not required.

(g) Leakage test. All spun cylinders and plugged cylinders must be tested for leakage by gas or air pressure after the bottom has been cleaned and is free from all moisture subject to the following conditions and limitations:

(1) A pressure, approximately the same as but not less than the service pressure, must be applied to one side of the finished bottom over an area of at least1/16 of the total area of the bottom but not less than3/4 inch in diameter, including the closure, for at least one minute, during which time the other side of the bottom exposed to pressure must be covered with water and closely examined for indications of leakage. Accept as provided in paragraph (h) of this section, a cylinder must be rejected if there is any leakage.

(2) A spun cylinder is one in which an end closure in the finished cylinder has been welded by the spinning process.

(3) A plugged cylinder is one in which a permanent closure in the bottom of a finished cylinder has been effected by a plug.

(4) As a safety precaution, if the manufacturer elects to make this test before the hydrostatic test, the manufacturer shall design the test apparatus so that the pressure is applied to the smallest area practicable, around the point of closure, and so as to use the smallest possible volume of air or gas.

(h) Rejected cylinders. Reheat treatment is authorized for rejected cylinders. Subsequent thereto, cylinders must pass all prescribed tests to be acceptable. Repair by welding or spinning is not authorized. Spun cylinders rejected under the provisions of paragraph (g) of this section may be removed from the spun cylinder category by drilling to remove defective material, tapping and plugging.

(i) Marking. Markings required by § 178.35 must be stamped plainly and permanently on the shoulder, top head, neck or sidewall of each cylinder.

[Amdt. 178-114, 61 FR 25942, May 23, 1996, as amended by 66 FR 45386, Aug. 28, 2001; 85 FR 85421, Dec. 28, 2020]

§ 178.44 Specification 3HT seamless steel cylinders for aircraft use.

(a) Type, size and service pressure. A DOT 3HT cylinder is a seamless steel cylinder with a water capacity (nominal) of not over 150 pounds and a service pressure of at least 900 psig.

(b) Authorized steel. Open hearth or electric furnace steel of uniform quality must be used. A heat of steel made under the specifications listed in Table 1 in this paragraph (b), a check chemical analysis that is slightly out of the specified range is acceptable, if satisfactory in all other respects, provided the tolerances shown in Table 2 in this paragraph (b) are not exceeded. The maximum grain size shall be 6 or finer. The grain size must be determined in accordance with ASTM E 112-88 (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter). Steel of the following chemical analysis is authorized:

Table 1 - Authorized Materials

Designation AISI 4130
(percent)
Carbon 0.28/0.33
Manganese 0.40/0.60
Phosphorus 0.040 maximum
Sulfur 0.040 maximum
Silicon 0.15/0.35
Chromium 0.80/1.10
Molybdenum 0.15/0.25

Table 2 - Check Analysis Tolerances

Element Limit or maximum specified (percent) Tolerance
(percent) over the maximum limit or under the
minimum limit
Under minimum limit Over maximum limit
Carbon Over 0.15 to 0.40 incl .03 .04
Manganese To 0.60 incl .03 .03
Phosphorus1 All ranges .01
Sulphur All ranges .01
Silicon To 0.30 incl .02 .03
Over 0.30 to 1.00 incl .05 .05
Chromium To 0.90 incl .03 .03
Over 0.90 to 2.10 incl .05 .05
Molybdenum To 0.20 incl .01 .01
Over 0.20 to 0.40 incl .02 .02

(c) Identification of material. Material must be identified by any suitable method. Steel stamping of heat identifications may not be made in any area which will eventually become the side wall of the cylinder. Depth of stamping may not encroach upon the minimum prescribed wall thickness of the cylinder.

(d) Manufacture. Cylinders must be manufactured using equipment and processes adequate to ensure that each cylinder produced conforms to the requirements of this subpart. No fissure or other defect is permitted that is likely to weaken the finished container appreciably. The general surface finish may not exceed a roughness of 250 RMS. Individual irregularities such as draw marks, scratches, pits, etc., should be held to a minimum consistent with good high stress pressure vessel manufacturing practices. If the cylinder is not originally free of such defects or does not meet the finish requirements, the surface may be machined or otherwise treated to eliminate these defects. The point of closure of cylinders closed by spinning may not be less than two times the prescribed wall thickness of the cylindrical shell. The cylinder end contour must be hemispherical or ellipsoidal with a ratio of major-to-minor axis not exceeding two to one and with the concave side to pressure.

(e) Welding or brazing. Welding or brazing for any purpose whatsoever is prohibited, except that welding by spinning is permitted to close the bottom of spun cylinders. Machining or grinding to produce proper surface finish at point of closure is required.

(f) Wall thickness.

(1) Minimum wall thickness for any cylinder must be 0.050 inch. The minimum wall thickness must be such that the wall stress at the minimum specified test pressure may not exceed 75 percent of the minimum tensile strength of the steel as determined from the physical tests required in paragraph (m) of this section and may not be over 105,000 psi.

(2) Calculations must be made by the formula:

S = [P(1.3D2 + 0.4d2)] / (D2 − d2)

Where:

S = Wall stress in psi;

P = Minimum test pressure prescribed for water jacket test;

D = Outside diameter in inches;

d = Inside diameter in inches.

(3) Wall thickness of hemispherical bottoms only permitted to 90 percent of minimum wall thickness of cylinder sidewall but may not be less than 0.050 inch. In all other cases, thickness to be no less than prescribed minimum wall.

(g) Heat treatment. The completed cylinders must be uniformly and properly heated prior to tests. Heat treatment of the cylinders of the authorized analysis must be as follows:

(1) All cylinders must be quenched by oil, or other suitable medium.

(2) The steel temperature on quenching must be that recommended for the steel analysis, but may not exceed 1750 °F.

(3) The steel must be tempered at a temperature most suitable for the particular steel analysis but not less than 850 °F.

(4) All cylinders must be inspected by the magnetic particle or dye penetrant method to detect the presence of quenching cracks. Any cylinder found to have a quenching crack must be rejected and may not be requalified.

(h) Openings in cylinders and connections (valves, fuse plugs, etc.) for those openings. Threads conforming to the following are required on openings:

(1) Threads must be clean cut, even, without cracks, and to gauge.

(2) Taper threads, when used, must be of length not less than as specified for National Gas Tapered Thread (NGT) as required by American Standard Compressed Gas Cylinder Valve Outlet and Inlet Connections.

(3) Straight threads having at least 6 engaged threads are authorized. Straight threads must have a tight fit and a calculated shear stress of at least 10 times the test pressure of the cylinder. Gaskets, adequate to prevent leakage, are required.

(i) Pressure testing. Each cylinder must successfully withstand a pressure test as follows:

(1) The test must be by water-jacket or direct expansion method as prescribed in CGA C-1 (IBR; see § 171.7 of this subchapter). The testing equipment must be calibrated as prescribed in CGA C-1. All testing equipment and pressure indicating devices must be accurate within the parameters defined in CGA C-1.

(2) Each cylinder must be tested to minimum of5/3 times service pressure.

(3) The minimum test pressure must be maintained at least 30 seconds and sufficiently longer to ensure complete expansion. Any internal pressure applied after heat-treatment and previous to the official test may not exceed 90 percent of the test pressure. If, due to failure of the test apparatus or operator error, the test pressure cannot be maintained, the test may be repeated in accordance with CGA C-1, section 5.7.2.

(4) Permanent volumetric expansion may not exceed 10 percent of total volumetric expansion at test pressure.

(j) Cycling tests. Prior to the initial shipment of any specific cylinder design, cyclic pressurization tests must have been performed on at least three representative samples without failure as follows:

(1) Pressurization must be performed hydrostatically between approximately zero psig and the service pressure at a rate not in excess of 10 cycles per minute. Adequate recording instrumentation must be provided if equipment is to be left unattended for periods of time.

(2) Tests prescribed in paragraph (j)(1) of this section must be repeated on one random sample out of each lot of cylinders. The cylinder may then be subjected to a burst test.

(3) A lot is defined as a group of cylinders fabricated from the same heat of steel, manufactured by the same process and heat treated in the same equipment under the same conditions of time, temperature, and atmosphere, and may not exceed a quantity of 200 cylinders.

(4) All cylinders used in cycling tests must be destroyed.

(k) Burst test. One cylinder taken at random out of each lot of cylinders must be hydrostatically tested to destruction.

(l) Flattening test. A flattening test must be performed on one cylinder taken at random out of each lot of 200 or less, by placing the cylinder between wedge shaped knife edges having a 60° included angle, rounded to1/2-inch radius. The longitudinal axis of the cylinder must be at a 90-degree angle to knife edges during the test. For lots of 30 or less, flattening tests are authorized to be made on a ring at least 8 inches long cut from each cylinder and subjected to same heat treatment as the finished cylinder.

(m) Physical tests. A physical test must be conducted to determine yield strength, tensile strength, elongation, and reduction of area of material, as follows:

(1) Test is required on 2 specimens cut from 1 cylinder taken at random out of each lot of cylinders.

(2) Specimens must conform to the following:

(i) A gauge length of at least 24 times the thickness with a width not over six times the thickness. The specimen, exclusive of grip ends, may not be flattened. Grip ends may be flattened to within one inch of each end of the reduced section. When size of cylinder does not permit securing straight specimens, the specimens may be taken in any location or direction and may be straightened or flattened cold by pressure only, not by blows. When specimens are so taken and prepared, the inspector's report must show in connection with the record of physical tests detailed information in regard to such specimens.

(ii) Heating of a specimen for any purpose is not authorized.

(3) The yield strength in tension must be the stress corresponding to a permanent strain of 0.2 percent of the gauge length.

(i) The yield strength must be determined by either the “offset” method or the “extension under load” method as prescribed in ASTM E 8 (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter).

(ii) In using the “extension under load” method, the total strain (or “extension under load”) corresponding to the stress at which the 0.2 percent permanent strain occurs may be determined with sufficient accuracy by calculating the elastic extension of the gauge length under appropriate load and adding thereto 0.2 percent of the gauge length. Elastic extension calculations must be based on an elastic modulus of 30,000,000. In the event of controversy, the entire stress-strain diagram must be plotted and the yield strength determined from the 0.2 percent offset.

(iii) For the purpose of strain measurement, the initial strain must be set while the specimen is under a stress of 12,000 psi, the strain indicator reading being set at the calculated corresponding strain.

(iv) Cross-head speed of the testing machine may not exceed1/8 inch per minute during yield strength determination.

(n) Magnetic particle inspection. Inspection must be performed on the inside of each container before closing and externally on each finished container after heat treatment. Evidence of discontinuities, which in the opinion of a qualified inspector may appreciably weaken or decrease the durability of the cylinder, must be cause for rejection.

(o) Leakage test. All spun cylinders and plugged cylinders must be tested for leakage by dry gas or dry air pressure after the bottom has been cleaned and is free from all moisture, subject to the following conditions and limitations:

(1) Pressure, approximately the same as but not less than service pressure, must be applied to one side of the finished bottom over an area of at least1/16 of the total area of the bottom but not less than3/4 inch in diameter, including the closure, for at least one minute, during which time the other side of the bottom exposed to pressure must be covered with water and closely examined for indications of leakage. Except as provided in paragraph (q) of this section, a cylinder must be rejected if there is leakage.

(2) A spun cylinder is one in which an end closure in the finished cylinder has been welded by the spinning process.

(3) A plugged cylinder is one in which a permanent closure in the bottom of a finished cylinder has been effected by a plug.

(4) As a safety precaution, if the manufacturer elects to make this test before the hydrostatic test, the manufacturer should design the test apparatus so that the pressure is applied to the smallest area practicable, around the point of closure, and so as to use the smallest possible volume of air or gas.

(p) Acceptable results of tests. Results of the flattening test, physical tests, burst test, and cycling test must conform to the following:

(1) Flattening required without cracking to ten times the wall thickness of the cylinder.

(2) Physical tests:

(i) An elongation of at least 6 percent for a gauge length of 24 times the wall thickness.

(ii) The tensile strength may not exceed 165,000 p.s.i.

(3) The burst pressure must be at least4/3 times the test pressure.

(4) Cycling-at least 10,000 pressurizations.

(q) Rejected cylinders. Reheat treatment is authorized for rejected cylinders. Subsequent thereto, cylinders must pass all prescribed tests to be acceptable. Repair by welding or spinning is not authorized. For each cylinder subjected to reheat treatment during original manufacture, sidewall measurements must be made to verify that the minimum sidewall thickness meets specification requirements after the final heat treatment.

(r) Marking.

(1) Cylinders must be marked by low stress type steel stamping in an area and to a depth which will insure that the wall thickness measured from the root of the stamping to the interior surface is equal to or greater than the minimum prescribed wall thickness. Stamping must be permanent and legible. Stamping on side wall not authorized.

(2) The rejection elastic expansion (REE), in cubic cm (cc), must be marked on the cylinder near the date of test. The REE for a cylinder is 1.05 times its original elastic expansion.

(3) Name plates are authorized, provided that they can be permanently and securely attached to the cylinder. Attachment by either brazing or welding is not permitted. Attachment by soldering is permitted provided steel temperature does not exceed 500 °F.

(s) Inspector's report. In addition to the requirements of § 178.35, the inspector's report must indicate the rejection elastic expansion (REE), in cubic cm (cc).

[Amdt. 178-114, 61 FR 25942, May 23, 1996, as amended at 62 FR 51561, Oct. 1, 1997; 65 FR 58631, Sept. 29, 2000; 66 FR 45385, Aug. 28, 2001; 67 FR 51652, Aug. 8, 2002; 68 FR 75748, 75749, Dec. 31, 2003; 85 FR 85421, Dec. 28, 2020]

§ 178.45 Specification 3T seamless steel cylinder.

(a) Type, size, and service pressure. A DOT 3T cylinder is a seamless steel cylinder with a minimum water capacity of 1,000 pounds and a minimum service pressure of 1,800 psig. Each cylinder must have integrally formed heads concave to pressure at both ends. The inside head shape must be hemispherical, ellipsoidal in which the major axis is two times the minor axis, or a dished shape falling within these two limits. Permanent closures formed by spinning are prohibited.

(b) Material, steel. Only open hearth, basic oxygen, or electric furnace process steel of uniform quality is authorized. The steel analysis must conform to the following:

Analysis Tolerances

Element Ladle analysis Check Analysis
Under Over
Carbon 0.35 to 0.50 0.03 0.04
Manganese 0.75 to 1.05 0.04 0.04
Phosphorus (max) 0.035 0.01
Sulphur (max) 0.04 0.01
Silicon 0.15 to 0.35 0.02 0.03
Chromium 0.80 to 1.15 0.05 0.05
Molybdenum 0.15 to 0.25 0.02 0.02

(1) A heat of steel made under the specifications in the table in this paragraph (b), the ladle analysis of which is slightly out of the specified range, is acceptable if satisfactory in all other aspects. However, the check analysis tolerances shown in the table in this paragraph (b) may not be exceeded except as approved by the Department.

(2) Material with seams, cracks, laminations, or other injurious defects is not permitted.

(3) Material used must be identified by any suitable method.

(c) Manufacture. General manufacturing requirements are as follows:

(1) Surface finish must be uniform and reasonably smooth.

(2) Inside surfaces must be clean, dry, and free of loose particles.

(3) No defect of any kind is permitted if it is likely to weaken a finished cylinder.

(4) If the cylinder surface is not originally free from the defects, the surface may be machined or otherwise treated to eliminate these defects provided the minimum wall thickness is maintained.

(5) Welding or brazing on a cylinder is not permitted.

(d) Wall thickness. The minimum wall thickness must be such that the wall stress at the minimum specified test pressure does not exceed 67 percent of the minimum tensile strength of the steel as determined by the physical tests required in paragraphs (j) and (k) of this section. A wall stress of more than 90,500 p.s.i. is not permitted. The minimum wall thickness for any cylinder may not be less than 0.225 inch.

(1) Calculation of the stress for cylinders must be made by the following formula:

S = [P(1.3D2 + 0.4d2)] / (D2 − d2)

Where:

S = Wall stress in psi;

P = Minimum test pressure, at least5/3 service pressure;

D = Outside diameter in inches;

d = Inside diameter in inches.

(2) Each cylinder must meet the following additional requirement which assumes a cylinder horizontally supported at its two ends and uniformly loaded over its entire length. This load consists of the weight per inch of length of the straight cylindrical portion filled with water compressed to the specified test pressure. The wall thickness must be increased when necessary to meet this additional requirement:

(i) The sum of two times the maximum tensile stress in the bottom fibers due to bending (see paragraph (d)(2)(ii) of this section), plus the maximum tensile stress in the same fibers due to hydrostatic testing (see paragraph (d)(2)(iii) of this section) may not exceed 80 percent of the minimum yield strength of the steel at this maximum stress.

(ii) The following formula must be used to calculate the maximum tensile stress due to bending:

S = Mc / I

Where:

S = Tensile stress in psi;

M = Bending moment in inch-pounds (wl2/8);

I = Moment of inertia - 0.04909 (D4−d4) in inches fourth;

c = Radius (D/2) of cylinder in inches;

w = Weight per inch of cylinder filled with water;

l = Length of cylinder in inches;

D = Outside diameter in inches;

d = Inside diameter in inches.

(iii) The following formula must be used to calculate the maximum longitudinal tensile stress due to hydrostatic test pressure:

S = A1 P / A2

Where:

S = Tensile stress in psi;

A1 = Internal area in cross section of cylinder in square inches;

P = Hydrostatic test pressure-psig;

A2 = Area of metal in cross section of cylinder in square inches.

(e) Heat treatment. Each completed cylinder must be uniformly and properly heat treated prior to testing, as follows:

(1) Each cylinder must be heated and held at the proper temperature for at least one hour per inch of thickness based on the maximum thickness of the cylinder and then quenched in a suitable liquid medium having a cooling rate not in excess of 80 percent of water. The steel temperature on quenching must be that recommended for the steel analysis, but it must never exceed 1750 °F.

(2) After quenching, each cylinder must be reheated to a temperature below the transformation range but not less than 1050 °F., and must be held at this temperature for at least one hour per inch of thickness based on the maximum thickness of the cylinder. Each cylinder must then be cooled under conditions recommended for the steel.

(f) Openings. Openings in cylinders must comply with the following:

(1) Openings are permitted on heads only.

(2) The size of any centered opening in a head may not exceed one half the outside diameter of the cylinder.

(3) Openings in a head must have ligaments between openings of at least three times the average of their hole diameter. No off-center opening may exceed 2.625 inches in diameter.

(4) All openings must be circular.

(5) All openings must be threaded. Threads must be in compliance with the following:

(i) Each thread must be clean cut, even, without any checks, and to gauge.

(ii) Taper threads, when used, must be the American Standard Pipe thread (NPT) type and must be in compliance with the requirements of NBS Handbook H-28 (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter).

(iii) Taper threads conforming to National Gas Taper thread (NGT) standards must be in compliance with the requirements of NBS Handbook H-28.

(iv) Straight threads conforming with National Gas Straight thread (NGS) standards are authorized. These threads must be in compliance with the requirements of NBS Handbook H-28.

(g) Pressure testing. Each cylinder must successfully withstand a pressure test as follows:

(1) The test must be by water-jacket or direct expansion method as prescribed in CGA C-1 (IBR; see § 171.7 of this subchapter). The testing equipment must be calibrated as prescribed in CGA C-1. All testing equipment and pressure indicating devices must be accurate within the parameters defined in CGA C-1.

(2) Each cylinder must be tested to minimum of5/3 times service pressure.

(3) The minimum test pressure must be maintained at least 30 seconds and sufficiently longer to ensure complete expansion. Any internal pressure applied after heat-treatment and prior to the official test may not exceed 90 percent of the test pressure. If, due to failure of the test apparatus or operator error, the test pressure cannot be maintained, the test may be repeated in accordance with CGA C-1, section 5.7.2.

(4) Permanent volumetric expansion may not exceed 10 percent of total volumetric expansion at test pressure.

(h) Ultrasonic examination. After the hydrostatic test, the cylindrical section of each vessel must be examined in accordance with ASTM E 213 for shear wave and E 114 for straight beam (IBR, Standard see § 171.7 of this subchapter). The equipment used must be calibrated to detect a notch equal to five percent of the design minimum wall thickness. Any discontinuity indication greater than that produced by the five percent notch must be cause for rejection of the cylinder, unless the discontinuity is repaired within the requirements of this specification.

(i) Basic requirements for tension and Charpy impact tests. Cylinders must be subjected to a tension and Charpy impact as follows:

(1) When the cylinders are heat treated in a batch furnace, two tension specimens and three Charpy impact specimens must be tested from one of the cylinders or a test ring from each batch. The lot size represented by these tests may not exceed 200 cylinders.

(2) When the cylinders are heat treated in a continuous furnace, two tension specimens and three Charpy impact specimens must be tested from one of the cylinders or a test ring from each four hours or less of production. However, in no case may a test lot based on this production period exceed 200 cylinders.

(3) Each specimen for the tension and Charpy impact tests must be taken from the side wall of a cylinder or from a ring which has been heat treated with the finished cylinders of which the specimens must be representative. The axis of the specimens must be parallel to the axis of the cylinder. Each cylinder or ring specimen for test must be of the same diameter, thickness, and metal as the finished cylinders they represent. A test ring must be at least 24 inches long with ends covered during the heat treatment process so as to simulate the heat treatment process of the finished cylinders it represents.

(4) A test cylinder or test ring need represent only one of the heats in a furnace batch provided the other heats in the batch have previously been tested and have passed the tests and that such tests do not represent more than 200 cylinders from any one heat.

(5) The test results must conform to the requirements specified in paragraphs (j) and (k) of this section.

(6) When the test results do not conform to the requirements specified, the cylinders represented by the tests may be reheat treated and the tests repeated. Paragraph (i)(5) of this section applies to any retesting.

(j) Basic conditions for acceptable physical testing. The following criteria must be followed to obtain acceptable physical test results:

(1) Each tension specimen must have a gauge length of two inches with a width not exceeding one and one-half inches. Except for the grip ends, the specimen may not be flattened. The grip ends may be flattened to within one inch of each end of the reduced section.

(2) A specimen may not be heated after heat treatment specified in paragraph (d) of this section.

(3) The yield strength in tension must be the stress corresponding to a permanent strain of 0.2 percent of the gage length.

(i) This yield strength must be determined by the “offset” method or the “extension under load” method described in ASTM E 8 (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter).

(ii) For the “extension under load” method, the total strain (or extension under load) corresponding to the stress at which the 0.2 percent permanent strain occurs may be determined with sufficient accuracy by calculating the elastic extension of the gage length under appropriate load and adding thereto 0.2 percent of the gage length. Elastic extension calculations must be based on an elastic modulus of 30,000,000. However, when the degree of accuracy of this method is questionable the entire stress-strain diagram must be plotted and the yield strength determined from the 0.2 percent offset.

(iii) For the purpose of strain measurement, the initial strain must be set with the specimen under a stress of 12,000 p.s.i. and the strain indicator reading set at the calculated corresponding strain.

(iv) The cross-head speed of the testing machine may not exceed1/8 inch per minute during the determination of yield strength.

(4) Each impact specimen must be Charpy V-notch type size 10 mm × 10 mm taken in accordance with paragraph 11 of ASTM A 333 (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter). When a reduced size specimen is used, it must be the largest size obtainable.

(k) Acceptable physical test results. Results of physical tests must conform to the following:

(1) The tensile strength may not exceed 155,000 p.s.i.

(2) The elongation must be at least 16 percent for a two-inch gage length.

(3) The Charpy V-notch impact properties for the three impact specimens which must be tested at 0 °F may not be less than the values shown as follows:

Size of specimen (mm) Average value
for acceptance
(3 specimens)
Minimum value
(1 specimen only
of the 3)
10.0 × 10.0 25.0 ft. lbs. 20.0 ft. lbs.
10.0 × 7.5 21.0 ft. lbs. 17.0 ft. lbs.
10.0 × 5.0 17.0 ft. lbs. 14.0 ft. lbs.

(4) After the final heat treatment, each vessel must be hardness tested on the cylindrical section. The tensile strength equivalent of the hardness number obtained may not be more than 165,000 p.s.i. (Rc 36). When the result of a hardness test exceeds the maximum permitted, two or more retests may be made; however, the hardness number obtained in each retest may not exceed the maximum permitted.

(l) Rejected cylinders. Reheat treatment is authorized for rejected cylinders. However, each reheat treated cylinder must subsequently pass all the prescribed tests. Repair by welding is not authorized.

(m) Markings. Marking must be done by stamping into the metal of the cylinder. All markings must be legible and located on a shoulder.

(n) Inspector's report. In addition to the requirements of § 178.35, the inspector's report for the physical test report, must indicate the average value for three specimens and the minimum value for one specimen for each lot number.

[Amdt. 178-114, 61 FR 25942, May 23, 1996, as amended at 66 FR 45385, 43588, Aug. 28, 2001; 67 FR 51652, Aug. 8, 2002; 68 FR 48571, Aug. 14, 2003; 68 FR 75748, 75749, Dec. 31, 2003; 85 FR 85421, Dec. 28, 2020]

§ 178.46 Specification 3AL seamless aluminum cylinders.

(a) Size and service pressure. A DOT 3AL cylinder is a seamless aluminum cylinder with a maximum water capacity of 1000 pounds and minimum service pressure of 150 psig.

(b) Authorized material and identification of material. The material of construction must meet the following conditions:

(1) Starting stock must be cast stock or traceable to cast stock.

(2) Material with seams, cracks, laminations, or other defects likely to weaken the finished cylinder may not be used.

(3) Material must be identified by a suitable method that will identify the alloy, the aluminum producer's cast number, the solution heat treat batch number and the lot number.

(4) The material must be of uniform quality. Only the following heat treatable aluminum alloys in table 1 and 2 are permitted as follows:

Table 1 - Heat or Cast Analysis for Aluminum; Similar to “Aluminum Association”1 Alloy 6061

[CHEMICAL ANALYSIS IN WEIGHT PERCENT2]

Si
min/max
Fe
max
Cu
min/max
Mn
max
Mg
min/max
Cr
min/max
Zn
max
Ti
max
Pb
max
Bi
max
Other A1
each
max
total
max
0.4/0.8 0.7 0.15/0.4 0.15 0.8/1.2 0.04/0.35 0.25 0.15 0.005 0.005 0.05 0.15 Bal.

Table 2 - Mechanical Property Limits

Alloy and temper Tensile strength - PSI Elongation - percent minimum for 2″ or 4D1 size specimen
Ultimate - minimum Yield - minimum
6061-T6 38,000 35,000 214

(5) All starting stock must be 100 percent ultrasonically inspected, along the length at right angles to the central axis from two positions at 90° to one another. The equipment and continuous scanning procedure must be capable of detecting and rejecting internal defects such as cracks which have an ultrasonic response greater than that of a calibration block with a5/64-inch diameter flat bottomed hole.

(6) Cast stock must have uniform equiaxed grain structure not to exceed 500 microns maximum.

(7) Any starting stock not complying with the provisions of paragraphs (b)(1) through (b)(6) of this section must be rejected.

(c) Manufacture. Cylinders must be manufactured in accordance with the following requirements:

(1) Cylinder shells must be manufactured by the backward extrusion method and have a cleanliness level adequate to ensure proper inspection. No fissure or other defect is acceptable that is likely to weaken the finished cylinder below the design strength requirements. A reasonably smooth and uniform surface finish is required. If not originally free from such defects, the surface may be machined or otherwise conditioned to eliminate these defects.

(2) Thickness of the cylinder base may not be less than the prescribed minimum wall thickness of the cylindrical shell. The cylinder base must have a basic torispherical, hemispherical, or ellipsoidal interior base configuration where the dish radius is no greater than 1.2 times the inside diameter of the shell. The knuckle radius may not be less than 12 percent of the inside diameter of the shell. The interior base contour may deviate from the true torispherical, hemispherical or ellipsoidal configuration provided that -

(i) Any areas of deviation are accompanied by an increase in base thickness;

(ii) All radii of merging surfaces are equal to or greater than the knuckle radius;

(iii) Each design has been qualified by successfully passing the cycling tests in this paragraph (c); and

(iv) Detailed specifications of the base design are available to the inspector.

(3) For free standing cylinders, the base thickness must be at least two times the minimum wall thickness along the line of contact between the cylinder base and the floor when the cylinders are in the vertical position.

(4) Welding or brazing is prohibited.

(5) Each new design and any significant change to any acceptable design must be qualified for production by testing prototype samples as follows:

(i) Three samples must be subjected to 100,000 pressure reversal cycles between zero and service pressure or 10,000 pressure reversal cycles between zero and test pressure, at a rate not in excess of 10 cycles per minute without failure.

(ii) Three samples must be pressurized to destruction and failure may not occur at less than 2.5 times the marked cylinder service pressure. Each cylinder must remain in one piece. Failure must initiate in the cylinder sidewall in a longitudinal direction. Rate of pressurization may not exceed 200 psig per second.

(6) In this specification “significant change” means a 10 percent or greater change in cylinder wall thickness, service pressure, or diameter; a 30 percent or greater change in water capacity or base thickness; any change in material; over 100 percent increase in size of openings; or any change in the number of openings.

(d) Wall thickness. The minimum wall thickness must be such that the wall stress at the minimum specified test pressure will not exceed 80 percent of the minimum yield strength nor exceed 67 percent of the minimum ultimate tensile strength as verified by physical tests in paragraph (i) of this section. The minimum wall thickness for any cylinder with an outside diameter greater than 5 inches must be 0.125 inch. Calculations must be made by the following formula:

S = [P(1.3D2 + 0.4d2)] / (D2 − d2)

Where:

S = Wall stress in psi;

P = Prescribed minimum test pressure in psig (see paragraph (g) of this section);

D = Outside diameter in inches; and

d = Inside diameter in inches.

(e) Openings. Openings must comply with the following requirements:

(1) Openings are permitted in heads only.

(2) The size of any centered opening in a head may not exceed one-half the outside diameter of the cylinder.

(3) Other openings are permitted in the head of a cylinder if:

(i) Each opening does not exceed 2.625 inches in diameter, or one-half the outside diameter of the cylinder; whichever is less;

(ii) Each opening is separated from each other by a ligament; and

(iii) Each ligament which separates two openings must be at least three times the average of the diameters of the two openings.

(4) All openings must be circular.

(5) All openings must be threaded. Threads must comply with the following:

(i) Each thread must be clean cut, even, without checks, and to gauge.

(ii) Taper threads, when used, must conform to one of the following:

(A) American Standard Pipe Thread (NPT) type, conforming to the requirements of NBS Handbook H-28 (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter);

(B) National Gas Taper Thread (NGT) type, conforming to the requirements of NBS Handbook H-28; or

(C) Other taper threads conforming to other standards may be used provided the length is not less than that specified for NPT threads.

(iii) Straight threads, when used, must conform to one of the following:

(A) National Gas Straight Thread (NGS) type, conforming to the requirements of NBS Handbook H-28;

(B) Unified Thread (UN) type, conforming to the requirements of NBS Handbook H-28;

(C) Controlled Radius Root Thread (UN) type, conforming to the requirements of NBS Handbook H-28; or

(D) Other straight threads conforming to other recognized standards may be used provided that the requirements in paragraph (e)(5)(iv) of this section are met.

(iv) All straight threads must have at least 6 engaged threads, a tight fit, and a factor of safety in shear of at least 10 at the test pressure of the cylinder. Shear stress must be calculated by using the appropriate thread shear area in accordance with NBS Handbook H-28.

(f) Heat treatment. Prior to any test, all cylinders must be subjected to a solution heat treatment and aging treatment appropriate for the aluminum alloy used.

(g) Pressure testing. Each cylinder must successfully withstand a pressure test as follows:

(1) The test must be by water-jacket or direct expansion method as prescribed in CGA C-1 (IBR; see § 171.7 of this subchapter). The testing equipment must be calibrated as prescribed in CGA C-1. All testing equipment and pressure indicating devices must be accurate within the parameters defined in CGA C-1.

(2) The minimum test pressure must be the greater of the following:

(i) 450 psig regardless of service pressure;

(ii) Two (2) times the service pressure for cylinders having service pressure less than 500 psig; or

(iii) 5/3 times the service pressure for cylinders having a service pressure of 500 psig or greater.

(3) The minimum test pressure must be maintained at least 30 seconds and sufficiently longer to ensure complete expansion. Any internal pressure applied after heat treatment and prior to the official test may not exceed 90 percent of the test pressure. If, due to failure of the test apparatus or operator error, the test pressure cannot be maintained, the test may be repeated in accordance with CGA C-1, section 5.7.2, however, if a second failure to maintain the test pressure occurs the cylinder being tested must be rejected.

(4) Permanent volumetric expansion may not exceed 10 percent of total volumetric expansion at test pressure.

(h) Flattening test. One cylinder taken at random out of each lot must be subjected to a flattening test as follows:

(1) The test must be between knife edges, wedge shaped, having a 60° included angle, and rounded in accordance with the following table. The longitudinal axis of the cylinder must be at an angle 90° to the knife edges during the test. The flattening test table is as follows:

Table 3 - Flattening Test Table

Cylinder wall thickness in inches Radius in inches
Under .150 .500
.150 to .249 .875
.250 to .349 1.500
.350 to .449 2.125
.450 to .549 2.750
.550 to .649 3.500
.650 to .749 4.125

(2) An alternate bend test in accordance with ASTM E 290 using a mandrel diameter not more than 6 times the wall thickness is authorized to qualify lots that fail the flattening test of this section without reheat treatment. If used, this test must be performed on two samples from one cylinder taken at random out of each lot of 200 cylinders or less.

(3) Each test cylinder must withstand flattening to nine times the wall thickness without cracking. When the alternate bend test is used, the test specimens must remain uncracked when bent inward around a mandrel in the direction of curvature of the cylinder wall until the interior edges are at a distance apart not greater than the diameter of the mandrel.

(i) Mechanical properties test. Two test specimens cut from one cylinder representing each lot of 200 cylinders or less must be subjected to the mechanical properties test, as follows:

(1) The results of the test must conform to at least the minimum acceptable mechanical property limits for aluminum alloys as specified in paragraph (b) of this section.

(2) Specimens must be 4D bar or gauge length 2 inches with width not over 11/2 inch taken in the direction of extrusion approximately 180° from each other; provided that gauge length at least 24 times thickness with width not over 6 times thickness is authorized, when cylinder wall is not over3/16 inch thick. The specimen, exclusive of grip ends, may not be flattened. Grip ends may be flattened to within one inch of each end of the reduced section. When the size of the cylinder does not permit securing straight specimens, the specimens may be taken in any location or direction and may be straightened or flattened cold by pressure only, not by blows. When such specimens are used, the inspector's report must show that the specimens were so taken and prepared. Heating of specimens for any purpose is forbidden.

(3) The yield strength in tension must be the stress corresponding to a permanent strain of 0.2 percent of the gauge length.

(i) The yield strength must be determined by either the “offset” method or the “extension under load” method as prescribed in ASTM B 557 (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter).

(ii) In using the “extension under load” method, the total strain (or “extension under load”) corresponding to the stress at which the 0.2 percent permanent strain occurs may be determined with sufficient accuracy by calculating the elastic extension of the gauge length under appropriate load and adding thereto 0.2 percent of the gauge length. Elastic extension calculations must be based on an elastic modulus of 10,000,000 psi. In the event of controversy, the entire stress-strain diagram must be plotted and the yield strength determined from the 0.2 percent offset.

(iii) For the purpose of strain measurement, the initial strain must be set while the specimen is under a stress of 6,000 psi, the strain indicator reading being set at the calculated corresponding strain.

(iv) Cross-head speed of the testing machine may not exceed1/8 inch per minute during yield strength determination.

(j) Rejected cylinder. Reheat treatment of rejected cylinders is authorized one time. Subsequent thereto, cylinders must pass all prescribed tests to be acceptable.

(k) Duties of inspector. In addition to the requirements of § 178.35, the inspector shall:

(1) Verify compliance with the provisions of paragraph (b) of this section by:

(i) Performing or witnessing the performance of the chemical analyses on each melt or cast lot or other unit of starting material; or

(ii) Obtaining a certified chemical analysis from the material or cylinder manufacturer for each melt, or cast of material; or

(iii) Obtaining a certified check analysis on one cylinder out of each lot of 200 cylinders or less, if a certificate containing data to indicate compliance with the material specification is obtained.

(2) The inspector must verify ultrasonic inspection of all material by inspection or by obtaining the material producer's certificate of ultrasonic inspection. Ultrasonic inspection must be performed or verified as having been performed in accordance with paragraph (b)(5) of this section.

(3) The inspector must also determine that each cylinder complies with this specification by:

(i) Selecting the samples for check analyses performed by other than the material producer;

(ii) Verifying that the prescribed minimum thickness was met by measuring or witnessing the measurement of the wall thickness; and

(iii) Verifying that the identification of material is proper.

(4) Prior to initial production of any design or design change, verify that the design qualification tests prescribed in paragraph (c)(6) of this section have been performed with acceptable results.

(l) Definitions.

(1) In this specification, a “lot” means a group of cylinders successively produced having the same:

(i) Size and configuration;

(ii) Specified material of construction;

(iii) Process of manufacture and heat treatment;

(iv) Equipment of manufacture and heat treatment; and

(v) Conditions of time, temperature and atmosphere during heat treatment.

(2) In no case may the lot size exceed 200 cylinders, but any cylinder processed for use in the required destructive physical testing need not be counted as being one of the 200.

(m) Inspector's report. In addition to the information required by § 178.35, the record of chemical analyses must also include the alloy designation, and applicable information on iron, titanium, zinc, magnesium and any other applicable element used in the construction of the cylinder.

[Amdt. 178-114, 61 FR 25942, May 23, 1996, as amended at 66 FR 45386, Aug. 28, 2001; 67 FR 51652, Aug. 8, 2002; 68 FR 75749, Dec. 31, 2003; 77 FR 60943, Oct. 5, 2012; 85 FR 85421, Dec. 28, 2020]

§ 178.47 Specification 4DS welded stainless steel cylinders for aircraft use.

(a) Type, size, and service pressure. A DOT 4DS cylinder is either a welded stainless steel sphere (two seamless hemispheres) or circumferentially welded cylinder both with a water capacity of not over 100 pounds and a service pressure of at least 500 but not over 900 psig.

(b) Steel. Types 304, 321 and 347 stainless steel are authorized with proper welding procedure. A heat of steel made under the specifications in table 1 in this paragraph (b), check chemical analysis of which is slightly out of the specified range, is acceptable, if satisfactory in all other respects, provided the tolerances shown in table 2 in this paragraph (b) are not exceeded, except as approved by Associate Administrator. The following chemical analyses are authorized:

Table 1 - Authorized Materials

Stainless steels
304 (percent) 321 (percent) 347 (percent)
Carbon (max) 0.08 0.08 0.08
Manganese (max) 2.00 2.00 2.00
Phosphorus (max) .030 .030 .030
Sulphur (max) .030 .030 .030
Silicon (max) .75 .75 .75
Nickel 8.0/11.0 9.0/13.0 9.0/13.0
Chromium 18.0/20.0 17.0/20.0 17.0/20.0
Molybdenum
Titanium (1)
Columbium (2)

Table 2 - Check Analysis Tolerances

Element Limit or maximum specified (percent) Tolerance (percent) over the maximum limit or under the minimum limit
Under minimum limit Over maximum limit
Carbon To 0.15 incl 0.01 0.01
Manganese Over 1.15 to 2.50 incl 0.05 0.05
Phosphorus1 All ranges .01
Sulphur All ranges .01
Silicon Over 0.30 to 1.00 incl .05 .05
Nickel Over 5.30 to 10.00 incl .10 .10
Over 10.00 to 14.00 incl .15 .15
Chromium Over 15.00 to 20.00 incl .20 .20
Titanium All ranges .05 .05
Columbium All ranges .05 .05

(c) Identification of material. Materials must be identified by any suitable method.

(d) Manufacture. Cylinders must be manufactured using equipment and processes adequate to ensure that each cylinder produced conforms to the requirements of this subpart. No defect is permitted that is likely to weaken the finished cylinder appreciably, a reasonably smooth and uniform surface finish is required. No abrupt change in wall thickness is permitted. Welding procedures and operators must be qualified in accordance with CGA Pamphlet C-3 (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter). All seams of the sphere or cylinder must be fusion welded. Seams must be of the butt type and means must be provided for accomplishing complete penetration of the joint.

(e) Attachments. Attachments to the container are authorized by fusion welding provided that such attachments are made of weldable stainless steel in accordance with paragraph (b) of this section.

(f) Wall thickness. The minimum wall thickness must be such that the wall stress at the minimum specified test pressure may not be over 60,000 psig. A minimum wall thickness of 0.040 inch is required for any diameter container. Calculations must be made by the following formulas:

(1) Calculation for sphere must be made by the formula:

S = PD / 4tE

Where:

S = Wall stress in psi;

P = Test pressure prescribed for water jacket test, i.e., at least two times service pressure, in psig;

D = Outside diameter in inches;

t = Minimum wall thickness in inches;

E = 0.85 (provides 85 percent weld efficiency factor which must be applied in the girth weld area and heat zones which zone must extend a distance of 6 times wall thickness from center of weld);

E = 1.0 (for all other areas).

(2) Calculation for a cylinder must be made by the formula:

S = [P(1.3D2 + 0.4d2)] / (D2 − d2)

Where:

S = Wall stress in psi;

P = Test pressure prescribed for water jacket test, i.e., at least two times service pressure, in psig;

D = Outside diameter in inches;

d = Inside diameter in inches.

(g) Heat treatment. The seamless hemispheres and cylinders may be stress relieved or annealed for forming. Welded container must be stress relieved at a temperature of 775 °F ±25° after process treatment and before hydrostatic test.

(h) Openings in container. Openings must comply with the following:

(1) Each opening in the container must be provided with a fitting, boss or pad of weldable stainless steel securely attached to the container by fusion welding.

(2) Attachments to a fitting, boss, or pad must be adequate to prevent leakage. Threads must comply with the following:

(i) Threads must be clean cut, even, without checks, and tapped to gauge.

(ii) Taper threads to be of length not less than as specified for American Standard taper pipe threads.

(iii) Straight threads having at least 4 engaged threads, to have tight fit and calculated shear strength at least 10 times the test pressure of the container; gaskets required, adequate to prevent leakage.

(i) Process treatment. Each container must be hydraulically pressurized in a water jacket to at least 100 percent, but not more than 110 percent, of the test pressure and maintained at this pressure for a minimum of 3 minutes. Total and permanent expansion must be recorded and included in the inspector's report.

(j) Pressure testing. Each cylinder must successfully withstand a pressure test as follows:

(1) The test must be by water-jacket or direct expansion method as prescribed in CGA C-1 (IBR; see § 171.7 of this subchapter). The testing equipment must be calibrated as prescribed in CGA C-1. All testing equipment and pressure indicating devices must be accurate within the parameters defined in CGA C-1.

(2) Each cylinder must be tested to a minimum of at least two (2) times its service pressure.

(3) The minimum test pressure must be maintained at least 30 seconds and sufficiently longer to ensure complete expansion. Any internal pressure applied after heat-treatment and prior to the official test may not exceed 90 percent of the test pressure. If, due to failure of the test apparatus or operator error, the test pressure cannot be maintained, the test may be repeated in accordance with CGA C-1, section 5.7.2.

(4) Permanent volumetric expansion may not exceed 10 percent of the total volumetric expansion at test pressure.

(5) The cylinder must then be inspected. Any wall thickness lower than that required by paragraph (f) of this section must be cause for rejection. Bulges and cracks must be cause for rejection. Welded joint defects exceeding requirements of paragraph (k) of this section are cause for rejection.

(k) Radiographic inspection. Radiographic inspection is required on all welded joints which are subjected to internal pressure, except that at the discretion of the disinterested inspector, openings less than 25 percent of the container diameter need not be subjected to radiographic inspection. Evidence of any defects likely to seriously weaken the container is cause for rejection. Radiographic inspection must be performed subsequent to the hydrostatic test.

(l) Burst test. One container taken at random out of 200 or less must be hydrostatically tested to destruction. Rupture pressure must be included as part of the inspector's report.

(m) Flattening test. A flattening test must be performed as follows:

(1) For spheres the test must be at the weld between parallel steel plates on a press with welded seam at right angles to the plates. Test one sphere taken at random out of each lot of 200 or less after the hydrostatic test. Any projecting appurtenances may be cut off (by mechanical means only) prior to crushing.

(2) For cylinders the test must be between knife edges, wedge shaped, 60° angle, rounded to1/2-inch radius. Test one cylinder taken at random out of each lot of 200 or less, after the hydrostatic test.

(n) Acceptable results for flattening and burst tests. Acceptable results for flattening and burst tests are as follows:

(1) Flattening required to 50 percent of the original outside diameter without cracking.

(2) Burst pressure must be at least 3 times the service pressure.

(o) Rejected containers. Repair of welded seams by welding prior to process treatment is authorized. Subsequent thereto, containers must be heat treated and pass all prescribed tests.

(p) Duties of inspector. In addition to the requirements of § 178.35, the inspector must verify that all tests are conducted at temperatures between 60 °F and 90 °F.

(q) Marking. Markings must be stamped plainly and permanently on a permanent attachment or on a metal nameplate permanently secured to the container by means other than soft solder.

[Amdt. 178-114, 61 FR 25942, May 23, 1996, as amended at 66 FR 45386, 45388, Aug. 28, 2001; 67 FR 51653, Aug. 8, 2002; 68 FR 75748, Dec. 31, 2003; 85 FR 85421, Dec. 28, 2020]

§ 178.50 Specification 4B welded or brazed steel cylinders.

(a) Type, size, pressure, and application. A DOT 4B is a welded or brazed steel cylinder with longitudinal seams that are forged lap-welded or brazed and with water capacity (nominal) not over 1,000 pounds and a service pressure of at least 150 but not over 500 psig. Cylinders closed in by spinning process are not authorized.

(b) Steel. Open-hearth, electric or basic oxygen process steel of uniform quality must be used. Content percent may not exceed the following: Carbon, 0.25; phosphorus, 0.045; sulphur, 0.050. The cylinder manufacturer must maintain a record of intentionally added alloying elements.

(c) Identification of material. Pressure-retaining materials must be identified by any suitable method that does not compromise the integrity of the cylinder. Plates and billets for hotdrawn cylinders must be marked with the heat number.

(d) Manufacture. Cylinders must be manufactured using equipment and processes adequate to ensure that each cylinder produced conforms to the requirements of this subpart. No defect is permitted that is likely to weaken the finished cylinder appreciably. A reasonably smooth and uniform surface finish is required. Exposed bottom welds on cylinders over 18 inches long must be protected by footrings. Welding procedures and operators must be qualified in conformance with CGA C-3 (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter). Seams must be made as follows:

(1) Brazing materials. Brazing materials must be by copper brazing, by copper alloy brazing, or by silver alloy brazing. Copper alloy composition must be: Copper, 95 percent minimum; Silicon, 1.5 percent to 3.85 percent; Manganese, 0.25 percent to 1.10 percent.

(2) Brazed circumferential seams. Heads attached by brazing must have a driving fit with the shell, unless the shell is crimped, swedged, or curled over the skirt or flange of the head, and be thoroughly brazed until complete penetration by the brazing material of the brazed joint is secured. Depth of brazing of the joint must be at least four (4) times the minimum thickness of shell metal.

(3) Welded circumferential seams. Circumferential seams are permitted by the welding process.

(4) Longitudinal seams in shells. Longitudinal seams must be a forged lap joint design. When brazed, the plate edge must be lapped at least eight (8) times the thickness of the plate, laps being held in position, substantially metal to metal, by riveting or electric spot-welding; brazing must be done by using a suitable flux and by placing brazing material on one side of seam and applying heat until this material shows uniformly along the seam of the other side.

(e) Welding or brazing. Only the attachment of neckrings, footrings, handles, bosses, pads, and valve protection rings to the tops and bottoms of cylinders by welding or brazing is authorized. Attachments and the portion of the cylinder to which they are attached must be made of weldable steel, the carbon content of which may not exceed 0.25 percent except in the case of 4130X steel, which may be used with proper welding procedure.

(f) Wall thickness. The wall thickness of the cylinder must comply with the following requirements:

(1) For cylinders with outside diameters over 6 inches, the minimum wall thickness must be 0.090 inch. In any case, the minimum wall thickness must be such that calculated wall stress at minimum test pressure (paragraph (i)(4) of this section) may not exceed the following values:

(i) 24,000 psig for cylinders without longitudinal seam.

(ii) 22,800 psig for cylinders having copper brazed or silver alloy brazed longitudinal seam.

(iii) 18,000 psig for cylinders having forged lapped welded longitudinal seam.

(2) Calculation must be made by the formula:

S = [P(1.3D2 + 0.4d2)]/(D2 − d2)

Where:

S = wall stress in psig;

P = minimum test pressure prescribed for water jacket test or 450 psig whichever is the greater;

D = outside diameter in inches; and

d = inside diameter in inches.

(g) Heat treatment. Cylinder heads, bodies or the completed cylinder, formed by drawing or pressing, must be uniformly and properly heat treated by an applicable method shown in table 1 of appendix A of this part before tests.

(h) Opening in cylinders. Openings in cylinders must comply with the following:

(1) Any opening must be placed on other than a cylindrical surface.

(2) Each opening in a spherical type of cylinder must be provided with a fitting, boss, or pad of weldable steel securely attached to the cylinder by fusion welding.

(3) Each opening in a cylindrical type cylinder, except those for pressure relief devices, must be provided with a fitting, boss, or pad, securely attached to container by brazing or by welding.

(4) If threads are used, they must comply with the following:

(i) Threads must be clean cut, even without checks, and tapped to gauge.

(ii) Taper threads must be of a length not less than as specified for American Standard taper pipe threads.

(iii) Straight threads, must have at least four (4) engaged threads, must have tight fit and a calculated shear strength at least ten (10) times the test pressure of the cylinder; gaskets are required for straight threads and must be of sufficient quality to prevent leakage.

(iv) A brass fitting may be brazed to the steel boss or flange on cylinders used as component parts of handheld fire extinguishers.

(5) The closure of a fitting, boss, or pad must be adequate to prevent leakage.

(i) Pressure testing. Each cylinder must successfully withstand a pressure test as follows:

(1) Lot testing.

(i) At least one (1) cylinder randomly selected out of each lot of 200 or fewer must be tested by the water jacket or direct expansion method as prescribed in CGA C-1 (IBR; see § 171.7 of this subchapter). The testing equipment must be calibrated as prescribed in CGA C-1. All testing equipment and pressure indicating devices must be accurate within the parameters defined in CGA C-1.

(ii) Each cylinder must be tested to a minimum of 2 times service pressure.

(iii) The minimum test pressure must be maintained at least 30 seconds and sufficiently longer to ensure complete expansion. Any internal pressure applied after heat-treatment and prior to the official test may not exceed 90 percent of the test pressure. If, due to failure of the test apparatus or operator error, the test pressure cannot be maintained, the test may be repeated in accordance with CGA C-1, section 5.7.2.

(iv) Permanent volumetric expansion may not exceed 10 percent of the total volumetric expansion at test pressure.

(2) Pressure testing.

(i) The remaining cylinders in the lot must be tested by the proof pressure, water-jacket, or direct expansion test method as prescribed in CGA C-1. The minimum test pressure must be maintained for the specific timeframe and the testing equipment must be calibrated as prescribed in CGA C-1. Further, all testing equipment and pressure indicating devices must be accurate within the parameters defined in CGA C-1. If, due to failure of the test apparatus or operator error, the test pressure cannot be maintained, the test may be repeated in accordance with CGA C-1, sections 5.7.2 or 7.1.2, as appropriate. Determination of expansion properties is not required.

(ii) Each cylinder must be tested to a minimum of at least two (2) times service pressure and show no defect.

(j) Mechanical test. A mechanical test must be conducted to determine yield strength, tensile strength, elongation as a percentage, and reduction of area of material as a percentage as follows:

(1) Testing is required on two (2) specimens removed from one (1) cylinder, or part thereof, heat-treated as required, as illustrated in appendix A to this subpart. For lots of 30 or fewer, mechanical tests are authorized to be made on a ring at least 8 inches long removed from each cylinder and subjected to the same heat treatment as the finished cylinder.

(2) Specimens must comply with the following:

(i) When a cylinder wall is3/16 inch thick or less, one the following gauge lengths is authorized: A gauge length of 8 inches with a width not over 11/2 inches, a gauge length of 2 inches with a width not over 11/2 inches, or a gauge length at least twenty-four (24) times the thickness with a width not over six (6) times the thickness.

(ii) The specimen, exclusive of grip ends, may not be flattened. Grip ends may be flattened to within one inch of each end of the reduced section.

(iii) When the size of a cylinder does not permit securing straight specimens, the specimens may be taken in any location or direction and may be straightened or flattened cold, by pressure only, not by blows. When specimens are taken and prepared using this method, the inspector's report must show detailed information regarding such specimens in connection with the record of mechanical tests.

(iv) Heating of a specimen for any purpose is not authorized.

(3) The yield strength in tension must be the stress corresponding to a permanent strain of 0.2 percent of the gauge length. The following conditions apply:

(i) The yield strength must be determined by either the “offset” method or the “extension under load” method as prescribed in ASTM E 8 (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter).

(ii) In using the “extension under load” method, the total strain (or “extension under load”) corresponding to the stress at which the 0.2 percent permanent strain occurs may be determined with sufficient accuracy by calculating the elastic extension of the gauge length under appropriate load and adding thereto 0.2 percent of the gauge length. Elastic extension calculations must be based on an elastic modulus of 30,000,000. In the event of controversy, the entire stress-strain diagram must be plotted and the yield strength determined from the 0.2 percent offset.

(iii) For strain measurement, the initial strain reference must be set while the specimen is under a stress of 12,000 psig, and strain indicator reading must be set at the calculated corresponding strain.

(iv) Cross-head speed of the testing machine may not exceed1/8 inch per minute during yield strength determination.

(v) The yield strength must not exceed 73 percent of the tensile strength.

(k) Elongation. Mechanical test specimens must show at least a 40 percent elongation for a 2-inch gauge length or at least 20 percent in other cases. However, elongation percentages may be reduced numerically by 2 percent for 2-inch specimens, and by 1 percent in other cases, for each 7,500 psig increase of tensile strength above 50,000 psig. The tensile strength may be incrementally increased by four increments of 7,500 psig for a maximum total of 30,000 psig.

(l) Flattening test -

(1) Cylinders. After pressure testing, a flattening test must be performed on one cylinder taken at random out of each lot of 200 or fewer by placing the cylinder between wedge-shaped knife edges having a 60 degree included angle, rounded to a half-inch radius. The longitudinal axis of the cylinder must be at a 90-degree angle to knife edges during the test. For lots of 30 or fewer, flattening tests are authorized to be performed on a ring of at least 8 inches long removed from each cylinder and subjected to the same heat treatment as the finished cylinder.

(2) Pipes. When cylinders are constructed of lap welded pipe, an additional flattening test is required, without evidence of cracking, up to six (6) times the wall thickness. In such case, the rings (crop ends) removed from each end of the pipe, must be tested with the weld 45 °F or less from the point of greatest stress.

(m) Acceptable results for flattening tests. There must be no evidence of cracking of the sample when it is flattened between flat plates to no more than six (6) times the wall thickness. If this test fails, one additional sample from the same lot may be taken. If this second sample fails, the entire lot must be rejected.

(n) Rejected cylinders. Reheat treatment is authorized for a rejected cylinder in accordance with this paragraph (n). After reheat treatment, a cylinder must pass all prescribed tests in this section to be considered acceptable. Repair of brazed seams by brazing and welded seams by welding is authorized. For cylinders with an outside diameter of less than or equal to six (6) inches, welded seam repairs greater than one (1) inch in length shall require reheat treatment of the cylinder. For cylinders greater than an outside diameter of 6 inches, welded seam repairs greater than three (3) inches in length shall require reheat treatment.

(o) Markings.

(1) Markings must be as required as in § 178.35 and in addition must be stamped plainly and permanently in any of the following locations on the cylinder:

(i) On shoulders and top heads whose wall thickness is not less than 0.087-inch thick;

(ii) On side wall adjacent to top head for side walls which are not less than 0.090 inch thick;

(iii) On a cylindrical portion of the shell that extends beyond the recessed bottom of the cylinder, constituting an integral and non-pressure part of the cylinder;

(iv) On a metal plate attached to the top of the cylinder or permanent part thereof; sufficient space must be left on the plate to provide for stamping at least six retest dates; the plate must be at least1/16-inch thick and must be attached by welding, or by brazing. The brazing rod must melt at a temperature of 1100 °F. Welding or brazing must be along all the edges of the plate;

(v) On the neck, neckring, valve boss, valve protection sleeve, or similar part permanently attached to the top of the cylinder; or

(vi) On the footring permanently attached to the cylinder, provided the water capacity of the cylinder does not exceed 30 pounds.

(2) Embossing the cylinder head or sidewall is not permitted.

[85 FR 85422, Dec. 28, 2020]

§ 178.51 Specification 4BA welded or brazed steel cylinders.

(a) Type, size, pressure, and application. A DOT 4BA cylinder is a cylinder, either spherical or cylindrical design, with a water capacity of 1,000 pounds or less and a service pressure range of 225 to 500 psig. Closures made by the spinning process are not authorized.

(1) Spherical type cylinder designs are permitted to have only one circumferentially welded seam.

(2) Cylindrical type cylinder designs must be of circumferentially welded or brazed construction; longitudinally brazed or silver-soldered seams are also permitted.

(b) Steel. The steel used in the construction of the cylinder must be as specified in table 1 of appendix A to this part. The cylinder manufacturer must maintain a record of intentionally added alloying elements.

(c) Identification of material. Pressure-retaining material must be identified by any suitable method that does not compromise the integrity of the cylinder. Plates and billets for hotdrawn cylinders must be marked with the heat number.

(d) Manufacture. Cylinders must be manufactured using equipment and processes adequate to ensure that each cylinder produced conforms to the requirements of this subpart. No defect is permitted that is likely to weaken the finished cylinder appreciably. A reasonably smooth and uniform surface finish is required. Exposed bottom welds on cylinders over 18 inches long must be protected by footrings.

(1) Seams must be made as follows:

(i) Minimum thickness of heads and bottoms must be not less than 90 percent of the required thickness of the side wall.

(ii) Circumferential seams must be made by welding or by brazing. Heads attached by brazing must have a driving fit with the shell unless the shell is crimped, swedged, or curled over the skirt or flange of the head and must be thoroughly brazed until complete penetration by the brazing material of the brazed joint is secured. Depth of brazing from end of the shell must be at least four (4) times the thickness of shell metal.

(iii) Longitudinal seams in shells must be made by copper brazing, copper alloy brazing, or by silver alloy brazing. Copper alloy composition must be: Copper 95 percent minimum, Silicon 1.5 percent to 3.85 percent, Manganese 0.25 percent to 1.10 percent. The melting point of the silver alloy brazing material must be in excess of 1,000 °F. The plate edge must be lapped at least eight times the thickness of plate, laps being held in position, substantially metal to metal, by riveting or by electric spot-welding. Brazing must be done by using a suitable flux and by placing brazing material on one side of seam and applying heat until this material shows uniformly along the seam of the other side. Strength of longitudinal seam: Copper brazed longitudinal seam must have strength at least3/2 times the strength of the steel wall.

(2) Welding procedures and operators must be qualified in conformance with CGA C-3 (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter).

(e) Welding or brazing. Welding or brazing of any attachment or opening to the heads of cylinders is permitted provided the carbon content of the steel does not exceed 0.25 percent except in the case of 4130 × steel, which may be used with proper welding procedure.

(f) Wall thickness. The minimum wall thickness of the cylinder must meet the following conditions:

(1) For any cylinder with an outside diameter of greater than 6 inches, the minimum wall thickness is 0.078 inch. In any case, the minimum wall thickness must be such that the calculated wall stress at the minimum test pressure may not exceed the lesser value of any of the following:

(i) The value shown in table 1 of appendix A to this part, for the material under consideration;

(ii) One-half of the minimum tensile strength of the material determined as required in paragraph (j) of this section;

(iii) 35,000 psig; or

(iv) Further provided that wall stress for cylinders having copper brazed longitudinal seams may not exceed 95 percent of any of the above values. Measured wall thickness may not include galvanizing or other protective coating.

(2) Cylinders that are cylindrical in shape must have the wall stress calculated by the formula:

S = [P(1.3D2 + 0.4d2)]/(D2 − d2)

Where:

S = wall stress in psig;

P = minimum test pressure prescribed for water jacket test;

D = outside diameter in inches; and

d = inside diameter in inches.

(3) Cylinders that are spherical in shape must have the wall stress calculated by the formula:

S = PD/4tE

Where:

S = wall stress in psig;

P = minimum test pressure prescribed for water jacket test;

D = outside diameter in inches;

t = minimum wall thickness in inches;

E = 0.85 (provides 85 percent weld efficiency factor which must be applied in the circumferential weld area and heat affected zones which zone must extend a distance of 6 times wall thickness from center line of weld); and

E = 1.0 (for all other areas).

(4) For a cylinder with a wall thickness less than 0.100 inch, the ratio of tangential length to outside diameter may not exceed 4.1.

(g) Heat treatment. Cylinders must be heat treated in accordance with the following requirements:

(1) Each cylinder must be uniformly and properly heat treated prior to test by the applicable method shown in table 1 of appendix A to this part. Heat treatment must be accomplished after all forming and welding operations, except that when brazed joints are used, heat treatment must follow any forming and welding operations, but may be done before, during or after the brazing operations (see paragraph (m) of this section for weld repairs).

(2) Heat treatment is not required after the welding or brazing of weldable low carbon parts to attachments of similar material which have been previously welded or brazed to the top or bottom of cylinders and properly heat treated, provided such subsequent welding or brazing does not produce a temperature in excess of 400 °F in any part of the top or bottom material.

(h) Openings in cylinders. Openings in cylinders must comply with the following requirements:

(1) Any opening must be placed on other than a cylindrical surface.

(2) Each opening in a spherical type cylinder must be provided with a fitting, boss, or pad of weldable steel securely attached to the container by fusion welding.

(3) Each opening in a cylindrical type cylinder must be provided with a fitting, boss, or pad, securely attached to container by brazing or by welding.

(4) If threads are used, they must comply with the following:

(i) Threads must be clean-cut, even, without checks and tapped to gauge.

(ii) Taper threads must be of a length not less than that specified for American Standard taper pipe threads.

(iii) Straight threads, having at least 4 engaged threads, must have a tight fit and a calculated shear strength of at least 10 times the test pressure of the cylinder. Gaskets, adequate to prevent leakage, are required.

(i) Pressure testing. Each cylinder must successfully withstand a pressure test as follows:

(1) Lot testing.

(i) At least one (1) cylinder randomly selected out of each lot of 200 or fewer must be tested by water jacket or direct expansion method as prescribed in CGA C-1 (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter). The testing equipment must be calibrated as prescribed in CGA C-1. All testing equipment and pressure indicating devices must be accurate within the parameters defined in CGA C-1.

(ii) The selected cylinder must be tested to a minimum of two (2) times service pressure.

(iii) The minimum test pressure must be maintained at least 30 seconds and sufficiently longer to ensure complete expansion. Any internal pressure applied after heat-treatment and prior to the official test may not exceed 90 percent of the test pressure. If, due to failure of the test apparatus or operator error, the test pressure cannot be maintained, the test may be repeated in accordance with CGA C-1, section 5.7.2.

(iv) Permanent volumetric expansion may not exceed 10 percent of the total volumetric expansion at test pressure.

(2) Pressure testing.

(i) The remaining cylinders in the lot must be tested by the proof pressure, water-jacket, or direct expansion test method as prescribed in CGA C-1. The minimum test pressure must be maintained for the specific timeframe and the testing equipment must be calibrated as prescribed in CGA C-1. Further, all testing equipment and pressure indicating devices must be accurate within the parameters defined in CGA C-1.

(ii) Each cylinder must be tested to a minimum of two (2) times service pressure and show no defect. If, due to failure of the test apparatus or operator error, the test pressure cannot be maintained, the test may be repeated in accordance with CGA C-1 5.7.2 or 7.1.2, as appropriate. Determination of expansion properties is not required.

(j) Mechanical test.

(1) A mechanical test must be conducted to determine yield strength, tensile strength, elongation as a percentage, and reduction of area of material as a percentage, as follows:

(i) Cylinders. Testing is required on two (2) specimens removed from one cylinder or part thereof taken at random out of each lot of 200 or fewer. Samples must be removed after heat treatment as illustrated in appendix A to this subpart.

(ii) Spheres. Testing is required on two (2) specimens removed from the sphere or flat representative sample plates of the same heat of material taken at random from the steel used to produce the spheres. Samples (including plates) must be taken from each lot of 200 or fewer. The flat steel from which two specimens are to be removed must receive the same heat treatment as the spheres themselves. Samples must be removed after heat treatment as illustrated in appendix A to this subpart.

(2) Specimens must comply with the following:

(i) When a cylinder wall is3/16 inch thick or less, one the following gauge lengths is authorized: A gauge length of 8 inches with a width not over 11/2 inches, a gauge length of 2 inches with a width not over 11/2 inches, or a gauge length at least twenty-four (24) times the thickness with a width not over six (6) times the thickness.

(ii) The specimen, exclusive of grip ends, may not be flattened. Grip ends may be flattened to within one inch of each end of the reduced section.

(iii) When size of the cylinder does not permit securing straight specimens, the specimens may be taken in any location or direction and may be straightened or flattened cold, by pressure only, not by blows. When specimens are so taken and prepared, the inspector's report must show with the record of physical tests detailed information in regard to such specimens.

(iv) Heating of a specimen for any purpose is not authorized.

(3) The yield strength in tension must be the stress corresponding to a permanent strain of 0.2 percent of the gauge length. The following conditions apply:

(i) The yield strength must be determined by either the “offset” method or the “extension under load” method as prescribed in ASTM E 8 (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter).

(ii) In using the “extension under load” method, the total strain (or “extension under load”), corresponding to the stress at which the 0.2 percent permanent strain occurs may be determined with sufficient accuracy by calculating the elastic extension of the gauge length under appropriate load and adding thereto 0.2 percent of the gauge length. Elastic extension calculations must be based on an elastic modulus of 30,000,000. In the event of controversy, the entire stress-strain diagram must be plotted and the yield strength determined from the 0.2 percent offset.

(iii) For strain measurement, the initial strain reference must be set while the specimen is under a stress of 12,000 psig, and the strain indicator reading must be set at the calculated corresponding strain.

(k) Elongation. Mechanical test specimens must show at least a 40 percent elongation for a 2-inch gauge length or at least 20 percent in other cases. However, elongation percentages may be reduced numerically by 2 percent for 2-inch specimens, and by 1 percent in other cases, for each 7,500 psig increase of tensile strength above 50,000 psig. The tensile strength may be incrementally increased by four increments of 7,500 psig for a maximum total of 30,000 psig.

(l) Tests of welds. Except for brazed seams, welds must be tested as follows:

(1) Tensile test. A specimen must be removed from one cylinder of each lot of 200 or fewer, or welded test plate. The welded test plate must be of one of the heats in the lot of 200 or fewer which it represents, in the same condition and approximately the same thickness as the cylinder wall except that in no case must it be of a lesser thickness than that required for a quarter size Charpy impact specimen. The weld must be made by the same procedures and subjected to the same heat treatment as the major weld on the cylinder. The specimen must be taken from across the major seam and must be prepared and tested in conformance with and must meet the requirements of CGA C-3. Should this specimen fail to meet the requirements, one additional specimen must be taken from two additional cylinders or welded test plates from the same lot and tested. If either of these latter two specimens fail to meet the requirements, the entire lot represented must be rejected.

(2) Guided bend test. A root bend test specimen must be removed from the cylinder or welded test plate that was used for the tensile test specified in paragraph (l)(1) of this section. The specimen must be taken from across the circumferential seam and must be prepared and tested in conformance with and must meet the requirements of CGA C-3. Should this specimen fail to meet the requirements, one additional specimen must be taken from two additional cylinders or welded test plates from the same lot and tested. If either of these latter two specimens fail to meet the requirements, the entire lot represented must be rejected.

(3) Alternate guided-bend test. This test may be used and must be as required by CGA C-3. The specimen must be bent until the elongation at the outer surface, adjacent to the root of the weld, between the lightly scribed gage lines a to b, must be at least 20 percent, except that this percentage may be reduced for steels having a tensile strength in excess of 50,000 psig, as provided in paragraph (k) of this section. Should the specimen fail to meet the requirements, one additional specimen must be taken from two additional cylinders or welded test plates from the same lot and tested. If any of these latter two specimens fail to meet the requirements, the entire lot represented must be rejected.

(m) Rejected cylinders. Reheat treatment is authorized for a rejected cylinder in accordance with this paragraph (m). After reheat, a cylinder must pass all prescribed tests in this section to be acceptable. Repair of brazed seams by brazing and welded seams by welding is considered authorized. For cylinders with an outside diameter of less than or equal to six (6) inches, welded seam repairs greater than one (1) inch in length shall require reheat treatment of the cylinder. For cylinders greater than an outside diameter of six (6) inches, welded seam repairs greater than three (3) inches in length shall require reheat treatment.

(n) Markings.

(1) Markings must be as required in § 178.35 and in addition must be stamped plainly and permanently in one of the following locations on the cylinder:

(i) On shoulders and top heads whose wall thickness is not less than 0.087 inch thick;

(ii) On side wall adjacent to top head for side walls not less than 0.090 inch thick;

(iii) On a cylindrical portion of the shell that extends beyond the recessed bottom of the cylinder constituting an integral and non-pressure part of the cylinder;

(iv) On a plate attached to the top of the cylinder or permanent part thereof; sufficient space must be left on the plate to provide for stamping at least six retest dates; the plate must be at least1/16 inch thick and must be attached by welding, or by brazing at a temperature of at least 1100 °F., throughout all edges of the plate;

(v) On the neck, neckring, valve boss, valve protection sleeve, or similar part permanently attached to the top of the cylinder; or

(vi) On the footring permanently attached to the cylinder, provided the water capacity of the cylinder does not exceed 30 pounds.

(2) [Reserved]

[85 FR 85424, Dec. 28, 2020]

§ 178.53 Specification 4D welded steel cylinders for aircraft use.

(a) Type, size, and service pressure. A DOT 4D cylinder is a welded steel sphere (two seamless hemispheres) or circumferentially welded cylinder (two seamless drawn shells) with a water capacity not over 100 pounds and a service pressure of at least 300 but not over 500 psig. Cylinders closed in by spinning process are not authorized.

(b) Steel. Open-hearth or electric steel of uniform and weldable quality must be used. Content may not exceed the following: Carbon, 0.25; phosphorus, 0.045; sulphur, 0.050, except that the following steels commercially known as 4130X and Type 304, 316, 321, and 347 stainless steels may be used with proper welding procedure. A heat of steel made under table 1 in this paragraph (b), check chemical analysis of which is slightly out of the specified range, is acceptable, if satisfactory in all other respects, provided the tolerances shown in table 2 in this paragraph (b) are not exceeded, except as approved by the Associate Administrator. The following chemical analyses are authorized:

Table 1 - 4130X Steel

4130X Percent
Carbon 0.25/0.35.
Manganese 0.40/0.60.
Phosphorus 0.04 max.
Sulphur 0.05 max
Silicon 0.15/0.35.
Chromium 0.80/1.10.
Molybdenum 0.15/0.25.
Zirconium None.
Nickel None.

Table 2 - Authorized Stainless Steels

Stainless steels
304
(percent)
316
(percent)
321
(percent)
347
(percent)
Carbon (max) 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08
Manganese (max) 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00
Phosphorus (max) .030 .045 .030 .030
Sulphur (max) .030 .030 .030 .030
Silicon (max) .75 1.00 .75 .75
Nickel 8.0/11.0 10.0/14.0 9.0/13.0 9.0/13.0
Chromium 18.0/20.0 16.0/18.0 17.0/20.0 17.0/20.0
Molybdenum 2.0/3.0
Titanium (1)
Columbium (2)

Table 3 - Check Analysis Tolerances

Element Limit or maximum specified
(percent)
Tolerance (percent) over the maximum limit or under the minimum limit
Under minimum limit Over maximum limit
Carbon To 0.15 incl 0.01 0.01
Over 0.15 to 0.40 incl .03 .04
Manganese To 0.60 incl .03 .03
Over 1.15 to 2.50 incl .05 .05
Phosphorus1 All ranges .01
Sulphur All ranges .01
Silicon To 0.30 incl .02 .03
Over 0.30 to 1.00 incl .05 .05
Nickel Over 5.30 to 10.00 incl .10 .10
Over 10.00 to 14.00 incl .15 .15
Chromium To 0.90 incl .03 .03
Over 0.90 to 2.10 incl .05 .05
Over 15.00 to 20.00 incl .20 .20
Molybdenum To 0.20 incl .01 .01
Over 0.20 to 0.40 incl .02 .02
Over 1.75 to 3.0 incl .10 .10
Titanium All ranges .05 .05
Columbium All ranges .05 .05

(c) Identification of material. Material must be identified by any suitable method except that plates and billets for hotdrawn cylinders must be marked with the heat number.

(d) Manufacture. Cylinders must be manufactured using equipment and processes adequate to ensure that each cylinder produced conforms to the requirements of this subpart. No defect is permitted that is likely to weaken the finished container appreciably. A reasonably smooth and uniform surface finish is required. Welding procedures and operators must be qualified in accordance with CGA Pamphlet C-3 (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter).

(e) Wall thickness. The wall stress at the minimum test pressure may not exceed 24,000 psi, except where steels commercially known as 4130X, types 304, 316, 321, and 347 stainless steels are used, stress at the test pressures may not exceed 37,000 psi. The minimum wall thickness for any container having a capacity of 1,100 cubic inches or less is 0.04 inch. The minimum wall thickness for any container having a capacity in excess of 1,100 cubic inches is 0.095 inch. Calculations must be done by the following:

(1) Calculation for a “sphere” must be made by the formula:

S = PD / 4tE

Where:

S = wall stress in psi;

P = test pressure prescribed for water jacket test, i.e., at least two times service pressure, in psig;

D = outside diameter in inches;

t = minimum wall thickness in inches;

E = 0.85 (provides 85 percent weld efficiency factor which must be applied in the girth weld area and heat affected zones which zone must extend a distance of 6 times wall thickness from center line of weld);

E = 1.0 (for all other areas).

(2) Calculation for a cylinder must be made by the formula:

S = [P(1.3D2 + 0.4d2)] / (D2 − dT12)

Where:

S = wall stress in psi;

P = test pressure prescribed for water jacket test, i.e., at least two times service pressure, in psig;

D = outside diameter in inches;

d = inside diameter in inches.

(f) Heat treatment. The completed cylinders must be uniformly and properly heat-treated prior to tests.

(g) Openings in container. Openings in cylinders must comply with the following:

(1) Each opening in the container, except those for safety devices, must be provided with a fitting, boss, or pad, securely attached to the container by brazing or by welding or by threads. If threads are used, they must comply with the following:

(i) Threads must be clean cut, even, without checks, and tapped to gauge.

(ii) Taper threads must be of a length not less than that specified for American Standard taper pipe threads.

(iii) Straight threads, having at least 4 engaged threads, must have a tight fit and calculated shear strength of at least 10 times the test pressure of the container. Gaskets, adequate to prevent leakage, are required.

(2) Closure of a fitting, boss, or pad must be adequate to prevent leakage.

(h) Pressure testing. Each cylinder must successfully withstand a pressure test as follows:

(1) Lot testing.

(i) At least one cylinder selected at random out of each lot of 200 or fewer must be tested by water-jacket or direct expansion as prescribed in CGA C-1 (IBR; see § 171.7 of this subchapter). The testing equipment must be calibrated as prescribed in CGA C-1. All testing equipment and pressure indicating devices must be accurate within the parameters defined in CGA C-1.

(ii) The selected cylinder must be tested to a minimum of three (3) times service pressure.

(iii) The minimum test pressure must be maintained be maintained at least 30 seconds and sufficiently longer to ensure complete expansion. Any internal pressure applied after heat-treatment and prior to the official test may not exceed 90 percent of the test pressure. If, due to failure of the test apparatus or operator error, the test pressure cannot be maintained, the test may be repeated in accordance with CGA C-1, section 5.7.2.

(iv) Permanent volumetric expansion may not exceed 10 percent of the total volumetric expansion at test pressure.

(2) Pressure testing.

(i) The remaining cylinders in each lot must be tested by the proof pressure water-jacket or direct expansion test method as prescribed in CGA C-1. The minimum test pressure must be maintained for the specific timeframe and the testing equipment must be calibrated as prescribed in CGA C-1. Further, all testing equipment and pressure indicating devices must be accurate within the parameters defined in CGA C-1. Determination of expansion properties is not required.

(ii) Each cylinder must be tested to a minimum of two (2) times service pressure and show no defect. If, due to failure of the test apparatus or operator error, the test pressure cannot be maintained, the test may be repeated in accordance with CGA C-1 5.7.2 or 7.1.2, as appropriate.

(3) Alternative volumetric expansion testing. As an alternative to the testing prescribed in paragraphs (h)(1) and (2) of this section, every cylinder may be volumetrically expansion tested by the water jacket or direct expansion test method. The testing equipment must be calibrated as prescribed in CGA C-1. All testing equipment and pressure indicating devices must be accurate within the parameters defined in CGA C-1.

(i) Each cylinder must be tested to a minimum of at least two (2) times its service pressure.

(ii) The minimum test pressure must be maintained at least 30 seconds and sufficiently longer to ensure complete expansion. Any internal pressure applied after heat-treatment and previous to the official test may not exceed 90 percent of the test pressure. If, due to failure of the test apparatus or operator error, the test pressure cannot be maintained, the test may be repeated in accordance with CGA C-1, section 5.7.2.

(iii) Permanent volumetric expansion may not exceed 10 percent of total volumetric expansion at test pressure.

(i) Flattening test for spheres and cylinders. Spheres and cylinders must be subjected to a flattening test as follows:

(1) One sphere taken at random out of each lot of 200 or less must be subjected to a flattening test as follows:

(i) The test must be performed after the hydrostatic test.

(ii) The test must be between parallel steel plates on a press with a welded seam at right angles to the plates. Any projecting appurtenances may be cut off (by mechanical means only) prior to crushing.

(2) One cylinder taken at random out of each lot of 200 or less must be subjected to a flattening test, as follows:

(i) The test must be performed after the hydrostatic test.

(ii) The test must be between knife edges, wedge shaped, 60° angle, rounded to1/2 inch radius. For lots of 30 or less, physical tests are authorized to be made on a ring at least 8 inches long cut from each cylinder and subjected to the same heat treatment as the finished cylinder.

(j) Physical test and specimens for spheres and cylinders. Spheres and cylinders must be subjected to a physical test as follows:

(1) Physical test for spheres are required on 2 specimens cut from a flat representative sample plate of the same heat taken at random from the steel used to produce the sphere. This flat steel from which the 2 specimens are to be cut must receive the same heat-treatment as the spheres themselves. Sample plates must be taken for each lot of 200 or less spheres.

(2) Specimens for spheres must have a gauge length 2 inches with a width not over 11/2 inches, or a gauge length at least 24 times the thickness with a width not over 6 times the thickness is authorized when a wall is not over3/16 inch thick.

(3) Physical test for cylinders is required on 2 specimens cut from 1 cylinder taken at random out of each lot of 200 or less. For lots of 30 or less, physical tests are authorized to be made on a ring at least 8 inches long cut from each cylinder and subjected to the same heat treatment as the finished cylinder.

(4) Specimens for cylinders must conform to the following:

(i) A gauge length of 8 inches with a width not over 11/2 inches, or a gauge length of 2 inches with a width not over 11/2 inches, or a gauge length at least 24 times the thickness with a width not over 6 times the thickness is authorized when a cylinder wall is not over3/16 inch thick.

(ii) The specimen, exclusive of grip ends, may not be flattened. Grip ends may be flattened to within 1 inch of each end of the reduced section. Heating of the specimen for any purpose is not authorized.

(5) The yield strength in tension must be the stress corresponding to a permanent strain of 0.2 percent of the gauge length. The following conditions apply:

(i) The yield strength must be determined by either the “offset” method or the “extension under load” method as prescribed in ASTM E 8 (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter).

(ii) In using the “extension under load” method, the total strain (or “extension under load”) corresponding to the stress at which the 0.2 percent permanent strain occurs may be determined with sufficient accuracy by calculating the elastic extension of the gauge length under appropriate load and adding thereto 0.2 percent of the gauge length. Elastic extension calculations must be based on an elastic modulus of 30,000,000. In the event of controversy, the entire stress-strain diagram must be plotted and the yield strength determined from the 0.2 percent offset.

(iii) For the purpose of strain measurement, the initial strain must be set while the specimen is under a stress of 12,000 psi and the strain indicator reading being set at the calculated corresponding strain.

(iv) Cross-head speed of the testing machine may not exceed1/8 inch per minute during yield strength determination.

(k) Acceptable results for physical and flattening tests. Either of the following is an acceptable result:

(1) An elongation of at least 40 percent for a 2 inch gauge length or at least 20 percent in other cases and yield strength not over 73 percent of tensile strength. In this instance, the flattening test is not required.

(2) An elongation of at least 20 percent for a 2 inch gauge length or 10 percent in other cases. Flattening is required to 50 percent of the original outside diameter without cracking.

(l) Rejected cylinders. Reheat-treatment is authorized for rejected cylinders. Subsequent thereto, containers must pass all prescribed tests to be acceptable. Repair of welded seams by welding prior to reheat-treatment is authorized.

(m) Marking. Marking on each container by stamping plainly and permanently are only authorized where the metal is at least 0.09 inch thick, or on a metal nameplate permanently secured to the container by means other than soft solder, or by means that would not reduce the wall thickness.

[Amdt. 178-114, 61 FR 25942, May 23, 1996, as amended at 66 FR 45386, 45388, Aug. 28, 2001; 67 FR 51653, Aug. 8, 2002; 68 FR 75748, Dec. 31, 2003; 85 FR 85426, Dec. 28, 2020]

§ 178.55 Specification 4B240ET welded or brazed cylinders.

(a) Type, spinning process, size and service pressure. A DOT 4B240ET cylinder is a brazed type cylinder made from electric resistance welded tubing. The maximum water capacity of this cylinder is 12 pounds or 333 cubic inches and the service must be 240 psig. The maximum outside diameter of the shell must be five inches and maximum length of the shell is 21 inches. Cylinders closed in by a spinning process are authorized.

(b) Steel. Open-hearth, basic oxygen, or electric steel of uniform quality must be used. Plain carbon steel content may not exceed the following: Carbon, 0.25; phosphorus, 0.045; sulfur, 0.050. The addition of other elements for alloying effect is prohibited.

(c) Identification of material. Material must be identified by any suitable method.

(d) Manufacture. Cylinders must be manufactured using equipment and processes adequate to ensure that each cylinder produced conforms to the requirements of this subpart. No defect is permitted that is likely to weaken the finished cylinder appreciably. A reasonably smooth and uniform surface finish is required. Heads may be attached to shells by lap brazing or may be formed integrally. The thickness of the bottom of cylinders welded or formed by spinning is, under no condition, to be less than two times the minimum wall thickness of the cylindrical shell. Such bottom thicknesses must be measured within an area bounded by a line representing the points of contact between the cylinder and the floor when the cylinder is in a vertical position. Seams must conform to the following:

(1) Circumferential seams must be by brazing only. Heads must be attached to shells by the lap brazing method and must overlap not less than four times the wall thickness. Brazing material must have a melting point of not less than 1000 °F. Heads must have a driving fit with the shell unless the shell is crimped, swedged, or curled over the skirt or flange of the head and be thoroughly brazed until complete penetration of the joint by the brazing material is secured. Brazed joints may be repaired by brazing.

(2) Longitudinal seams in shell must be by electric resistance welded joints only. No repairs to longitudinal joints is permitted.

(3) Welding procedures and operators must be qualified in accordance with CGA C-3 (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter).

(e) Welding or brazing. Only the attachment, by welding or brazing, to the tops and bottoms of cylinders of neckrings, footrings, handles, bosses, pads, and valve protection rings is authorized. Provided that such attachments and the portion of the container to which they are attached are made of weldable steel, the carbon content of which may not exceed 0.25 percent.

(f) Wall thickness. The wall stress must be at least two times the service pressure and may not exceed 18,000 psi. The minimum wall thickness is 0.044 inch. Calculation must be made by the following formula:

S = [P(1.3D2 + 0.4d2)] / (D2 − d2)

Where:

S = wall stress in psig;

P = 2 times service pressure;

D = outside diameter in inches;

d = inside diameter in inches.

(g) Heat treatment. Heads formed by drawing or pressing must be uniformly and properly heat treated prior to tests. Cylinders with integral formed heads or bases must be subjected to a normalizing operation. Normalizing and brazing operations may be combined, provided the operation is carried out at a temperature in excess of the upper critical temperature of the steel.

(h) Openings in cylinders. Openings in cylinders must comply with the following:

(1) Each opening in cylinders, except those for safety devices, must be provided with a fitting, boss, or pad, securely attached to the cylinder by brazing or by welding or by threads. A fitting, boss, or pad must be of steel suitable for the method of attachment employed, and which need not be identified or verified as to analysis, except that if attachment is by welding, carbon content may not exceed 0.25 percent. If threads are used, they must comply with the following:

(i) Threads must be clean cut, even without checks, and tapped to gauge.

(ii) Taper threads to be of length not less than as specified for American Standard taper pipe threads.

(iii) Straight threads, having at least 4 engaged threads, to have tight fit and calculated shear strength at least 10 times the test pressure of the cylinder; gaskets required, adequate to prevent leakage.

(2) Closure of a fitting, boss, or pad must be adequate to prevent leakage.

(i) Pressure testing. Each cylinder must successfully withstand a pressure test as follows:

(1) Lot testing.

(i) At least one (1) cylinder selected at random out of each lot of 200 or fewer must be tested by water-jacket or direct expansion method as prescribed in CGA C-1 (IBR; see § 171.7 of this subchapter). The testing equipment must be calibrated as prescribed in CGA C-1. All testing equipment and pressure indicating devices must be accurate within the parameters defined in CGA C-1.

(ii) Each cylinder must be tested to a minimum of two (2) times service pressure.

(iii) The minimum test pressure must be maintained at least 30 seconds and sufficiently longer to ensure complete expansion. Any internal pressure applied after heat-treatment and prior to the official test may not exceed 90 percent of the test pressure. If, due to failure of the test apparatus or operator error, the test pressure cannot be maintained, the test may be repeated in accordance with CGA C-1, section 5.7.2.

(iv) Permanent volumetric expansion may not exceed 10 percent of the total volumetric expansion at test pressure.

(2) Pressure testing.

(i) The remaining cylinders in each lot must be tested by the proof pressure water-jacket or direct expansion test method as prescribed in CGA C-1. The minimum test pressure must be maintained for the specific timeframe and the testing equipment must be calibrated as prescribed in CGA C-1. All testing equipment and pressure indicating devices must be accurate within the parameters defined in CGA C-1.

(ii) Each cylinder must be tested to a minimum of two (2) times service pressure and show no defect. If, due to failure of the test apparatus or operator error, the test pressure cannot be maintained, the test may be repeated in accordance with CGA C-1 5.7.2 or 7.1.2. Determination of expansion properties is not required.

(3) Burst testing.

(i) For purposes of burst testing, each 1,000 cylinders or fewer successively produced each day constitutes a lot. All cylinders of a lot must be of identical size, construction heat treatment, finish, and quality.

(ii) One cylinder must be selected from each lot and be hydrostatically pressure tested to destruction. If this cylinder bursts below five (5) times the service pressure, then two additional cylinders from the same lot as the previously tested cylinder must be selected and subjected to this test. If either of these cylinders fails by bursting below five (5) times the service pressure then the entire lot must be rejected. All testing equipment and pressure indicating devices must be accurate within the parameters defined in CGA C-1.

(i) Pressure testing. Each cylinder must successfully withstand a pressure test as follows:

(1) Lot testing.

(i) At least one (1) cylinder selected at random out of each lot of 200 or fewer must be tested by water-jacket or direct expansion method as prescribed in CGA C-1 (IBR; see § 171.7 of this subchapter). The testing equipment must be calibrated as prescribed in CGA C-1. All testing equipment and pressure indicating devices must be accurate within the parameters defined in CGA C-1.

(ii) Each cylinder must be tested to a minimum of two (2) times service pressure.

(iii) The minimum test pressure must be maintained at least 30 seconds and sufficiently longer to ensure complete expansion. Any internal pressure applied after heat-treatment and prior to the official test may not exceed 90 percent of the test pressure. If, due to failure of the test apparatus or operator error, the test pressure cannot be maintained, the test may be repeated in accordance with CGA C-1, section 5.7.2.

(iv) Permanent volumetric expansion may not exceed 10 percent of the total volumetric expansion at test pressure.

(2) Pressure testing.

(i) The remaining cylinders in each lot must be tested by the proof pressure water-jacket or direct expansion test method as prescribed in CGA C-1. The minimum test pressure must be maintained for the specific timeframe and the testing equipment must be calibrated as prescribed in CGA C-1. All testing equipment and pressure indicating devices must be accurate within the parameters defined in CGA C-1.

(ii) Each cylinder must be tested to a minimum of two (2) times service pressure and show no defect. If, due to failure of the test apparatus or operator error, the test pressure cannot be maintained, the test may be repeated in accordance with CGA C-1 5.7.2 or 7.1.2. Determination of expansion properties is not required.

(3) Burst testing.

(i) For purposes of burst testing, each 1,000 cylinders or fewer successively produced each day constitutes a lot. All cylinders of a lot must be of identical size, construction heat treatment, finish, and quality.

(ii) One cylinder must be selected from each lot and be hydrostatically pressure tested to destruction. If this cylinder bursts below five (5) times the service pressure, then two additional cylinders from the same lot as the previously tested cylinder must be selected and subjected to this test. If either of these cylinders fails by bursting below five (5) times the service pressure then the entire lot must be rejected. All testing equipment and pressure indicating devices must be accurate within the parameters defined in CGA C-1.

(j) Flattening test. Following the hydrostatic test, one cylinder taken at random out of each lot of 200 or less, must be subjected to a flattening test that is between knife edges, wedge shaped, 60° angle, rounded to1/2 inch radius.

(k) Physical test. A physical test must be conducted to determine yield strength, tensile strength, elongation, and reduction of area of material, as follows:

(1) The test is required on 2 specimens cut from 1 cylinder, or part thereof heat-treated as required, taken at random out of each lot of 200 or less in the case of cylinders of capacity greater than 86 cubic inches and out of each lot of 500 or less for cylinders having a capacity of 86 cubic inches or less.

(2) Specimens must conform to the following:

(i) A gauge length of 8 inches with a width not over 11/2 inches, a gauge length of 2 inches with a width not over 11/2 inches, or a gauge length at least 24 times the thickness with a width not over 6 times the thickness is authorized when a cylinder wall is not over3/16 inch thick.

(ii) The specimen, exclusive of grip ends, may not be flattened. Grip ends may be flattened to within one inch of each end of the reduced section.

(iii) When size of cylinder does not permit securing straight specimens, the specimens may be taken in any location or direction and may be straightened or flattened cold by pressure only, not by blows. When specimens are so taken and prepared, the inspector's report must show in connection with record of physical tests detailed information in regard to such specimens.

(iv) Heating of a specimen for any purpose is not authorized.

(3) The yield strength in tension must be the stress corresponding to a permanent strain of 0.2 percent of the gauge length. The following conditions apply:

(i) The yield strength must be determined by either the “offset” method or the “extension under load” method as prescribed in ASTM E 8 (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter).

(ii) In using the “extension under load” method, the total strain (or “extension under load”) corresponding to the stress at which the 0.2 percent permanent strain occurs may be determined with sufficient accuracy by calculating the elastic extension of the gauge length under appropriate load and adding thereto 0.2 percent of the gauge length. Elastic extension calculations must be based on an elastic modulus of 30,000,000. In the event of controversy, the entire stress-strain diagram must be plotted and the yield strength determined from the 0.2 percent offset.

(iii) For the purpose of strain measurement, the initial strain must be set while the specimen is under a stress of 12,000 psi and the strain indicator reading being set at the calculated corresponding strain.

(iv) Cross-head speed of the testing machine may not exceed1/8 inch per minute during yield strength determination.

(l) Acceptable results for physical and flattening tests. Acceptable results for the physical and flattening tests are an elongation of at least 40 percent for a 2 inch gauge length or at least 20 percent in other cases and a yield strength not over 73 percent of tensile strength. In this instance the flattening test is required, without cracking, to six times the wall thickness with a weld 90° from the direction of the applied load. Two rings cut from the ends of length of pipe used in production of a lot may be used for the flattening test provided the rings accompany the lot which they represent in all thermal processing operations. At least one of the rings must pass the flattening test.

(m) Leakage test. All spun cylinders and plugged cylinders must be tested for leakage by gas or air pressure after the bottom has been cleaned and is free from all moisture, subject to the following conditions:

(1) Pressure, approximately the same as but no less than service pressure, must be applied to one side of the finished bottom over an area of at least1/16 of the total area of the bottom but not less than3/4 inch in diameter, including the closure, for at least 1 minute, during which time the other side of the bottom exposed to pressure must be covered with water and closely examined for indications of leakage. Except as provided in paragraph (n) of this section, cylinders which are leaking must be rejected.

(2) A spun cylinder is one in which an end closure in the finished cylinder has been welded by the spinning process.

(3) A plugged cylinder is one in which a permanent closure in the bottom of a finished cylinder has been effected by a plug.

(4) As a safety precaution, if the manufacturer elects to make this test before the hydrostatic test, he should design his apparatus so that the pressure is applied to the smallest area practicable, around the point of closure, and so as to use the smallest possible volume of air or gas.

(n) Rejected cylinders. Repairs of rejected cylinders is authorized. Cylinders that are leaking must be rejected, except that:

(1) Spun cylinders rejected under the provisions of paragraph (m) of this section may be removed from the spun cylinder category by drilling to remove defective material, tapping, and plugging.

(2) Brazed joints may be rebrazed.

(3) Subsequent to the operations noted in paragraphs (n)(1) and (n)(2) of this section, acceptable cylinders must pass all prescribed tests.

(o) Marking. Markings on each cylinder must be by stamping plainly and permanently on shoulder, top head, neck or valve protection collar which is permanently attached to the cylinders and forming an integral part thereof, provided that cylinders not less than 0.090 inch thick may be stamped on the side wall adjacent to top head.

[Amdt. 178-114, 61 FR 25942, May 23, 1996, as amended at 66 FR 45386, Aug. 28, 2001; 67 FR 51653, Aug. 8, 2002; 68 FR 75748, 75749, Dec. 31, 2003; 85 FR 85426, Dec. 28, 2020]

§ 178.56 Specification 4AA480 welded steel cylinders.

(a) Type, size, and service pressure. A DOT 4AA480 cylinder is a welded steel cylinder having a water capacity (nominal) not over 1,000 pounds water capacity and a service pressure of 480 psig. Closures welded by spinning process not permitted.

(b) Steel. The limiting chemical composition of steel authorized by this specification must be as shown in table I of appendix A to this part.

(c) Identification of material. Material must be identified by any suitable method except that plates and billets for hotdrawn cylinders must be marked with the heat number.

(d) Manufacture. Cylinders must be manufactured using equipment and processes adequate to ensure that each cylinder produced conforms to the requirements of this subpart. No defect is permitted that is likely to weaken the finished cylinder appreciably. A reasonably smooth and uniform surface finish is required. Exposed bottom welds on cylinders over 18 inches long must be protected by footrings. Minimum thickness of heads and bottoms may not be less than 90 percent of the required thickness of the side wall. Seams must be made as follows:

(1) Circumferential seams must be welded. Brazing is not authorized.

(2) Longitudinal seams are not permitted.

(3) Welding procedures and operators must be qualified in accordance with CGA C-3 (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter).

(e) Welding. Only the welding of neckrings, footrings, bosses, pads, and valve protection rings to the tops and bottoms of cylinders is authorized. Provided that such attachments are made of weldable steel, the carbon content of which does not exceed 0.25 percent.

(f) Wall thickness. The wall thickness of the cylinder must conform to the following:

(1) For cylinders with an outside diameter over 5 inches, the minimum wall thickness is 0.078 inch. In any case, the minimum wall thickness must be such that the calculated wall stress at the minimum test pressure (in paragraph (i) of this section) may not exceed the lesser value of either of the following:

(i) One-half of the minimum tensile strength of the material determined as required in paragraph (j) of this section; or

(ii) 35,000 psi.

(2) Calculation must be made by the formula:

S = [P(1.3D2 + 0.4d2)] / (D2 − d2)

Where:

S = wall stress in psi;

P = minimum test pressure prescribed for water jacket test;

D = outside diameter in inches;

d = inside diameter in inches.

(3) The ratio of tangential length to outside diameter may not exceed 4.0 for cylinders with a wall thickness less than 0.100 inch.

(g) Heat treatment. Each cylinder must be uniformly and properly heat treated prior to tests. Any suitable heat treatment in excess of 1100 °F is authorized except that liquid quenching is not permitted. Heat treatment must be accomplished after all forming and welding operations. Heat treatment is not required after welding weldable low carbon parts to attachments of similar material which have been previously welded to the top or bottom of cylinders and properly heat treated, provided such subsequent welding does not produce a temperature in excess of 400 °F., in any part of the top or bottom material.

(h) Openings in cylinders. Openings in cylinders must conform to the following:

(1) All openings must be in the heads or bases.

(2) Each opening in the cylinder, except those for safety devices, must be provided with a fitting boss, or pad, securely attached to the cylinder by welding or by threads. If threads are used they must comply with the following:

(i) Threads must be clean-cut, even without checks and cut to gauge.

(ii) Taper threads to be of length not less than as specified for American Standard taper pipe threads.

(iii) Straight threads having at least 6 engaged threads, must have a tight fit and a calculated shear strength at least 10 times the test pressure of the cylinder. Gaskets, adequate to prevent leakage, are required.

(3) Closure of a fitting, boss or pad must be adequate to prevent leakage.

(i) Pressure testing. Each cylinder must successfully withstand a pressure test as follows:

(1) Lot testing.

(i) At least one (1) cylinder selected at random out of each lot of 200 or fewer must be tested by water-jacket or direct expansion method as prescribed in CGA C-1 (IBR; see § 171.7 of this subchapter). The testing equipment must be calibrated as prescribed in CGA C-1. All testing equipment and pressure indicating devices must be accurate within the parameters defined in CGA C-1.

(ii) The selected cylinder must be tested to a minimum of two (2) times service pressure.

(iii) The minimum test pressure must be maintained at least 30 seconds and sufficiently longer to ensure complete expansion. Any internal pressure applied after heat-treatment and prior to the official test may not exceed 90 percent of the test pressure. If, due to failure of the test apparatus or operator error, the test pressure cannot be maintained, the test may be repeated in accordance with CGA C-1, section 5.7.2.

(iv) Permanent volumetric expansion may not exceed 10 percent of the total volumetric expansion at test pressure.

(v) If the selected cylinder fails, then two (2) additional specimens must be selected at random from the same lot and subjected to the prescribed testing. If either of these fails the test, then each cylinder in that lot must be tested as prescribed in paragraph (i)(l) of this section.

(2) Pressure testing.

(i) The remaining cylinders in each lot must be tested by the proof pressure, water-jacket, or direct expansion test method as prescribed in CGA C-1. The minimum test pressure must be maintained for the specific timeframe and the testing equipment must be calibrated as prescribed in CGA C-1. Further, all testing equipment and pressure indicating devices must be accurate within the parameters defined in CGA C-1.

(ii) Each cylinder must be tested to a minimum of two (2) times service pressure and show no defect. A cylinder showing a defect must be rejected unless it may be requalified under paragraph (m) of this section. If, due to failure of the test apparatus or operator error, the test pressure cannot be maintained, the test may be repeated in accordance with CGA C-1 5.7.2 or 7.1.2, as appropriate. Determination of expansion properties is not required.

(j) Physical test. A physical test must be conducted to determine yield strength, tensile strength, elongation, and reduction of area of material, as follows:

(1) The test is required on 2 specimens cut from one cylinder having passed the hydrostatic test, or part thereof heat-treated as required, taken at random out of each lot of 200 or less.

(2) Specimens must conform to the following:

(i) A gauge length of 8 inches with a width not over 11/2 inches, a gauge length of 2 inches with a width not over 11/2 inches, or a gauge length at least 24 times the thickness with a width not over 6 times thickness is authorized when the cylinder wall is not over3/16 inch thick.

(ii) The specimen, exclusive of grip ends, may not be flattened. Grip ends may be flattened to within one inch of each end of the reduced section.

(iii) When size of cylinder does not permit securing straight specimens, the specimens may be taken in any location or direction and may be straightened or flattened cold, by pressure only, not by blows. When specimens are so taken and prepared, the inspector's report must show in connection with record of physical tests detailed information in regard to such specimens.

(iv) Heating of a specimen for any purpose is not authorized.

(3) The yield strength in tension must be the stress corresponding to a permanent strain of 0.2 percent of the gauge length. The following conditions apply:

(i) The yield strength must be determined by either the “offset” method or the “extension under load” method as prescribed in ASTM E 8 (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter).

(ii) In using the “extension under load” method, the total strain (or “extension under load”), corresponding to the stress at which the 0.2 percent permanent strain occurs may be determined with sufficient accuracy by calculating the elastic extension of the gauge length under appropriate load and adding thereto 0.2 percent of the gauge length. Elastic extension calculations must be based on an elastic modulus of 30,000,000. In the event of controversy, the entire stress-strain diagram must be plotted and the yield strength determined from the 0.2 percent offset.

(iii) For the purpose of strain measurement, the initial strain reference must be set while the specimen is under a stress of 12,000 psi and the strain indicator reading being set at the calculated corresponding strain.

(iv) Cross-head speed of the testing machine may not exceed1/8 inch per minute during yield strength determination.

(k) Elongation. Physical test specimens must show at least a 40 percent elongation for 2-inch gauge lengths or at least a 20 percent elongation in other cases. Except that these elongation percentages may be reduced numerically by 2 for 2-inch specimens and by 1 in other cases for each 7,500 psi increment of tensile strength above 50,000 psi to a maximum of four such increments.

(l) Tests of welds. Welds must be tested as follows:

(1) Tensile test. A specimen must be cut from one cylinder of each lot of 200 or less, or a welded test plate. The welded test plate must be of one of the heats in the lot of 200 or less which it represents, in the same condition and approximately the same thickness as the cylinder wall except that it may not be of a lesser thickness than that required for a quarter size Charpy impact specimen. The weld must be made by the same procedures and subjected to the same heat treatment as the major weld on the cylinder. The specimens must be taken across the major seam and must be prepared and tested in accordance with and must meet the requirements of CGA Pamphlet C-3. Should this specimen fail to meet the requirements, specimens may be taken from two additional cylinders or welded test plates from the same lot and tested. If either of the latter specimens fail to meet the requirements, the entire lot represented must be rejected.

(2) Guided bend test. A root bend test specimen must be cut from the cylinder or a welded test plate, used for the tensile test specified in paragraph (l)(1) of this section. Specimens must be taken from across the major seam and must be prepared and tested in accordance with and must meet the requirements of CGA Pamphlet C-3.

(3) Alternate guided-bend test. This test may be used and must be as required by CGA Pamphlet C-3. The specimen must be bent until the elongation at the outer surface, adjacent to the root of the weld, between the lightly scribed gage lines-a to b, is at least 20 percent, except that this percentage may be reduced for steels having a tensile strength in excess of 50,000 psi, as provided in paragraph (k) of this section.

(m) Rejected cylinders. Reheat treatment of rejected cylinders is authorized. Subsequent thereto, cylinders must pass all prescribed tests to be acceptable. Repair of welded seams by welding is authorized.

(n) Markings. Markings must be stamped plainly and permanently in one of the following locations on the cylinder:

(1) On shoulders and top heads not less than 0.087 inch thick.

(2) On neck, valve boss, valve protection sleeve, or similar part permanently attached to top end of cylinder.

(3) On a plate attached to the top of the cylinder or permanent part thereof: sufficient space must be left on the plate to provide for stamping at least six retest dates: the plate must be at least1/16 inch thick and must be attached by welding or by brazing at a temperature of at least 1100 °F, throughout all edges of the plate.

(4) Variations in location of markings authorized only when necessitated by lack of space.

[Amdt. 178-114, 61 FR 25942, May 23, 1996, as amended at 66 FR 45386, Aug. 28, 2001; 67 FR 51653, Aug. 8, 2002; 68 FR 75748, 75749, Dec. 31, 2003; 85 FR 85427, Dec. 28, 2020]

§ 178.57 Specification 4L welded insulated cylinders.

(a) Type, size, service pressure, and design service temperature. A DOT 4L cylinder is a fusion welded insulated cylinder with a water capacity (nominal) not over 1,000 pounds water capacity and a service pressure of at least 40 but not greater than 500 psig conforming to the following requirements:

(1) For liquefied hydrogen service, the cylinders must be designed to stand on end, with the axis of the cylindrical portion vertical.

(2) The design service temperature is the coldest temperature for which a cylinder is suitable. The required design service temperatures for each cryogenic liquid is as follows:

Cryogenic liquid Design service temperature
Argon Minus 320 °F or colder.
Helium Minus 452 °F or colder.
Hydrogen Minus 42 3 °F or colder.
Neon Minus 411 °F or colder.
Nitrogen Minus 320 °F or colder.
Oxygen Minus 320 °F or colder.

(b) Material. Material use in the construction of this specification must conform to the following:

(1) Inner containment vessel (cylinder). Designations and limiting chemical compositions of steel authorized by this specification must be as shown in table 1 in paragraph (o) of this section.

(2) Outer jacket. Steel or aluminum may be used subject to the requirements of paragraph (o)(2) of this section.

(c) Identification of material. Material must be identified by any suitable method.

(d) Manufacture. Cylinders must be manufactured using equipment and processes adequate to ensure that each cylinder produced conforms to the requirements of this subpart and to the following requirements:

(1) No defect is permitted that is likely to weaken the finished cylinder appreciably. A reasonably smooth and uniform surface finish is required. The shell portion must be a reasonably true cylinder.

(2) The heads must be seamless, concave side to the pressure, hemispherical or ellipsoidal in shape with the major diameter not more than twice the minor diameter. Minimum thickness of heads may not be less than 90 percent of the required thickness of the sidewall. The heads must be reasonably true to shape, have no abrupt shape changes, and the skirts must be reasonably true to round.

(3) The surface of the cylinder must be insulated. The insulating material must be fire resistant. The insulation on non-evacuated jackets must be covered with a steel jacket not less than 0.060-inch thick or an aluminum jacket not less than 0.070 inch thick, so constructed that moisture cannot come in contact with the insulating material. If a vacuum is maintained in the insulation space, the evacuated jacket must be designed for a minimum collapsing pressure of 30 psig differential whether made of steel or aluminum. The construction must be such that the total heat transfer, from the atmosphere at ambient temperature to the contents of the cylinder, will not exceed 0.0005 Btu per hour, per Fahrenheit degree differential in temperature, per pound of water capacity of the cylinder. For hydrogen, cryogenic liquid service, the total heat transfer, with a temperature differential of 520 Fahrenheit degrees, may not exceed that required to vent 30 SCF of hydrogen gas per hour.

(4) For a cylinder having a design service temperature colder than minus 320 °F, a calculation of the maximum weight of contents must be made and that weight must be marked on the cylinder as prescribed in § 178.35.

(5) Welding procedures and operations must be qualified in accordance with CGA Pamphlet C-3 (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter). In addition, an impact test of the weld must be performed in accordance with paragraph (l) of this section as part of the qualification of each welding procedure and operator.

(e) Welding. Welding of the cylinder must be as follows:

(1) All seams of the cylinder must be fusion welded. A means must be provided for accomplishing complete penetration of the joint. Only butt or joggle butt joints for the cylinder seams are authorized. All joints in the cylinder must have reasonably true alignment.

(2) All attachments to the sidewalls and heads of the cylinder must be by fusion welding and must be of a weldable material complying with the impact requirements of paragraph (l) of this section.

(3) For welding the cylinder, each procedure and operator must be qualified in accordance with the sections of CGA Pamphlet C-3 that apply. In addition, impact tests of the weld must be performed in accordance with paragraph (l) of this section as part of the qualification of each welding procedure and operator.

(4) Brazing, soldering and threading are permitted only for joints not made directly to the cylinder body. Threads must comply with the requirements of paragraph (h) of this section.

(f) Wall thickness. The minimum wall thickness of the cylinder must be such that the calculated wall stress at the minimum required test pressure may not exceed the least value of the following:

(1) 45,000 psi.

(2) One-half of the minimum tensile strength across the welded seam determined in paragraph (l) of this section.

(3) One-half of the minimum tensile strength of the base metal determined as required in paragraph (j) of this section.

(4) The yield strength of the base metal determined as required in paragraph (l) of this section.

(5) Further provided that wall stress for cylinders having longitudinal seams may not exceed 85 percent of the above value, whichever applies.

(6) Calculation must be made by the following formula:

S = [P(1.3D2 + 0.4d2)] / (D2 − d2)

where:

S = wall stress in pounds psi;

P = minimum test pressure prescribed for pressure test in psig;

D = outside diameter in inches;

d = inside diameter in inches.

(g) Heat treatment. Heat treatment is not permitted.

(h) Openings in cylinder. Openings in cylinders must conform to the following:

(1) Openings are permitted in heads only. They must be circular and may not exceed 3 inches in diameter or one third of the cylinder diameter, whichever is less. Each opening in the cylinder must be provided with a fitting, boss or pad, either integral with, or securely attached to, the cylinder body by fusion welding. Attachments to a fitting, boss or pad may be made by welding, brazing, mechanical attachment, or threading.

(2) Threads must comply with the following:

(i) Threads must be clean-cut, even, without checks and cut to gauge.

(ii) Taper threads to be of a length not less than that specified for NPT.

(iii) Straight threads must have at least 4 engaged threads, tight fit and calculated shear strength at least 10 times the test pressure of the cylinder. Gaskets, which prevent leakage and are inert to the hazardous material, are required.

(i) Pressure testing. Each cylinder, before insulating and jacketing, must successfully withstand a pressure test as follows:

(1) The cylinder must be tested by the proof pressure, water-jacket, or direct expansion test method as prescribed in CGA C-1 (IBR; see § 171.7 of this subchapter). The testing equipment must be calibrated as prescribed in CGA C-1. All testing equipment and pressure indicating devices must be accurate within the parameters defined in CGA C-1.

(2) Each cylinder must be tested to a minimum of two (2) times service pressure.

(3) The minimum test pressure must be maintained at least 30 seconds. Any internal pressure applied after heat-treatment and prior to the official test may not exceed 90 percent of the test pressure. If, due to failure of the test apparatus or operator error, the test pressure cannot be maintained, the test may be repeated in accordance with CGA C-1 5.7.2 or 7.1.2. Determination of expansion properties is not required.

(4) There must be no evidence of leakage, visible distortion or other defect.

(j) Physical test. A physical test must be conducted to determine yield strength, tensile strength, and elongation as follows:

(1) The test is required on 2 specimens selected from material of each heat and in the same condition as that in the completed cylinder.

(2) Specimens must conform to the following:

(i) A gauge length of 8 inches with a width not over 11/2 inches, a gauge length of 2 inches with width not over 11/2 inches, or a gauge length at least 24 times thickness with a width not over 6 times thickness (authorized when cylinder wall is not over1/16 inch thick).

(ii) The specimen, exclusive of grip ends, may not be flattened. Grip ends may be flattened to within one inch of each end of the reduced section.

(iii) When size of the cylinder does not permit securing straight specimens, the specimens may be taken in any location or direction and may be straightened or flattened cold by pressure only, not by blows. When specimens are so taken and prepared, the inspector's report must show in connection with record of physical tests detailed information in regard to such specimens.

(iv) Heating of a specimen for any purpose is not authorized.

(3) The yield strength in tension must be the stress corresponding to a permanent strain of 0.2 percent of the gauge length. The following conditions apply:

(i) The yield strength must be determined by either the “offset” method or the “extension under load” method as prescribed in ASTM E 8 (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter).

(ii) In using the “extension under load” method, the total strain (or “extension under load”), corresponding to the stress at which the 0.2 percent permanent strain occurs may be determined with sufficient accuracy by calculating the elastic expansion of the gauge length under appropriate load and adding thereto 0.2 percent of the gauge length. Elastic extension calculations must be based on the elastic modulus of the material used. In the event of controversy, the entire stress-strain diagram must be plotted and the yield strength determined from the 0.2 percent offset.

(iii) For the purpose of strain measurement, the initial strain reference must be set while the specimen is under a stress of 12,000 psi and the strain indicator reading being set at the calculated corresponding strain.

(iv) Cross-head speed of the testing machine may not exceed1/8 inch per minute during yield strength determination.

(k) Acceptable results for physical tests. Physical properties must meet the limits specified in paragraph (o)(1), table 1, of this section, for the particular steel in the annealed condition. The specimens must show at least a 20 percent elongation for a 2-inch gage length. Except that the percentage may be reduced numerically by 2 for each 7,500 psi increment of tensile strength above 100,000 psi to a maximum of 5 such increments. Yield strength and tensile strength must meet the requirements of paragraph (o)(1), table 1, of this section.

(l) Tests of welds. Welds must be tested as follows:

(1) Tensile test. A specimen must be cut from one cylinder of each lot of 200 or less, or welded test plate. The welded test plate must be of one of the heats in the lot of 200 or less which it represents, in the same condition and approximately the same thickness as the cylinder wall except that it may not be of a lesser thickness than that required for a quarter size Charpy impact specimen. The weld must be made by the same procedures and subjected to the same heat treatment as the major weld on the cylinder. The specimen must be taken across the major seam and must be prepared in accordance with and must meet the requirements of CGA Pamphlet C-3. Should this specimen fail to meet the requirements, specimens may be taken from two additional cylinders or welded test plates from the same lot and tested. If either of the latter specimens fails to meet the requirements, the entire lot represented must be rejected.

(2) Guided bend test. A “root” bend test specimen must be cut from the cylinder or welded test plate, used for the tensile test specified in paragraph (l)(1) of this section and from any other seam or equivalent welded test plate if the seam is welded by a procedure different from that used for the major seam. Specimens must be taken across the particular seam being tested and must be prepared and tested in accordance with and must meet the requirements of CGA Pamphlet C-3.

(3) Alternate guided-bend test. This test may be used and must be as specified in CGA Pamphlet C-3. The specimen must be bent until the elongation at the outer surface, adjacent to the root of the weld, between the lightly scribed gage lines a to b, is at least 20 percent, except that this percentage may be reduced for steels having a tensile strength in excess of 100,000 psig, as provided in paragraph (c) of this section.

(4) Impact tests. One set of three impact test specimens (for each test) must be prepared and tested for determining the impact properties of the deposited weld metal -

(i) As part of the qualification of the welding procedure.

(ii) As part of the qualification of the operators.

(iii) For each “heat” of welding rodor wire used.

(iv) For each 1,000 feet of weld made with the same heat of welding rod or wire.

(v) All impact test specimens must be of the charpy type, keyhole or milled U-notch, and must conform in all respects to ASTM E 23 (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter). Each set of impact specimens must be taken across the weld and have the notch located in the weld metal. When the cylinder material thickness is 2.5 mm or thicker, impact specimens must be cut from a cylinder or welded test plate used for the tensile or bend test specimens. The dimension along the axis of the notch must be reduced to the largest possible of 10 mm, 7.5 mm, 5 mm or 2.5 mm, depending upon cylinder thickness. When the material in the cylinder or welded test plate is not of sufficient thickness to prepare 2.5 mm impact test specimens, 2.5 mm specimens must be prepared from a welded test plate made from1/8 inch thick material meeting the requirements specified in paragraph (o)(1), table 1, of this section and having a carbon analysis of .05 minimum, but not necessarily from one of the heats used in the lot of cylinders. The test piece must be welded by the same welding procedure as used on the particular cylinder seam being qualified and must be subjected to the same heat treatment.

(vi) Impact test specimens must be cooled to the design service temperature. The apparatus for testing the specimens must conform to requirements of ASTM Standard E 23. The test piece, as well as the handling tongs, must be cooled for a length of time sufficient to reach the service temperature. The temperature of the cooling device must be maintained within a range of plus or minus 3 °F. The specimen must be quickly transferred from the cooling device to the anvil of the testing machine and broken within a time lapse of not more than six seconds.

(vii) The impact properties of each set of impact specimens may not be less than the values in the following table:

Size of specimen Minimum
impact value required for avg. of each set of three specimens (ft.-lb.)
Minimum
impact value permitted on one only of a set of three (ft.-lb.)
10 mm × 10 mm 15 10
10 mm × 7.5 mm 12.5 8.5
10 mm × 5 mm 10 7.0
10 mm × 2.5 mm 5 3.5

(viii) When the average value of the three specimens equals or exceeds the minimum value permitted for a single specimen and the value for more than one specimen is below the required average value, or when the value for one specimen is below the minimum value permitted for a single specimen, a retest of three additional specimens must be made. The value of each of these retest specimens must equal or exceed the required average value. When an erratic result is caused by a defective specimen, or there is uncertainty in test procedure, a retest is authorized.

(m) Radiographic examination. Cylinders must be subject to a radiographic examination as follows:

(1) The techniques and acceptability of radiographic inspection must conform to the standards set forth in CGA Pamphlet C-3.

(2) One finished longitudinal seam must be selected at random from each lot of 100 or less successively produced and be radiographed throughout its entire length. Should the radiographic examination fail to meet the requirements of paragraph (m)(1) of this section, two additional seams of the same lot must be examined, and if either of these fail to meet the requirements of (m)(1) of this section, only those passing are acceptable.

(n) Rejected cylinders. Reheat treatment of rejected cylinders is authorized. Subsequent thereto, cylinders must pass all prescribed tests to be acceptable. Welds may be repaired by suitable methods of fusion welding.

(o) Authorized materials of construction. Authorized materials of construction are as follows:

(1) Inner containment vessel (cylinder). Electric furnace steel of uniform quality must be used. Chemical analysis must conform to ASTM A 240/A 240M (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter), Type 304 stainless steel. Chemical analysis must conform to ASTM A240, Type 304 Stainless Steel. A heat of steel made under table 1 and table 2 in this paragraph (o)(1) is acceptable, even though its check chemical analysis is slightly out of the specified range, if it is satisfactory in all other respects, provided the tolerances shown in table 3 in this paragraph (o)(1) are not exceeded. The following chemical analyses and physical properties are authorized:

Table 1 - Authorized Materials

Designation Chemical analysis, limits in percent
Carbon1 0.08 max.
Manganese 2.00 max.
Phosphorus 0.045 max.
Sulphur 0.030 max.
Silicon 1.00 max.
Nickel 8.00-10.50.
Chromium 18.00-20.00.
Molybdenum None.
Titanium None.
Columbium None.

Table 2 - Physical Properties

Physical properties (annealed)
Tensile strength, p.s.i. (minimum) 75,000
Yield strength, p.s.i. (minimum) 30,000
Elongation in 2 inches (minimum) percent 30.0
Elongation other permissible gauge lengths (minimum) percent 15.0

Table 3 - Check Analysis Tolerances

Elements Limit or specified range (percent) Tolerance over the maximum limit or under the minimum limit
Carbon To 0.030, incl 0.005
Over 0.30 to 0.20, incl 0.01
Manganese To 1.00 incl .03
Over 1.00 to 3.00, incl 0.04
Phosphorus1 To 0.040, incl 0.005
Over 0.040 to 0.020 incl 0.010
Sulphur To .40 incl 0.005
Silicon To 1.00, incl 0.05
Nickel Over 5.00 to 10.00, incl 0.10
Over 10.00 to 20.00, incl 0.15
Chromium Over 15.00 to 20.00, incl 0.20

(2) Outer jacket.

(i) Nonflammable cryogenic liquids. Cylinders intended for use in the transportation of nonflammable cryogenic liquid must have an outer jacket made of steel or aluminum.

(ii) Flammable cryogenic liquids. Cylinders intended for use in the transportation of flammable cryogenic liquid must have an outer jacket made of steel.

(p) Markings.

(1) Markings must be stamped plainly and permanently on shoulder or top head of jacket or on a permanently attached plate or head protective ring.

(2) The letters “ST”, followed by the design service temperature (for example, ST-423F), must be marked on cylinders having a design service temperature of colder than minus 320 °F only. Location to be just below the DOT mark.

(3) The maximum weight of contents, in pounds (for example, “Max. Content 51 #”), must be marked on cylinders having a design service temperature colder than minus 320 °F only. Location to be near symbol.

(4) Special orientation instructions must be marked on the cylinder (for example, THIS END UP), if the cylinder is used in an orientation other than vertical with openings at the top of the cylinder.

(5) If the jacket of the cylinder is constructed of aluminum, the letters “AL” must be marked after the service pressure marking. Example: DOT-4L150 AL.

(6) Except for serial number and jacket material designation, each marking prescribed in this paragraph (p) must be duplicated on each cylinder by any suitable means.

(q) Inspector's report. In addition to the information required by § 178.35, the inspector's reports must contain information on:

(1) The jacket material and insulation type;

(2) The design service temperature

(°F); and

(3) The impact test results, on a lot basis.

[Amdt. 178-114, 61 FR 25942, May 23, 1996, as amended at 66 FR 45386, Aug. 28, 2001; 67 FR 51653, Aug. 8, 2002; 68 FR 75748, Dec. 31, 2003; 85 FR 85427, Dec. 28, 2020]

§ 178.58 Specification 4DA welded steel cylinders for aircraft use.

(a) Type, size, and service pressure. A DOT 4DA is a welded steel sphere (two seamless hemispheres) or a circumferentially welded cylinder (two seamless drawn shells) with a water capacity not over 100 pounds and a service pressure of at least 500 but not over 900 psig.

(b) Steel. Open-hearth or electric steel of uniform quality must be used. A heat of steel made under table 1 in this paragraph (b), check chemical analysis of which is slightly out of the specified range, is acceptable, if satisfactory in all other respects, provided the tolerances shown in table 2 in this paragraph (b) are not exceeded except as approved by the Associate Administrator. The following chemical analyses are authorized:

Table 1 - Authorized Materials

4130 Percent
Carbon 0.28/0.33.
Manganese 0.40/0.60.
Phosphorus 0.040 max.
Sulfur 0.040 max.
Silicon 0.15/0.35.
Chromium 0.80/1.10.
Molybdenum 0.15/0.25.

Table 2 - Check Analysis Tolerances

Element Limit or maximum specified (percent) Tolerance (percent) over the maximum limit or under the minimum limit
Under minimum limit Over maximum limit
Carbon Over 0.15 to 0.40 incl .03 .04
Manganese To 0.60 incl .03 .03
Phosphorus1 All ranges .01
Sulphur All ranges .01
Silicon To 0.30 incl .02 .03
Over 0.30 to 1.00 incl .05 .05
Chromium To 0.90 incl .03 .03
Over 0.90 to 2.10 incl .05 .05
Molybdenum To 0.20 incl .01 .01
Over 0.20 to 0.40, incl .02 .02

(c) Identification of material. Materials must be identified by any suitable method except that plates and billets for hot-drawn containers must be marked with the heat number.

(d) Manufacture. Cylinders must be manufactured in accordance with the following requirements:

(1) By best appliances and methods. No defect is acceptable that is likely to weaken the finished container appreciably. A reasonably smooth and uniform surface finish is required. No abrupt change in wall thickness is permitted. Welding procedures and operators must be qualified in accordance with CGA Pamphlet C-3 (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter).

(2) All seams of the sphere or cylinders must be fusion welded. Seams must be of the butt or joggle butt type and means must be provided for accomplishing complete penetration of the joint.

(e) Welding. Attachments to the container are authorized by fusion welding provided that such attachments are made of weldable steel, the carbon content of which may not exceed 0.25 percent except in the case of 4130 steel.

(f) Wall thickness. The minimum wall thickness must be such that the wall stress at the minimum specified test pressure may not exceed 67 percent of the minimum tensile strength of the steel as determined from the physical and burst tests required and may not be over 70,000 p.s.i. For any diameter container, the minimum wall thickness is 0.040 inch. Calculations must be made by the formulas in (f)(1) or (f)(2) of this section:

(1) Calculation for a sphere must be made by the following formula:

S = PD / 4tE

Where:

S = wall stress in pounds psi;

P = test pressure prescribed for water jacket test, i.e., at least 2 times service pressure, in psig;

D = outside diameter in inches;

t = minimum wall thickness in inches;

E = 0.85 (provides 85 percent weld efficiency factor which must be applied in the girth weld area and heat affected zones which zone must extend a distance of 6 times wall thickness from center line of weld);

E = 1.0 (for all other areas).

(2) Calculation for a cylinder must be made by the following formula:

S = [P(1.3D2 + 0.4d2)] / (D2 − d2)

Where:

S = wall stress in pounds psi;

P = test pressure prescribed for water jacket test, i.e., at least 2 times service pressure, in psig;

D = outside diameter in inches;

d = inside diameter in inches.

(g) Heat treatment. The completed containers must be uniformly and properly heat-treated prior to tests. Heat-treatment of containers of the authorized analysis must be as follows:

(1) All containers must be quenched by oil, or other suitable medium except as provided in paragraph (g)(4) of this section.

(2) The steel temperature on quenching must be that recommended for the steel analysis, but may not exceed 1,750 °F.

(3) The steel must be tempered at the temperature most suitable for the analysis except that in no case shall the tempering temperature be less than 1,000 °F.

(4) The steel may be normalized at a temperature of 1,650 °F instead of being quenched, and containers so normalized need not be tempered.

(5) All cylinders, if water quenched or quenched with a liquid producing a cooling rate in excess of 80 percent of the cooling rate of water, must be inspected by the magnetic particle or dye penetrant method to detect the presence of quenching cracks. Any cylinder found to have a quench crack must be rejected and may not be requalified.

(h) Openings in container. Openings in the container must comply with the following requirements:

(1) Each opening in the container must be provided with a fitting, boss, or pad of weldable steel securely attached to the container by fusion welding.

(2) Attachments to a fitting, boss, or pad must be adequate to prevent leakage. Threads must comply with the following:

(i) Threads must be clean cut, even, without checks, and tapped to gauge.

(ii) Taper threads to be of length not less than as specified for American Standard taper pipe threads.

(iii) Straight threads, having at least 4 engaged threads, to have tight fit and calculated shear strength at least 10 times the test pressure of the container; gaskets required, adequate to prevent leakage.

(i) Pressure testing. Each cylinder must successfully withstand a pressure test as follows:

(1) The test must be by water-jacket or direct expansion method as prescribed in CGA C-1 (IBR; see § 171.7 of this subchapter). The testing equipment must be calibrated as prescribed in CGA C-1. All testing equipment and pressure indicating devices must be accurate within the parameters defined in CGA C-1.

(2) Each cylinder must be tested to a minimum of two (2) times service pressure.

(3) The minimum test pressure must be maintained at least 30 seconds and sufficiently longer to ensure complete expansion. Any internal pressure applied after heat-treatment and prior to the official test may not exceed 90 percent of the test pressure. If, due to failure of the test apparatus or operator error, the test pressure cannot be maintained, the test may be repeated in accordance with CGA C-1, section 5.7.2.

(4) Permanent volumetric expansion may not exceed 10 percent of the total volumetric expansion at test pressure.

(j) Burst test. One container taken at random out of 200 or less must be hydrostatically tested to destruction. The rupture pressure must be included as part of the inspector's report.

(k) Flattening test. Spheres and cylinders must be subjected to a flattening test as follows:

(1) Flattening test for spheres. One sphere taken at random out of each lot of 200 or less must be subjected to a flattening test as follows:

(i) The test must be performed after the hydrostatic test.

(ii) The test must be at the weld between the parallel steel plates on a press with a welded seam, at right angles to the plates. Any projecting appurtenances may be cut off (by mechanical means only) prior to crushing.

(2) Flattening test for cylinders. One cylinder taken at random out of each lot of 200 or less, must be subjected to a flattening test as follows:

(i) The test must be performed after the hydrostatic test.

(ii) The test cylinder must be placed between wedge-shaped knife edges having a 60° angle, rounded to a1/2-inch radius.

(l) Radiographic inspection. Radiographic examinations is required on all welded joints which are subjected to internal pressure, except that at the discretion of the disinterested inspector, openings less than 25 percent of the sphere diameter need not be subjected to radiographic inspection. Evidence of any defects likely to seriously weaken the container must be cause for rejection.

(m) Physical test and specimens for spheres and cylinders. Spheres and cylinders must be subjected to a physical test as follows:

(1) A physical test for a sphere is required on 2 specimens cut from a flat representative sample plate of the same heat taken at random from the steel used to produce the sphere. This flat steel from which the 2 specimens are to be cut must receive the same heat-treatment as the spheres themselves. Sample plates to be taken for each lot of 200 or less spheres.

(2) Specimens for spheres have a gauge length of 2 inches with a width not over 11/2 inches, or a gauge length at least 24 times thickness with a width not over 6 times thickness is authorized when wall of sphere is not over3/16 inch thick.

(3) A physical test for cylinders is required on 2 specimens cut from 1 cylinder taken at random out of each lot of 200 or less.

(4) Specimens for cylinder must conform to the following:

(i) A gauge length of 8 inches with a width not over 11/2 inches, a gauge length of 2 inches with a width not over 11/2 inches, a gauge length at least 24 times thickness with a width not over 6 times thickness is authorized when a cylinder wall is not over3/16 inch thick.

(ii) The specimen, exclusive of grip ends, may not be flattened. Grip ends may be flattened to within 1 inch of each end of the reduced section.

(iii) Heating of a specimen for any purpose is not authorized.

(5) The yield strength in tension must be the stress corresponding to a permanent strain of 0.2 percent of the gauge length. The following conditions apply:

(i) The yield strength must be determined by either the “offset” method or the “extension under load” method as prescribed in ASTM E 8 (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter).

(ii) In using the “extension under load” method, the total strain (or “extension under load”) corresponding to the stress at which the 0.2 percent permanent strain occurs may be determined with sufficient accuracy by calculating the elastic extension of the gauge length under appropriate load and adding thereto 0.2 percent of the gauge length. Elastic extension calculations must be based on an elastic modulus of 30,000,000. In the event of controversy, the entire stress-strain diagram must be plotted and the yield strength determined from the 0.2 percent offset.

(iii) For the purpose of strain measurement, the initial strain must be set while the specimen is under a stress of 12,000 psi and the strain indicator reading being set at the calculated corresponding strain.

(iv) Cross-head speed of the testing machine may not exceed1/8 inch per minute during yield strength determination.

(n) Acceptable results for physical, flattening, and burst tests. The following are acceptable results of the physical, flattening and burst test:

(1) Elongation must be at least 20 percent for a 2-inch gauge length or 10 percent in other cases.

(2) Flattening is required to 50 percent of the original outside diameter without cracking.

(3) Burst pressure must be at least 3 times service pressure.

(o) Rejected containers. Reheat-treatment of rejected cylinders is authorized. Subsequent thereto, containers must pass all prescribed tests to be acceptable. Repair of welded seams by welding prior to reheat-treatment is authorized.

(p) Marking. Markings on each container must be stamped plainly and permanently on a permanent attachment or on a metal nameplate permanently secured to the container by means other than soft solder.

[Amdt. 178-114, 61 FR 25942, May 23, 1996, as amended at 66 FR 45386, 45388, Aug. 28, 2001; 67 FR 51654, Aug. 8, 2002; 67 FR 61015, Sept. 27, 2002; 68 FR 75748, Dec. 31, 2003; 85 FR 85427, Dec. 28, 2020]

§ 178.59 Specification 8 steel cylinders with porous fillings for acetylene.

(a) Type and service pressure. A DOT 8 cylinder is a seamless cylinder with a service pressure of 250 psig. The following steel is authorized:

(1) A longitudinal seam if forge lap welded;

(2) Attachment of heads by welding or by brazing by dipping process; or

(3) A welded circumferential body seam if the cylinder has no longitudinal seam.

(b) Steel. Open-hearth, electric or basic oxygen process steel of uniform quality must be used. Content percent may not exceed the following: Carbon, 0.25; phosphorus, 0.045; sulphur, 0.050.

(c) Identification of steel. Materials must be identified by any suitable method except that plates and billets for hot-drawn cylinders must be marked with the heat number.

(d) Manufacture. Cylinders must be manufactured using equipment and processes adequate to ensure that each cylinder produced conforms to the requirements of this subpart. No defect is acceptable that is likely to weaken the finished cylinder appreciably. A reasonably smooth and uniform surface finish is required. Welding procedures and operators must be qualified in accordance with CGA Pamphlet C-3 (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter).

(e) Exposed bottom welds. Exposed bottom welds on cylinders over 18 inches long must be protected by footrings.

(f) Heat treatment. Body and heads formed by drawing or pressing must be uniformly and properly heat treated prior to tests.

(g) Openings. Openings in the cylinders must comply with the following:

(1) Standard taper pipe threads are required;

(2) Length may not be less than as specified for American Standard pipe threads; tapped to gauge; clean cut, even, and without checks.

(h) Pressure testing. Each cylinder must successfully withstand a pressure test as follows:

(1) Lot testing.

(i) At least one (1) cylinder selected at random out of each lot of 200 or fewer must be tested by water-jacket or direct expansion method as prescribed in CGA C-1 (IBR; see § 171.7 of this subchapter). The testing equipment must be calibrated as prescribed in CGA C-1. All testing equipment and pressure indicating devices must be accurate within the parameters defined in CGA C-1.

(ii) The selected cylinder must be tested to a minimum of 750 psig.

(iii) The minimum test pressure must be maintained at least 30 seconds and sufficiently longer to ensure complete expansion. Any internal pressure applied after heat-treatment and prior to the official test may not exceed 90 percent of the test pressure. If, due to failure of the test apparatus or operator error, the test pressure cannot be maintained, the test may be repeated in accordance with CGA C-1, section 5.7.2.

(iv) Permanent volumetric expansion may not exceed 10 percent of the total volumetric expansion at test pressure.

(v) If the selected cylinder passes the volumetric expansion test, each remaining cylinder in the lot must be pressure tested in accordance with paragraph (h)(2) of this section. If the selected cylinder fails, each cylinder in the lot must be tested by water-jacket or direct expansion method as prescribed in CGA C-1 at 750 psig. Each cylinder with a permanent expansion that does not exceed 10% is acceptable.

(2) Pressure testing.

(i) If the selected cylinder passes the water-jacket or direct expansion test, the remaining cylinders in each lot must be pressure tested by the proof pressure, water-jacket or direct expansion test method as prescribed in CGA C-1. The minimum test pressure must be maintained for the specific timeframe and the testing equipment must be calibrated as prescribed in CGA C-1. Further, all testing equipment and pressure indicating devices must be accurate within the parameters defined in CGA C-1.

(ii) Each cylinder must be tested between 500 and 600 psig and show no defect. If, due to failure of the test apparatus or operator error, the test pressure cannot be maintained, the test may be repeated in accordance with CGA C-1 section 5.7.2 or 7.1.2, as appropriate. Determination of expansion properties is not required.

(i) Leakage test. Cylinders with bottoms closed in by spinning must be subjected to a leakage test by setting the interior air or gas pressure to not less than the service pressure. Cylinders which leak must be rejected.

(j) Physical test. A physical test must be conducted as follows:

(1) The test is required on 2 specimens cut longitudinally from 1 cylinder or part thereof taken at random out of each lot of 200 or less, after heat treatment.

(2) Specimens must conform to a gauge length of 8 inches with a width not over 11/2 inches, a gauge length of 2 inches with width not over 11/2, or a gauge length at least 24 times thickness with a width not over 6 times thickness is authorized when a cylinder wall is not over3/16 inch thick.

(3) The yield strength in tension must be the stress corresponding to a permanent strain of 0.2 percent of the gauge length. The following conditions apply:

(i) The yield strength must be determined by either the “offset” method or the “extension under load” method as prescribed in ASTM E 8 (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter).

(ii) In using the “extension under load” method, the total strain (or “extension under load”) corresponding to the stress at which the 0.2 percent permanent strain occurs may be determined with sufficient accuracy by calculating the elastic extension of the gauge length under appropriate load and adding thereto 0.2 percent of the gauge length. Elastic extension calculations must be based on an elastic modulus of 30,000,000. In the event of controversy, the entire stress-strain diagram must be plotted and the yield strength determined from the 0.2 offset.

(iii) For the purpose of strain measurement, the initial strain must be set while the specimen is under a stress of 12,000 psi and the strain indicator reading being set at the calculated corresponding strain.

(iv) Cross-head speed of the testing machine may not exceed1/8 inch per minute during yield strength determination.

(4) Yield strength may not exceed 73 percent of tensile strength. Elongation must be at least 40 percent in 2 inch or 20 percent in other cases.

(k) Rejected cylinders. Reheat treatment of rejected cylinder is authorized. Subsequent thereto, cylinders must pass all prescribed tests to be acceptable. Repair by welding is authorized.

(l) Porous filling.

(1) Cylinders must be filled with a porous material in accordance with the following:

(i) The porous material may not disintegrate or sag when wet with solvent or when subjected to normal service;

(ii) The porous filling material must be uniform in quality and free of voids, except that a well drilled into the filling material beneath the valve is authorized if the well is filled with a material of such type that the functions of the filling material are not impaired;

(iii) Overall shrinkage of the filling material is authorized if the total clearance between the cylinder shell and filling material, after solvent has been added, does not exceed1/2 of 1 percent of the respective diameter or length, but not to exceed1/8 inch, measured diametrically and longitudinally;

(iv) The clearance may not impair the functions of the filling material;

(v) The installed filling material must meet the requirements of CGA C-12 (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter); and

(vi) Porosity of filling material may not exceed 80 percent except that filling material with a porosity of up to 92 percent may be used when tested with satisfactory results in accordance with CGA Pamphlet C-12.

(2) When the porosity of each cylinder is not known, a cylinder taken at random from a lot of 200 or less must be tested for porosity. If the test cylinder fails, each cylinder in the lot may be tested individually and those cylinders that pass the test are acceptable.

(3) For filling that is molded and dried before insertion in cylinders, porosity test may be made on a sample block taken at random from material to be used.

(4) The porosity of the filling material must be determined. The amount of solvent at 70 °F for a cylinder:

(i) Having shell volumetric capacity above 20 pounds water capacity (nominal) may not exceed the following:

Percent porosity of filler Maximum acetone solvent percent shell capacity by volume
90 to 92 43.4
87 to 90 42.0
83 to 87 40.0
80 to 83 38.6
75 to 80 36.2
70 to 75 33.8
65 to 70 31.4

(ii) Having volumetric capacity of 20 pounds or less water capacity (nominal), may not exceed the following:

Percent porosity of filler Maximum acetone solvent percent shell capacity by volume
90 to 92 41.8
83 to 90 38.5
80 to 83 37.1
75 to 80 34.8
70 to 75 32.5
65 to 70 30.2

(m) Tare weight. The tare weight is the combined weight of the cylinder proper, porous filling, valve, and solvent, without removable cap.

(n) Duties of inspector. In addition to the requirements of § 178.35, the inspector is required to -

(1) Certify chemical analyses of steel used, signed by manufacturer thereof; also verify by, check analyses of samples taken from each heat or from 1 out of each lot of 200 or less, plates, shells, or tubes used.

(2) Verify compliance of cylinder shells with all shell requirements; inspect inside before closing in both ends; verify heat treatment as proper; obtain all samples for all tests and for check analyses; witness all tests; verify threads by gauge; report volumetric capacity and minimum thickness of wall noted.

(3) Prepare report on manufacture of steel shells in form prescribed in § 178.35. Furnish one copy to manufacturer and three copies to the company that is to complete the cylinders.

(4) Determine porosity of filling and tare weights; verify compliance of marking with prescribed requirements; obtain necessary copies of steel shell reports; and furnish complete reports required by this specification to the person who has completed the manufacture of the cylinders and, upon request, to the purchaser. The test reports must be retained by the inspector for fifteen years from the original test date of the cylinder.

(o) Marking.

(1) Marking on each cylinder must be stamped plainly and permanently on or near the shoulder, top head, neck or valve protection collar which is permanently attached to the cylinder and forming integral part thereof.

(2) Tare weight of cylinder, in pounds and ounces, must be marked on the cylinder.

(3) Cylinders, not completed, when delivered must each be marked for identification of each lot of 200 or less.

[Amdt. 178-114, 61 FR 25942, May 23, 1996, as amended at 66 FR 45386, Aug. 28, 2001; 67 FR 61016, Sept. 27, 2002; 67 FR 51654, Aug. 8, 2002; 68 FR 75748, 75749, Dec. 31, 2003; 85 FR 85427, Dec. 28, 2020]

§ 178.60 Specification 8AL steel cylinders with porous fillings for acetylene.

(a) Type and service pressure. A DOT 8AL cylinder is a seamless steel cylinder with a service pressure of 250 psig. However, the attachment of heads by welding or by brazing by dipping process and a welded circumferential body seam is authorized. Longitudinal seams are not authorized.

(b) Authorized steel. The authorized steel is as specified in table I of appendix A to this part.

(c) Identification of steel. Material must be identified by any suitable method except that plates and billets for hot-drawn cylinders must be marked with heat number.

(d) Manufacture. Cylinders must be manufactured using equipment and processes adequate to ensure that each cylinder produced conforms to the requirements of this subpart. No defect is permitted that is likely to weaken the finished cylinder appreciably. A reasonably smooth and uniform surface finish is required. Welding procedures and operators must be qualified in accordance with CGA Pamphlet C-3 (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter).

(e) Footrings. Exposed bottom welds on cylinders over 18 inches long must be protected by footrings.

(f) Welding or brazing. Welding or brazing for any purpose whatsoever is prohibited except as follows:

(1) The attachment to the tops or bottoms of cylinders of neckrings, footrings, handlers, bosses, pads, and valve protecting rings is authorized provided that such attachments and the portion of the container to which they are attached are made of weldable steel, the carbon content of which may not exceed 0.25 percent.

(2) Heat treatment is not required after welding or brazing weldable low carbon parts to attachments, specified in paragraph (f)(1) of this section, of similar material which have been previously welded or brazed to the top or bottom of cylinders and properly heat treated, provided such subsequent welding or brazing does not produce a temperature in excess of 400 °F in any part of the top or bottom material.

(g) Wall thickness; wall stress. The wall thickness/wall stress of the cylinder must conform to the following:

(1) The calculated wall stress at 750 psi may not exceed 35,000 psi, or one-half of the minimum ultimate strength of the steel as determined in paragraph (l) of this section, whichever value is the smaller. The measured wall thickness may not include galvanizing or other protective coating.

(i) Calculation of wall stress must be made by the formula:

S = [P(1.3D2 + 0.4d2)] / (D2 − d2)

Where:

S = wall stress in pounds psi;

P = 750 psig (minimum test pressure);

D = outside diameter in inches;

d = inside diameter in inches.

(ii) Either D or d must be calculated from the relation D = d + 2t, where t = minimum wall thickness.

(2) Cylinders with a wall thickness less than 0.100 inch, the ratio of straight side wall length to outside diameter may not exceed 3.5.

(3) For cylinders having outside diameter over 5 inches, the minimum wall thickness must be 0.087 inch.

(h) Heat treatment. Each cylinder must be uniformly and properly heat treated, prior to tests, by any suitable method in excess of 1100 °F. Heat treatment must be accomplished after all forming and welding operations, except that when brazed joints are used, heat treatment must follow any forming and welding operations but may be done before, during, or after the brazing operations. Liquid quenching is not authorized.

(i) Openings. Standard taper pipe threads required in all openings. The length of the opening may not be less than as specified for American Standard pipe threads; tapped to gauge; clean cut, even, and without checks.

(j) Pressure testing. Each cylinder must successfully withstand a pressure test as follows:

(1) Lot testing.

(i) At least one (1) cylinder selected at random out of each lot of 200 or less must be tested by water-jacket or direct expansion method as prescribed in CGA C-1 (IBR; see § 171.7 of this subchapter). The testing equipment must be calibrated as prescribed in CGA C-1. All testing equipment and pressure indicating devices must be accurate within the parameters defined in CGA C-1.

(ii) The selected cylinder must be tested to a minimum of 750 psig.

(iii) The minimum test pressure must be maintained at least 30 seconds and sufficiently longer to ensure complete expansion. Any internal pressure applied after heat-treatment and prior to the official test may not exceed 90 percent of the test pressure. If, due to failure of the test apparatus or operator error, the test pressure cannot be maintained, the test may be repeated in accordance with CGA C-1, section 5.7.2.

(iv) Permanent volumetric expansion may not exceed 10 percent of the total volumetric expansion at test pressure.

(v) If the selected cylinder passes the volumetric expansion test, each remaining cylinder in the lot must be pressure tested in accordance with paragraph (h)(2) of this section. If the selected cylinder fails, each cylinder in the lot must be tested by water-jacket or direct expansion method as prescribed in CGA C-1 at 750 psig. Each cylinder with a permanent expansion that does not exceed 10% is acceptable.

(2) Pressure testing.

(i) If the selected cylinder passes the water-jacket or direct expansion test, the remaining cylinders in each lot must be pressure tested by the proof pressure water-jacket or direct expansion test method as prescribed in CGA C-1. The minimum test pressure must be maintained for the specific timeframe and the testing equipment must be calibrated as prescribed in CGA C-1. Further, all testing equipment and pressure indicating devices must be accurate within the parameters defined in CGA C-1.

(ii) Each cylinder must be tested between 500 and 600 psig and show no defect. If, due to failure of the test apparatus or operator error, the test pressure cannot be maintained, the test may be repeated in accordance with CGA C-1 section 5.7.2 or 7.1.2, as appropriate. Determination of expansion properties is not required.

(k) Leakage test. Cylinders with bottoms closed in by spinning must be leakage tested by setting the interior air or gas pressure at not less than the service pressure. Any cylinder that leaks must be rejected.

(l) Physical test. A physical test must be conducted as follows;

(1) The test is required on 2 specimens cut longitudinally from 1 cylinder or part thereof taken at random out of each lot of 200 or less, after heat treatment.

(2) Specimens must conform to a gauge length of 8 inches with a width not over 11/2 inches, a gauge length 2 inches with a width not over 11/2 inches, or a gauge length at least 24 times thickness with a width not over 6 times thickness is authorized when a cylinder wall is not over3/16 inch thick.

(3) The yield strength in tension must be the stress corresponding to a permanent strain of 0.2 percent of the gauge length. The following conditions apply:

(i) The yield strength must be determined by either the “offset” method or the “extension under load” method as prescribed in ASTM E 8 (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter).

(ii) In using the “extension under load” method, the total strain (or “extension under load”) corresponding to the stress at which the 0.2 percent permanent strain occurs may be determined with sufficient accuracy by calculating the elastic extension of the gauge length under appropriate load and adding thereto 0.2 percent of the gauge length. Elastic extension calculations must be based on an elastic modulus of 30,000,000. In the event of controversy, the entire stress-strain diagram must be plotted and the yield strength determined from the 0.2 offset.

(iii) For the purpose of strain measurement, the initial strain must be set while the specimen is under a stress of 12,000 psi, the strain indicator reading being set at the calculated corresponding strain.

(iv) Cross-head speed of the testing machine may not exceed1/8 inch per minute during yield strength determination.

(m) Elongation. Physical test specimens must show at least a 40 percent elongation for a 2 inch gauge length or at least a 20 percent elongation in other cases. Except that these elongation percentages may be reduced numerically by 2 for 2 inch specimens and 1 in other cases for each 7,500 psi increment of tensile strength above 50,000 psi to a maximum of four such increments.

(n) Weld tests. Specimens taken across the circumferentially welded seam must be cut from one cylinder taken at random from each lot of 200 or less cylinders after heat treatment and must pass satisfactorily the following tests:

(1) Tensile test. A specimen must be cut from one cylinder of each lot of 200 or less, or welded test plate. The specimen must be taken from across the major seam and must be prepared and tested in accordance with and must meet the requirements of CGA Pamphlet C-3. Should this specimen fail to meet the requirements, specimens may be taken from two additional cylinders or welded test plates from the same lot and tested. If either of the latter specimens fail to meet the requirements, the entire lot represented must be rejected.

(2) Guided bend test. A root bend test specimen must be cut from the cylinder or welded test plate, used for the tensile test specified in paragraph (n)(1) of this section. Specimens must be prepared and tested in accordance with and must meet the requirements of CGA Pamphlet C-3.

(3) Alternate guided-bend test. This test may be used and must be as required by CGA Pamphlet C-3. The specimen must be bent until the elongation at the outer surface, adjacent to the root of the weld, between the lightly scribed gage lines-a to b, must be at least 20 percent, except that this percentage may be reduced for steels having a tensile strength in excess of 50,000 psi, as provided in paragraph (m) of this section.

(o) Rejected cylinders. Reheat treatment of rejected cylinders is authorized. Subsequent thereto, cylinders must pass all prescribed tests to be acceptable. Repair by welding is authorized.

(p) Porous filling.

(1) Cylinders must be filled with a porous material in accordance with the following:

(i) The porous material may not disintegrate or sag when wet with solvent or when subjected to normal service;

(ii) The filling material must be uniform in quality and free of voids, except that a well drilled into the filling material beneath the valve is authorized if the well is filled with a material of such type that the functions of the filling material are not impaired;

(iii) Overall shrinkage of the filling material is authorized if the total clearance between the cylinder shell and filling material, after solvent has been added, does not exceed1/2 of 1 percent of the respective diameter or length but not to exceed1/8 inch, measured diametrically and longitudinally;

(iv) The clearance may not impair the functions of the filling material;

(v) The installed filling material must meet the requirements of CGA C-12 (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter); and

(vi) Porosity of filling material may not exceed 80 percent except that filling material with a porosity of up to 92 percent may be used when tested with satisfactory results in accordance with CGA Pamphlet C-12.

(2) When the porosity of each cylinder is not known, a cylinder taken at random from a lot of 200 or less must be tested for porosity. If the test cylinder fails, each cylinder in the lot may be tested individually and those cylinders that pass the test are acceptable.

(3) For filling that is molded and dried before insertion in cylinders, porosity test may be made on sample block taken at random from material to be used.

(4) The porosity of the filling material must be determined; the amount of solvent at 70 °F for a cylinder:

(i) Having shell volumetric capacity above 20 pounds water capacity (nominal) may not exceed the following:

Percent porosity of filler Maximum acetone
solvent percent shell
capacity by volume
90 to 92 43.4
87 to 90 42.0
83 to 87 40.0
80 to 83 38.6
75 to 80 36.2
70 to 75 33.8
65 to 70 31.4

(ii) Having volumetric capacity of 20 pounds or less water capacity (nominal), may not exceed the following:

Percent porosity of filler Maximum acetone
solvent percent shell
capacity by volume
90 to 92 41.8
83 to 90 38.5
80 to 83 37.1
75 to 80 34.8
70 to 75 32.5
65 to 70 30.2

(q) Tare weight. The tare weight is the combined weight of the cylinder proper, porous filling, valve, and solvent, but without removable cap.

(r) Duties of inspector. In addition to the requirements of § 178.35, the inspector shall -

(1) Certify chemical analyses of steel used, signed by manufacturer thereof; also verify by check analyses, of samples taken from each heat or from 1 out of each lot of 200 or less plates, shells, or tubes used.

(2) Verify compliance of cylinder shells with all shell requirements, inspect inside before closing in both ends, verify heat treatment as proper; obtain all samples for all tests and for check analyses, witness all tests; verify threads by gauge, report volumetric capacity and minimum thickness of wall noted.

(3) Report percentage of each specified alloying element in the steel. Prepare report on manufacture of steel shells in form prescribed in § 178.35. Furnish one copy to manufacturer and three copies to the company that is to complete the cylinders.

(4) Determine porosity of filling and tare weights; verify compliance of marking with prescribed requirements; obtain necessary copies of steel shell reports prescribed in paragraph (b) of this section; and furnish complete test reports required by this specification to the person who has completed the manufacturer of the cylinders and, upon request, to the purchaser. The test reports must be retained by the inspector for fifteen years from the original test date of the cylinder.

(s) Marking.

(1) Tare weight of cylinder, in pounds and ounces, must be marked on the cylinder.

(2) Cylinders, not completed, when delivered must each be marked for identification of each lot of 200 or less.

(3) Markings must be stamped plainly and permanently in locations in accordance with the following:

(i) On shoulders and top heads not less than 0.087 inch thick; or

(ii) On neck, valve boss, valve protection sleeve, or similar part permanently attached to the top end of cylinder; or

(iii) On a plate of ferrous material attached to the top of the cylinder or permanent part thereof; the plate must be at least1/16 inch thick, and must be attached by welding, or by brazing at a temperature of at least 1,100 °F throughout all edges of the plate. Sufficient space must be left on the plate to provide for stamping at least four (4) retest dates.

[Amdt. 178-114, 61 FR 25942, May 23, 1996, as amended at 66 FR 45386, 45388, Aug. 28, 2001; 67 FR 51654, Aug. 8, 2002; 68 FR 75748, 75749, Dec. 31, 2003; 85 FR 85428, Dec. 28, 2020]

§ 178.61 Specification 4BW welded steel cylinders with electric-arc welded seam.

(a) Type, size, pressure, and application. A DOT 4BW cylinder has a spherical or cylindrical design, a water capacity of 1,000 pounds or less, and a service pressure range of 225 to 500 psig. Closures made by the spinning process are not authorized.

(1) Spherical designs are permitted to have only one circumferentially electric-arc welded seam.

(2) Cylindrical designs must be of circumferentially welded electric-arc construction; longitudinally electric-arc welded seams are permitted.

(b) Steel.

(1) The steel used in the construction of the cylinder must be as specified in table 1 of appendix A to this part. The cylinder manufacturer must maintain a record of intentionally added alloying elements.

(2) Material for heads must meet the requirements of paragraph (b)(1) of this section or be open hearth, electric or basic oxygen carbon steel of uniform quality. Content percent may not exceed the following: Carbon 0.25, Manganese 0.60, Phosphorus 0.045, Sulfur 0.050. Heads must be hemispherical or ellipsoidal in shape with a maximum ratio of 2:1. If low carbon steel is used, the thickness of such heads must be determined by using a maximum wall stress of 24,000 psi in the formula described in paragraph (f)(2) of this section.

(c) Identification of material. Pressure-retaining materials must be identified by any suitable method that does not compromise the integrity of the cylinder. Plates and billets for hotdrawn cylinders must be marked with the heat number.

(d) Manufacture. Cylinders must be manufactured using equipment and processes adequate to ensure that each cylinder produced conforms to the requirements of this subpart and the following:

(1) No defect is permitted that is likely to weaken the finished cylinder appreciably. A reasonably smooth and uniform surface is required. Exposed bottom welds on cylinders over 18 inches long must be protected by footrings. Minimum thickness of heads may not be less than 90 percent of the required thickness of the sidewall. Heads must be concave to pressure.

(2) Circumferential seams must be by electric-arc welding. Joints must be butt with one member offset (joggle butt) or with a lap joint. Joints must have a minimum overlap of at least four (4) times nominal sheet thickness.

(3) Longitudinal electric-arc welded seams (in shells) must be of the butt welded type. Welds must be made by a machine process including automatic feed and welding guidance mechanisms. Longitudinal seams must have complete joint penetration, and must be free from undercuts, overlaps or abrupt ridges or valleys. Misalignment of mating butt edges may not exceed1/6 inch of nominal sheet thickness or1/32 inch whichever is less. All joints with nominal sheet thickness up to and including1/8 inch must be tightly butted. When nominal sheet thickness is greater than1/8 inch, the joint must be gapped with maximum distance equal to one-half the nominal sheet thickness or1/32 inch whichever is less. Joint design, preparation, and fit-up must be such that requirements of this paragraph (d) are satisfied.

(4) Welding procedures and operators must be qualified in accordance with CGA C-3 (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter).

(5)

(i) Welds of the cylinders must be subjected to radioscopic or radiographic examination as follows:

(ii) Radioscopy or radiography must be in conformance with CGA C-3 (IBR; see § 171.7 of this subchapter). Maximum joint efficiency will be 1.0 when each longitudinal seam is examined completely. Maximum joint efficiency will be 0.90 when one cylinder from each lot of 50 consecutively welded cylinders is spot examined. In addition, one out of the first five cylinders welded following a shutdown of welding operations exceeding four hours must be spot examined. Spot radiographs, when required, must be made of a finished welded cylinder and must include the circumferential weld for 2 inches in both directions from the intersection of the longitudinal and circumferential welds and include at least 6 inches of the longitudinal weld. Maximum joint efficiency of 0.75 will be permissible without radiography or radioscopy. When fluoroscopic examination is used, permanent film records need not be retained. Circumferential welds need not be examined, except as part of spot examination.

(e) Welding of attachments. The attachment to the tops and bottoms only of cylinders by welding of neckrings, footrings, handles, bosses, pads and valve protection rings is authorized provided that such attachments and the portion of the container to which they are attached are made of weldable steel, the carbon content of which may not exceed 0.25 percent.

(f) Wall thickness.

(1) For outside diameters over 6 inches the minimum wall thickness must be 0.078 inch. In any case, the minimum wall thickness must be such that the wall stress calculated by the formula listed in paragraph (f)(2) of this section may not exceed the lesser value of any of the following:

(i) The value referenced in paragraph (b) of this section for the particular material under consideration.

(ii) One-half of the minimum tensile strength of the material determined as required in paragraph (j) of this section.

(iii) 35,000 psig.

(2) Stress must be calculated by the following formula:

S = [2P(1.3D2 + 0.4d2)]/[E(D2 − d2)]

Where:

S = wall stress, psig;

P = service pressure, psig;

D = outside diameter, inches;

d = inside diameter, inches; and

E = joint efficiency of the longitudinal seam (from paragraph (d) of this section).

(3) For a cylinder with a wall thickness less than 0.100 inch, the ratio of tangential length to outside diameter may not exceed 4 to 1 (4:1).

(g) Heat treatment. Cylinders must be heat treated in accordance with the following requirements:

(1) Each cylinder must be uniformly and properly heat treated prior to test by the applicable method referenced in table 1 of appendix A to this part. Heat treatment must be accomplished after all forming and welding operations, except that when brazed joints are used, heat treatment must follow any forming and welding operations, but may be done before, during or after the brazing operations (see paragraph (n) of this section for weld repairs).

(2) Heat treatment is not required after welding of weldable low-carbon parts to attachments of similar material which have been previously welded to the top or bottom of cylinders and properly heat treated, provided such subsequent welding does not produce a temperature in excess of 400 °F in any part of the top or bottom material.

(h) Openings in cylinders. Openings in cylinders must comply with the following requirements:

(1) All openings must be in heads or bases.

(2) Each opening in a spherical-type cylinder must be provided with a fitting, boss, or pad of weldable steel securely attached to the cylinder by fusion welding.

(3) Each opening in a cylindrical-type cylinder must be provided with a fitting, boss, or pad securely attached to the cylinder by welding.

(4) If threads are used, they must comply with the following:

(i) Threads must be clean cut, even, without checks, and tapped to gauge.

(ii) Taper threads must be of length not less than as specified for American Standard Taper Pipe Threads.

(iii) Straight threads, having at least four (4) engaged threads, must have a tight fit and calculated shear strength at least ten (10) times the test pressure of the cylinder. Gaskets, adequate to prevent leakage, are required.

(iv) A brass fitting may be brazed to the steel boss or flange on cylinders used as component parts of handheld fire extinguishers.

(i) Pressure testing. Each cylinder must successfully withstand a pressure test as follows:

(1) Lot testing.

(i) At least one (1) cylinder randomly selected out of each lot of 200 or fewer must be tested by the water-jacket or direct expansion method as prescribed in CGA C-1 (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter). The testing equipment must be calibrated as prescribed in CGA C-1. All testing equipment and pressure indicating devices must be accurate within the parameters defined in CGA C-1.

(ii) Each selected cylinder must be tested to a minimum of two (2) times service pressure.

(iii) The minimum test pressure must be maintained at least 30 seconds and sufficiently longer to ensure complete expansion. Any internal pressure applied after heat-treatment and prior to the official test may not exceed 90 percent of the test pressure. If, due to failure of the test apparatus or operator error, the test pressure cannot be maintained, the test may be repeated in accordance with CGA C-1, section 5.7.2.

(iv) Permanent volumetric expansion may not exceed 10 percent of the total volumetric expansion at test pressure.

(2) Pressure testing.

(i) The remaining cylinders in each lot must be pressure tested by the proof pressure, water-jacket or direct expansion test method as prescribed in CGA C-1. The minimum test pressure must be maintained for the specific timeframe and the testing equipment must be calibrated as prescribed in CGA C-1. Further, all testing equipment and pressure indicating devices must be accurate within the parameters defined in CGA C-1.

(ii) Each cylinder must be tested to a minimum of two (2) times service pressure and show no defect. If, due to failure of the test apparatus or operator error, the test pressure cannot be maintained, the test may be repeated in accordance with CGA C-1 5.7.2 or 7.1.2, as appropriate. Determination of expansion properties is not required.

(3) Burst testing. One finished cylinder selected at random out of each lot of 500 or less successively produced must be hydrostatically tested to four

(4) times service pressure without bursting. All testing equipment and pressure indicating devices must be accurate within the parameters defined in CGA C-1.

(j) Mechanical tests. Mechanical tests must be conducted to determine yield strength, tensile strength, elongation as a percentage, and reduction of area of material as a percentage, as follows:

(1) Specimens must be taken from one cylinder after heat treatment as illustrated in appendix A to this subpart, chosen at random from each lot of 200 or fewer, as follows:

(i) One specimen must be taken longitudinally from the body section at least 90 degrees away from the weld.

(ii) One specimen must be taken from either head on a cylinder when both heads are made of the same material. However, if the two heads are made of differing materials, a specimen must be taken from each head.

(iii) If due to welded attachments on the top head there is insufficient surface from which to take a specimen, it may be taken from a representative head of the same heat treatment as the test cylinder.

(2) Specimens must conform to the following:

(i) When a cylinder wall is3/16 inch thick or less, one the following gauge lengths is authorized: A gauge length of 8 inches with a width not over 11/2 inches, a gauge length of 2 inches with a width not over 11/2 inches, or a gauge length at least twenty-four (24) times the thickness with a width not over six (6) times the thickness.

(ii) The specimen, exclusive of grip ends, may not be flattened. Grip ends may be flattened to within 1 inch of each end of the reduced section.

(iii) When size of the cylinder does not permit securing straight specimens, the specimens may be taken in any location or direction and may be straightened or flattened cold, by pressure only, not by blows. When specimens are taken, and prepared in this manner, the inspector's report must show, in connection with the record of physical tests, detailed information in regard to such specimens.

(iv) Heating of a specimen for any purpose is not authorized.

(3) The yield strength in tension must be the stress corresponding to a permanent strain of 0.2 percent of the gauge length. The following conditions apply:

(i) The yield strength must be determined by either the “off-set” method or the “extension under load” method as prescribed in ASTM E 8 (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter).

(ii) In using the “extension under load” method, the total strain (or “extension under load”), corresponding to the stress at which the 0.2-percent permanent strain occurs may be determined with sufficient accuracy by calculating the elastic extension of the gauge length under appropriate load and adding thereto 0.2 percent of the gauge length. Elastic extension calculations must be based on an elastic modulus of 30,000,000. In the event of controversy, the entire stress-strain diagram must be plotted and the yield strength determined from the 0.2-percent offset.

(iii) For strain measurement, the initial strain reference must be set while the specimen is under a stress of 12,000 psig, and the strain indicator reading must be set at the calculated corresponding strain.

(iv) Cross-head speed of the testing machine may not exceed1/8 inch per minute during yield strength determination.

(k) Elongation. Mechanical test specimens must show at least a 40 percent elongation for a 2-inch gauge length or at least 20 percent in other cases. However, elongation percentages may be reduced numerically by 2 percent for 2-inch specimens, and by 1 percent in other cases, for each 7,500 psi increase of tensile strength above 50,000 psig. The tensile strength may be incrementally increased by four increments of 7,500 psig for a maximum total of 30,000 psig.

(l) Tests of welds. Welds must be subjected to the following tests:

(1) Tensile test. A specimen must be removed from one cylinder of each lot of 200 or fewer. The specimen must be taken from across the longitudinal seam and must be prepared and tested in conformance with the requirements of CGA C-3 (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter).

(2) Guided bend test. A root bend test specimen must be removed from the cylinder or welded test plate used for the tensile test specified in paragraph (m)(1) of this section. Specimens must be taken from across the longitudinal seam and must be prepared and tested in conformance with the requirements of CGA C-3. If the specimen fails to meet the requirements, one specimen each must be taken from two additional cylinders or welded test plates from the same lot as the previously tested cylinder or added test plate and tested. If either of these latter two specimens fails to meet the requirements, the entire lot represented must be rejected.

(3) Alternate guided bend test. This test may be used and must be as required by CGA C-3. The specimen must be bent until the elongation at the outer surface, adjacent to the root of the weld, between the lightly scribed gauge lines a to b, must be at least 20 percent, except that this percentage may be reduced for steels having a tensile strength in excess of 50,000 psig, as provided in paragraph (k) of this section. Should this specimen fail to meet the requirements, one additional specimen must be taken from two additional cylinders or welded test plates from the same lot and tested as the previously tested cylinder or added test plate. If either of these latter two specimens fails to meet the requirements, the entire lot represented must be rejected.

(m) Rejected cylinders.

(1) Unless otherwise stated, if a sample cylinder or specimen taken from a lot of cylinders fails the prescribed test, then two additional specimens must be selected from the same lot and subjected to the prescribed test. If either of these fails the test, then the entire lot must be rejected.

(2) Reheat treatment of rejected cylinders. Reheat treatment is authorized for a rejected cylinder in accordance with this paragraph (m)(2). After reheat treatment, a cylinder must pass all prescribed tests in this section to be considered acceptable. Repair of welded seams by welding is authorized. For cylinders less than or equal to an outside diameter of 6 inches, welded seam repairs greater than 1 inch in length shall require reheat treatment of the cylinder. For cylinders greater than an outside diameter of 6 inches, welded seam repairs greater than 3 inches in length shall require reheat treatment.

(n) Markings.

(1) Markings must be as required in § 178.35 and in addition must be stamped plainly and permanently in one of the following locations on the cylinder:

(i) On shoulders and top heads whose wall thickness is not less than 0.087 inch thick.

(ii) On side wall adjacent to top head for side walls not less than 0.090 inch thick.

(iii) On a cylindrical portion of the shell that extends beyond the recessed bottom of the cylinder constituting an integral and non-pressure part of the cylinder.

(iv) On a plate attached to the top of the cylinder or permanent part thereof; sufficient space must be left on the plate to provide for stamping at least six retest dates; the plate must be at least1/16-inch thick and must be attached by welding at a temperature of 1,100 °F, throughout all edges of the plate.

(v) On the neck, neckring, valve boss, valve protection sleeve, or similar part permanently attached to the top of the cylinder.

(vi) On the footring permanently attached to the cylinder, provided the water capacity of the cylinder does not exceed 30 pounds.

(2) Embossing the cylinder head or side wall is not permitted.

(o) Inspector's report. In addition to the information required by § 178.35, the inspector's report must indicate the type and amount of radiography.

[85 FR 85428, Dec. 28, 2020]

§ 178.65 Specification 39 non-reusable (non-refillable) cylinders.

(a) Type, size, service pressure, and test pressure. A DOT 39 cylinder is a seamless, welded, or brazed cylinder with a service pressure not to exceed 80 percent of the test pressure. Spherical pressure vessels are authorized and covered by references to cylinders in this specification.

(1) Size limitation. Maximum water capacity may not exceed: (i) 55 pounds (1,526 cubic inches) for a service pressure of 500 p.s.i.g. or less, and (ii) 10 pounds (277 cubic inches) for a service pressure in excess of 500 p.s.i.g.

(2) Test pressure. The minimum test pressure is the maximum pressure of contents at 130 °F or 180 p.s.i.g. whichever is greater.

(3) Pressure of contents. The term “pressure of contents” as used in this specification means the total pressure of all the materials to be shipped in the cylinder.

(b) Material; steel or aluminum. The cylinder must be constructed of either steel or aluminum conforming to the following requirements:

(1) Steel.

(i) The steel analysis must conform to the following:

Ladle analysis Check analysis
Carbon, maximum percent 0.12 0.15
Phosphorus, maximum percent .04 .05
Sulfur, maximum percent .05 .06

(ii) For a cylinder made of seamless steel tubing with integrally formed ends, hot drawn, and finished, content percent for the following may not exceed: Carbon, 0.55; phosphorous, 0.045; sulfur, 0.050.

(iii) For non-heat treated welded steel cylinders, adequately killed deep drawing quality steel is required.

(iv) Longitudinal or helical welded cylinders are not authorized for service pressures in excess of 500 p.s.i.g.

(2) Aluminum. Aluminum is not authorized for service pressures in excess of 500 psig. The analysis of the aluminum must conform to the Aluminum Association standard for alloys 1060, 1100, 1170, 3003, 5052, 5086, 5154, 6061, and 6063, as specified in its publication entitled “Aluminum Standards and Data” (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter).

(3) Material with seams, cracks, laminations, or other injurious defects not permitted.

(4) Material used must be identified by any suitable method.

(c) Manufacture.

(1) General manufacturing requirements are as follows:

(i) The surface finish must be uniform and reasonably smooth.

(ii) Inside surfaces must be clean, dry, and free of loose particles.

(iii) No defect of any kind is permitted if it is likely to weaken a finished cylinder.

(2) Requirements for seams:

(i) Brazing is not authorized on aluminum cylinders.

(ii) Brazing material must have a melting point of not lower than 1,000 °F.

(iii) Brazed seams must be assembled with proper fit to ensure complete penetration of the brazing material throughout the brazed joint.

(iv) Minimum width of brazed joints must be at least four times the thickness of the shell wall.

(v) Brazed seams must have design strength equal to or greater than 1.5 times the minimum strength of the shell wall.

(vi) Welded seams must be properly aligned and welded by a method that provides clean, uniform joints with adequate penetration.

(vii) Welded joints must have a strength equal to or greater than the minimum strength of the shell material in the finished cylinder.

(3) Attachments to the cylinder are permitted by any means which will not be detrimental to the integrity of the cylinder. Welding or brazing of attachments to the cylinder must be completed prior to all pressure tests.

(4) Welding procedures and operators must be qualified in accordance with CGA Pamphlet C-3 (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter).

(d) Wall thickness. The minimum wall thickness must be such that the wall stress at test pressure does not exceed the yield strength of the material of the finished cylinder wall. Calculations must be made by the following formulas:

(1) Calculation of the stress for cylinders must be made by the following formula:

S = [P(1.3D2 + 0.4d2)] / (D2 − d2)

Where:

S = Wall stress, in psi;

P = Test pressure in psig;

D = Outside diameter, in inches;

d = Inside diameter, in inches.

(2) Calculation of the stress for spheres must be made by the following formula:

S = PD / 4t

Where:

S = Wall stress, in psi;

P = Test pressure i psig;

D = Outside diameter, in inches;

t = Minimum wall thickness, in inches.

(e) Openings and attachments. Openings and attachments must conform to the following:

(1) Openings and attachments are permitted on heads only.

(2) All openings and their reinforcements must be within an imaginary circle, concentric to the axis of the cylinder. The diameter of the circle may not exceed 80 percent of the outside diameter of the cylinder. The plane of the circle must be parallel to the plane of a circumferential weld and normal to the long axis of the cylinder.

(3) Unless a head has adequate thickness, each opening must be reinforced by a securely attached fitting, boss, pad, collar, or other suitable means.

(4) Material used for welded openings and attachments must be of weldable quality and compatible with the material of the cylinder.

(f) Pressure testing.

(1) Each cylinder must be proof pressure tested as prescribed in CGA C-1 (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter). The minimum test pressure must be maintained for the specific timeframe and the testing equipment must be calibrated as prescribed in CGA C-1. All testing equipment and pressure indicating devices must be accurate within the parameters defined in CGA C-1.

(i) The leakage test must be conducted by submersion under water or by some other method that will be equally sensitive.

(ii) If the cylinder leaks, evidences visible distortion or evidences any other defect while under test, it must be rejected (see paragraph (h) of this section).

(iii) If, due to failure of the test apparatus or operator error, the test pressure cannot be maintained, the test may be repeated in accordance with CGA, C-1 section 7.1.2.

(2) One cylinder taken from the beginning of each lot, and one from each 1,000 or less successively produced within the lot thereafter, must be hydrostatically tested to destruction. The testing equipment must be calibrated as prescribed in CGA C-1. All testing equipment and pressure indicating devices must be accurate within the parameters defined in CGA C-1. The entire lot must be rejected (see paragraph (h) of this section) if:

(i) A failure occurs at a gage pressure less than 2.0 times the test pressure;

(ii) A failure initiates in a braze or a weld or the heat affected zone thereof;

(iii) A failure is other than in the sidewall of a cylinder longitudinal with its long axis; or

(iv) In a sphere, a failure occurs in any opening, reinforcement, or at a point of attachment.

(3) A “lot” is defined as the quantity of cylinders successively produced per production shift (not exceeding 10 hours) having identical size, design, construction, material, heat treatment, finish, and quality.

(g) Flattening test. One cylinder must be taken from the beginning of production of each lot (as defined in paragraph (f)(3) of this section) and subjected to a flattening test as follows:

(1) The flattening test must be made on a cylinder that has been tested at test pressure.

(2) A ring taken from a cylinder may be flattened as an alternative to a test on a complete cylinder. The test ring may not include the heat affected zone or any weld. However, for a sphere, the test ring may include the circumferential weld if it is located at a 45 degree angle to the ring, ±5 degrees.

(3) The flattening must be between 60 degrees included-angle, wedge shaped knife edges, rounded to a 0.5 inch radius.

(4) Cylinders and test rings may not crack when flattened so that their outer surfaces are not more than six times wall thickness apart when made of steel or not more than ten times wall thickness apart when made of aluminum.

(5) If any cylinder or ring cracks when subjected to the specified flattening test, the lot of cylinders represented by the test must be rejected (see paragraph (h) of this section).

(h) Rejected cylinders. Rejected cylinders must conform to the following requirements:

(1) If the cause for rejection of a lot is determinable, and if by test or inspection defective cylinders are eliminated from the lot, the remaining cylinders must be qualified as a new lot under paragraphs (f) and (g) of this section.

(2) Repairs to welds are permitted. Following repair, a cylinder must pass the pressure test specified in paragraph (f) of this section.

(3) If a cylinder made from seamless steel tubing fails the flattening test described in paragraph (g) of this section, suitable uniform heat treatment must be used on each cylinder in the lot. All prescribed tests must be performed subsequent to this heat treatment.

(i) Markings.

(1) The markings required by this section must be durable and waterproof. The requirements of § 178.35(h) do not apply to this section.

(2) Required markings are as follows:

(i) DOT-39.

(ii) NRC.

(iii) The service pressure.

(iv) The test pressure.

(v) The registration number (M****) of the manufacturer.

(vi) The lot number.

(vii) The date of manufacture if the lot number does not establish the date of manufacture.

(viii) With one of the following statements:

(A) For cylinders manufactured prior to October 1, 1996: “Federal law forbids transportation if refilled-penalty up to $25,000 fine and 5 years imprisonment (49 U.S.C. 1809)” or “Federal law forbids transportation if refilled-penalty up to $500,000 fine and 5 years imprisonment (49 U.S.C. 5124).”

(B) For cylinders manufactured on or after October 1, 1996: “Federal law forbids transportation if refilled-penalty up to $500,000 fine and 5 years imprisonment (49 U.S.C. 5124).”

(3) The markings required by paragraphs (i)(2)(i) through (i)(2)(v) of this section must be in numbers and letters at least1/8 inch high and displayed sequentially. For example:

DOT-39 NRC 250/500 M1001.

(4) No person may mark any cylinder with the specification identification “DOT-39” unless it was manufactured in compliance with the requirements of this section and its manufacturer has a registration number (M****) from the Associate Administrator.

[Amdt. 178-114, 61 FR 25942, May 23, 1996, as amended at 65 FR 58631, Sept. 29, 2000; 66 FR 45389, Aug. 28, 2001; 67 FR 51654, Aug. 8, 2002; 68 FR 75748, 75749, Dec. 31, 2003; 85 FR 85430, Dec. 28, 2020]

§ 178.68 Specification 4E welded aluminum cylinders.

(a) Type, size and service pressure. A DOT 4E cylinder is a welded aluminum cylinder with a water capacity (nominal) of not over 1,000 pounds and a service pressure of at least 225 to not over 500 psig. The cylinder must be constructed of not more than two seamless drawn shells with no more than one circumferential weld. The circumferential weld may not be closer to the point of tangency of the cylindrical portion with the shoulder than 20 times the cylinder wall thickness. Cylinders or shells closed in by spinning process and cylinders with longitudinal seams are not authorized.

(b) Authorized material.

(1) The cylinder must be constructed of aluminum of uniform quality. The following chemical analyses are authorized:

Table 1 to Paragraph (b)(1) - Authorized Materials

Designation Chemical
analysis - limits in percent 5154
Iron plus silicon 0.45 maximum.
Copper 0.10 maximum.
Manganese 0.10 maximum.
Magnesium 3.10/3.90.
Chromium 0.15/0.35.
Zinc 0.20 maximum.
Titanium 0.20 maximum.
Others, each 0.05 maximum.
Others, total 0.15 maximum.
Aluminum remainder.

(2) The aluminum used in the construction of the cylinder must be as specified in Table 1 to paragraph (b)(1) of this section. Analyses must regularly be made only for the elements specifically mentioned in the table. If, however, the presence of other elements is indicated in the course of routine analysis, further analysis should be made to determine conformance with the limits specified for other elements. The cylinder manufacturer must maintain a record of intentionally added alloying elements.

(c) Identification. Material must be identified by any suitable method that will identify the alloy and manufacturer's lot number.

(d) Manufacture. Cylinders must be manufactured using equipment and processes adequate to ensure that each cylinder produced conforms to the requirements of this subpart. No defect is permitted that is likely to weaken the finished cylinder appreciably. A reasonably smooth and uniform surface finish is required. All welding must be by the gas shielded arc process.

(e) Welding. The attachment to the tops and bottoms only of cylinders by welding of neckrings, flanges, footrings, handles, bosses, pads, and valve protection rings is authorized. However, such attachments and the portion of the cylinder to which it is attached must be made of weldable aluminum alloys.

(f) Wall thickness. The wall thickness of the cylinder must conform to the following:

(1) The minimum wall thickness of the cylinder must be 0.140 inch. In any case, the minimum wall thickness must be such that calculated wall stress at twice service pressure may not exceed the lesser value of either of the following:

(i) 20,000 psi.

(ii) One-half of the minimum tensile strength of the material as required in paragraph (j) of this section.

(2) Calculation must be made by the following formula:

S = [P(1.3D2 + 0.4d2)] / (D2 − d2)

Where:

S = wall stress in psi;

P = minimum test pressure prescribed for water jacket test;

D = outside diameter in inches;

d = inside diameter in inches.

(3) Minimum thickness of heads and bottoms may not be less than the minimum required thickness of the side wall.

(g) Opening in cylinder. Openings in cylinders must conform to the following:

(1) All openings must be in the heads or bases.

(2) Each opening in cylinders, except those for safety devices, must be provided with a fitting, boss, or pad, securely attached to cylinder by welding by inert gas shielded arc process or by threads. If threads are used, they must comply with the following:

(i) Threads must be clean-cut, even, without checks and cut to gauge.

(ii) Taper threads to be of length not less than as specified for American Standard taper pipe threads.

(iii) Straight threads, having at least 4 engaged threads, to have tight fit and calculated shear strength at least 10 times the test pressure of the cylinder; gaskets required, adequate to prevent leakage.

(3) Closure of a fitting, boss, or pad must be adequate to prevent leakage.

(h) Pressure testing. Each cylinder must successfully withstand a pressure test as follows:

(1) Pressure test. All cylinders with a wall stress greater than 18,000 psig must be tested by water-jacket or direct expansion method as prescribed in CGA C-1 (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter). The testing equipment must be calibrated as prescribed in CGA C-1. All testing equipment and pressure indicating devices must be accurate within the parameters defined in CGA C-1.

(i) Each cylinder must be tested to a minimum of two (2) times service pressure.

(ii) The minimum test pressure must be maintained at least 30 seconds and sufficiently longer to ensure complete expansion. Any internal pressure applied after heat-treatment and prior to the official test may not exceed 90 percent of the test pressure. If, due to failure of the test apparatus or operator error, the test pressure cannot be maintained, the test may be repeated in accordance with CGA C-1, section 5.7.2.

(iii) Permanent volumetric expansion may not exceed 12 percent of the total volumetric expansion at test pressure.

(2) Lot testing.

(i) Cylinders with a wall stress of 18,000 psig or less may be lot tested. At least one (1) cylinder randomly selected out of each lot of 200 or less must be tested by the water-jacket or direct expansion method as prescribed in CGA C-1. The testing equipment must be calibrated as prescribed in CGA C-1. All testing equipment and pressure indicating devices must be accurate within the parameters defined in CGA C-1. If, due to failure of the test apparatus or operator error, the test pressure cannot be maintained, the test may be repeated in accordance with CGA C-1, section 5.7.2.

(ii) Each selected cylinder must be tested to a minimum of two (2) times service pressure.

(iii) The minimum test pressure must be maintained at least 30 seconds and sufficiently longer to ensure complete expansion. Any internal pressure applied after heat-treatment and prior to the official test may not exceed 90 percent of the test pressure.

(iv) Permanent volumetric expansion may not exceed 12 percent of the total volumetric expansion at test pressure.

(3) Pressure testing.

(i) For cylinders with a wall stress of 18,000 psig or less, the remaining cylinders of the lot must be pressure tested by the proof pressure, water-jacket, or direct expansion test method as defined in CGA C-1. The minimum test pressure must be maintained for the specific timeframe and the testing equipment must be calibrated as prescribed in CGA C-1. Further, all testing equipment and pressure indicating devices must be accurate within the parameters defined in CGA C-1.

(ii) Each cylinder must be tested to a minimum of two (2) times service pressure and show no defect. If, due to failure of the test apparatus or operator error, the test pressure cannot be maintained, the test may be repeated in accordance with CGA C-1 5.7.2 or 7.1.2, as appropriate. Determination of expansion properties is not required.

(4) Burst testing. One (1) finished cylinder selected at random out of each lot of 1000 or less must be hydrostatically tested to four (4) times service pressure without bursting. Inability to meet this requirement must result in rejection of the lot. All testing equipment and pressure indicating devices must be accurate within the parameters defined in CGA C-1.

(i) Flattening test. After hydrostatic testing, a flattening test is required on one section of a cylinder, taken at random out of each lot of 200 or less as follows:

(1) If the weld is not at midlength of the cylinder, the test section must be no less in width than 30 times the cylinder wall thickness. The weld must be in the center of the section. Weld reinforcement must be removed by machining or grinding so that the weld is flush with the exterior of the parent metal. There must be no evidence of cracking in the sample when it is flattened between flat plates to no more than 6 times the wall thickness.

(2) If the weld is at midlength of the cylinder, the test may be made as specified in paragraph (i)(1) of this section or must be made between wedge shaped knife edges (60° angle) rounded to a1/2 inch radius. There must be no evidence of cracking in the sample when it is flattened to no more than 6 times the wall thickness.

(j) Mechanical test. A mechanical test must be conducted to determine yield strength, tensile strength, elongation as a percentage, and reduction of area of material as a percentage as follows:

(1) The test is required on two (2) specimens removed from one cylinder or part thereof as illustrated in appendix A to this subpart taken at random out of each lot of 200 or fewer.

(2) Specimens must conform to the following:

(i) A gauge length of 8 inches with a width not over 11/2 inches, a gauge length of 2 inches with a width not over 11/2 inches.

(ii) The specimen, exclusive of grip ends, may not be flattened. Grip ends may be flattened to within 1 inch of each end of the reduced section.

(iii) When size of cylinder does not permit securing straight specimens, the specimens may be taken in any location or direction and may be straightened or flattened cold, by pressure only, not by blows; when specimens are so taken and prepared, the inspector's report must show in connection with record of physical test detailed information in regard to such specimens.

(iv) Heating of a specimen for any purpose is not authorized.

(3) The yield strength in tension must be the stress corresponding to a permanent strain of 0.2 percent of the gauge length. The following conditions apply:

(i) The yield strength must be determined by the “offset” method as prescribed in ASTM E 8 (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter).

(ii) Cross-head speed of the testing machine may not exceed1/8 inch per minute during yield strength determination.

(k) Acceptable results for mechanical tests. An acceptable result of the mechanical test requires at least 7 percent and yield strength not over 80 percent of tensile strength.

(l) Weld tests. Welds of the cylinder are required to pass the following tests successfully:

(1) Reduced section tensile test. A specimen must be removed from the cylinder used for the mechanical tests specified in paragraph (j) of this section. The specimen must be taken from across the seam; edges must be parallel for a distance of approximately 2 inches on either side of the weld. The specimen must be fractured in tension. The actual breaking stress must be a minimum of 30,000 psi. The apparent breaking stress calculated on the minimum design wall thickness must be a minimum of two (2) times the stress calculated under paragraph (f)(2) of this section. If the specimen fails to meet the requirements, the lot must be rejected except that specimens may be taken from two (2) additional cylinders from the same lot as the previously tested specimens. If either of the latter specimens fails to meet requirements, the entire lot represented must be rejected.

(2) Guided bend test. A bend test specimen must be removed from the cylinder used for the mechanical test specified in paragraph (j) of this section. The specimen must be taken across the circumferential seam, must be a minimum of 11/2 inches wide, edges must be parallel and rounded with a file, and back-up strip, if used, must be removed by machining. The specimen must be tested as follows:

(i) Standard guided bend test. The specimen must be bent to refusal in the guided bend test jig as illustrated in CGA C-3 (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter). The root of the weld (inside surface of the cylinder) must be located away from the ram of the jig. The specimen must not show a crack or other open defect exceeding1/8 inch in any direction upon completion of the test. Should this specimen fail to meet the requirements, one additional specimen must be taken from two additional cylinders from the same lot and tested. If either of the latter specimens fails to meet requirements, the entire lot represented must be rejected.

(ii) Alternate guided bend test. This test may be used as an alternate to the guided bend test. The test specimen must be in conformance with The Aluminum Association's “Welding Aluminum: Theory and Practice, Fourth Edition, 2002” (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter). If the specimen fails to meet the requirements, one additional specimen must be taken from two additional cylinders or welded test plates from the same lot and tested. If any of these latter two specimens fails to meet the requirements, the entire lot must be rejected.

(m) Rejected cylinders. Repair of welded seams is authorized. Acceptable cylinders must pass all prescribed tests.

(n) Markings.

(1) Markings must be as required in § 178.35 and in addition must be stamped plainly and permanently in one of the following locations on the cylinder:

(i) On the neck, neckring, valve boss, valve protection sleeve, or similar part permanently attached to the top of the cylinder.

(ii) On the footring permanently attached to the cylinder, provided the water capacity of the cylinder does not exceed 30 pounds.

(2) Embossing the cylinder head or side wall is not permitted.

(o) Inspector's report. In addition to the information required by § 178.35, the record of chemical analyses must also include applicable information on iron, titanium, zinc, and magnesium used in the construction of the cylinder.

[Amdt. 178-114, 61 FR 25942, May 23, 1996, as amended at 62 FR 51561, Oct. 1, 1997; 66 FR 45386, Aug. 28, 2001; 67 FR 51654, Aug. 8, 2002; 68 FR 75748, Dec. 31, 2003; 69 FR 54046, Sept. 7, 2004; 74 FR 16143, Apr. 9, 2009; 85 FR 85431, Dec. 27, 2020]

§ 178.69 Responsibilities and requirements for manufacturers of UN pressure receptacles.

(a) Each manufacturer of a UN pressure receptacle marked with “USA” as a country of approval must comply with the requirements in this section. The manufacturer must maintain a quality system, obtain an approval for each initial pressure receptacle design type, and ensure that all production of UN pressure receptacles meets the applicable requirements.

(1) Quality system. The manufacturer of a UN pressure receptacle must have its quality system approved by the Associate Administrator. The quality system will initially be assessed through an audit by the Associate Administrator or his or her representative to determine whether it meets the requirements of this section. The Associate Administrator will notify the manufacturer in writing of the results of the audit. The notification will contain the conclusions of the audit and any corrective action required. The Associate Administrator may perform periodic audits to ensure that the manufacturer operates in accordance with the quality system. Reports of periodic audits will be provided to the manufacturer. The manufacturer must bear the cost of audits.

(2) Quality system documentation. The manufacturer must be able to demonstrate a documented quality system. Management must review the adequacy of the quality system to assure that it is effective and conforms to the requirements in § 178.70. The quality system records must be in English and must include detailed descriptions of the following:

(i) The organizational structure and responsibilities of personnel with regard to design and product quality;

(ii) The design control and design verification techniques, processes, and procedures used when designing the pressure receptacles;

(iii) The relevant procedures for pressure receptacle manufacturing, quality control, quality assurance, and process operation instructions;

(iv) Inspection and testing methodologies, measuring and testing equipment, and calibration data;

(v) The process for meeting customer requirements;

(vi) The process for document control and document revision;

(vii) The system for controlling non-conforming material and records, including procedures for identification, segregation, and disposition;

(viii) Production, processing and fabrication, including purchased components, in-process and final materials; and

(ix) Training programs for relevant personnel.

(3) Maintenance of quality system. The manufacturer must maintain the quality system as approved by the Associate Administrator. The manufacturer shall notify the Associate Administrator of any intended changes to the approved quality system prior to making the change. The Associate Administrator will evaluate the proposed change to determine whether the amended quality system will satisfy the requirements. The Associate Administrator will notify the manufacturer of the findings.

(b) Design type approvals. The manufacturer must have each pressure receptacle design type reviewed by an IIA and approved by the Associate Administrator in accordance with § 178.70. A cylinder is considered to be of a new design, compared with an existing approved design, as stated in the applicable ISO design, construction and testing standard.

(c) Production inspection and certification. The manufacturer must ensure that each UN pressure receptacle is inspected and certified in accordance with § 178.71.

[71 FR 33885, June 12, 2006]

§ 178.70 Approval of UN pressure receptacles.

(a) Initial design-type approval. The manufacturer of a UN pressure receptacle must obtain an initial design type approval from the Associate Administrator. The initial design type approval must be of the pressure receptacle design as it is intended to be produced. The manufacturer must arrange for an IIA, approved by the Associate Administrator in accordance with subpart I of part 107 of this chapter, to perform a pre-audit of its pressure receptacle manufacturing operation prior to having an audit conducted by the Associate Administrator or his designee.

(b) IIA pre-audit. The manufacturer must submit an application for initial design type approval to the IIA for review. The IIA will examine the manufacturer's application for initial design type approval for completeness. An incomplete application will be returned to the manufacturer with an explanation. If an application is complete, the IIA will review all technical documentation, including drawings and calculations, to verify that the design meets all requirements of the applicable UN pressure receptacle standard and specification requirements. If the technical documentation shows that the pressure receptacle prototype design conforms to the applicable standards and requirements in § 178.70, the manufacturer will fabricate a prototype lot of pressure receptacles in conformance with the technical documentation representative of the design. The IIA will verify that the prototype lot conforms to the applicable requirements by selecting pressure receptacles and witnessing their testing. After prototype testing has been satisfactorily completed, showing the pressure receptacles fully conform to all applicable specification requirements, the certifying IIA must prepare a letter of recommendation and a design type approval certificate. The design type approval certificate must contain the name and address of the manufacturer and the IIA certifying the design type, the test results, chemical analyses, lot identification, and all other supporting data specified in the applicable ISO design, construction and testing standard. The IIA must provide the certificate and documentation to the manufacturer.

(c) Application for initial design type approval. If the pre-audit is found satisfactory by the IIA, the manufacturer will submit the letter of recommendation from the IIA and an application for design type approval to the Associate Administrator. An application for initial design type approval must be submitted for each manufacturing facility. The application must be in English and, at a minimum, contain the following information:

(1) The name and address of the manufacturing facility. If the application is submitted by an authorized representative on behalf of the manufacturer, the application must include the representative's name and address.

(2) The name and title of the individual responsible for the manufacturer's quality system, as required by § 178.69.

(3) The designation of the pressure receptacle and the relevant pressure receptacle standard.

(4) Details of any refusal of approval of a similar application by a designated approval agency of another country.

(5) The name and address of the production IIA that will perform the functions prescribed in paragraph (e) of this section. The IIA must be approved in writing by the Associate Administrator in accordance with subpart I of part 107 of this chapter.

(6) Documentation on the manufacturing facility as specified in § 178.69.

(7) Design specifications and manufacturing drawings, showing components and subassemblies if relevant, design calculations, and material specifications necessary to verify compliance with the applicable pressure receptacle design standard.

(8) Manufacturing procedures and any applicable standards that describe in detail the manufacturing processes and control.

(9) Design type approval test reports detailing the results of examinations and tests conducted in accordance with the relevant pressure receptacle standard, to include any additional data, such as suitability for underwater applications or compatibility with hydrogen embrittlement gases.

(d) Modification of approved pressure receptacle design type. Modification of an approved UN (ISO) pressure receptacle design type is not authorized without the approval of the Associate Administrator. However, modification of an approved UN (ISO) pressure receptacle design type is authorized without an additional approval of the Associate Administrator provided the design modification is covered under the UN (ISO) standard for the design type. A manufacturer seeking modification of an approved UN (ISO) pressure receptacle design type may be required to submit design qualification test data to the Associate Administrator before production. An audit may be required as part of the process to modify an approval.

(e) Responsibilities of the production IIA. The production IIA is responsible for ensuring that each pressure receptacle conforms to the design type approval. The production IIA must perform the following functions:

(1) Witness all inspections and tests specified in the UN pressure receptacle standard to ensure compliance with the standard and that the procedures adopted by the manufacturer meet the requirements of the standard;

(2) Verify that the production inspections were performed in accordance with this section;

(3) Select UN pressure receptacles from a prototype production lot and witness testing as required for the design type approval;

(4) Ensure that the various design type approval examinations and tests are performed accurately;

(5) Verify that each pressure receptacle is marked in accordance with the applicable requirements in § 178.71; and

(6) Furnish complete test reports to the manufacturer and upon request to the purchaser. The test reports and certificate of compliance must be retained by the IIA for at least 20 years from the original test date of the pressure receptacles.

(f) Production inspection audit and certification.

(1) If the application, design drawing and quality control documents are found satisfactory, PHMSA will schedule an on-site audit of the pressure receptacle manufacturer's quality system, manufacturing processes, inspections, and test procedures.

(2) During the audit, the manufacturer will be required to produce pressure receptacles to the technical standards for which approval is sought.

(3) The production IIA must witness the required inspections and verifications on the pressure receptacles during the production run. The IIA selected by the manufacturer for production inspection and testing may be different from the IIA who performed the design type approval verifications.

(4) If the procedures and controls are deemed acceptable, test sample pressure receptacles will be selected at random from the production lot and sent to a laboratory designated by the Associate Administrator for verification testing.

(5) If the pressure receptacle test samples are found to conform to all the applicable requirements, the Associate Administrator will issue approvals to the manufacturer and the production IIA to authorize the manufacture of the pressure receptacles. The approved design type approval certificate will be returned to the manufacturer.

(6) Upon the receipt of the approved design type approval certificate from the Associate Administrator, the pressure receptacle manufacturer must sign the certificate.

(g) Recordkeeping. The production IIA and the manufacturer must retain a copy of the design type approval certificate and certificate of compliance records for at least 20 years.

(h) Denial of design type application. If the design type application is denied, the Associate Administrator will notify the applicant in writing and provide the reason for the denial. The manufacturer may request that the Associate Administrator reconsider the decision. The application request must -

(1) Be written in English and filed within 60 days of receipt of the decision;

(2) State in detail any alleged errors of fact and law; and

(3) Enclose any additional information needed to support the request to reconsider.

(i) Appeal.

(1) A manufacturer whose reconsideration request is denied may appeal to the PHMSA Administrator. The appeal must -

(i) Be written in English and filed within 60 days of receipt of the Associate Administrator's decision on reconsideration;

(ii) State in detail any alleged errors of fact and law;

(iii) Enclose any additional information needed to support the appeal; and

(iv) State in detail the modification of the final decision sought.

(2) The PHMSA Administrator will grant or deny the relief and inform the appellant in writing of the decision. PHMSA Administrator's decision is the final administrative action.

(j) Termination of a design type approval certificate.

(1) The Associate Administrator may terminate an approval certificate issue under this section if it is determined that, because of a change in circumstances, the approval no longer is needed or no longer would be granted if applied for; information upon which the approval was based is fraudulent or substantially erroneous; or termination of the approval is necessary to adequately protect against risks to life and property.

(2) Before an approval is terminated, the Associate Administrator will provide the manufacturer and the approval agency -

(i) Written notice of the facts or conduct believed to warrant the withdrawal;

(ii) Opportunity to submit oral and written evidence, and

(iii) Opportunity to demonstrate or achieve compliance with the application requirement.

(3) If the Associate Administrator determines that a certificate of approval must be withdrawn to preclude a significant and imminent adverse affect on public safety, the procedures in paragraph (j)(2)(ii) and (iii) of this section need not be provided prior to withdrawal of the approval, but shall be provided as soon as practicable thereafter.

[71 FR 33886, June 12, 2006, as amended at 71 FR 54397, Sept. 14, 2006; 77 FR 60943, Oct. 5, 2012; 85 FR 85432, Dec. 28, 2020]

§ 178.71 Specifications for UN pressure receptacles.

(a) General. Each UN pressure receptacle must meet the requirements of this section. UN pressure receptacles and service equipment constructed according to the standards applicable at the date of manufacture may continue in use subject to the continuing qualification and maintenance provisions of part 180 of this subchapter. Requirements for approval, qualification, maintenance, and testing are contained in § 178.70, and subpart C of part 180 of this subchapter.

(b) Definitions. The following definitions apply for the purposes of design and construction of UN pressure receptacles under this subpart:

Alternative arrangement means an approval granted by the Associate Administrator for a MEGC that has been designed, constructed or tested to the technical requirements or testing methods other than those specified for UN pressure receptacles in part 178 or part 180 of this subchapter.

Bundle of cylinders. See § 171.8 of this subchapter.

Design type means a pressure receptacle design as specified by a particular pressure receptacle standard.

Design type approval means an overall approval of the manufacturer's quality system and design type of each pressure receptacle to be produced within the manufacturer's facility.

UN tube. See § 171.8 of this subchapter.

(c) Following the final heat treatment, all cylinders, except those selected for batch testing must be subjected to a proof pressure or a hydraulic volumetric expansion test.

(d) Service equipment.

(1) Except for pressure relief devices, UN pressure receptacle equipment, including valves, piping, fittings, and other equipment subjected to pressure must be designed and constructed to withstand at least 1.5 times the test pressure of the pressure receptacle.

(2) Service equipment must be configured, or designed, to prevent damage that could result in the release of the pressure receptacle contents during normal conditions of handling and transport. Manifold piping leading to shut-off valves must be sufficiently flexible to protect the valves and the piping from shearing or releasing the pressure receptacle contents. The filling and discharge valves and any protective caps must be secured against unintended opening. The valves must conform to ISO 10297:2014(E) or, for non-refillable pressure receptacles valves manufactured until December 31, 2020, ISO 13340:2001(E) (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter), and be protected as specified in § 173.301b(f) of this subchapter. Until December 31, 2020, the manufacture of a valve conforming to the requirements in ISO 10297:2006(E) (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter) is authorized. Until December 31, 2008, the manufacture of a valve conforming to the requirements in ISO 10297:1999(E) (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter) is authorized. Additionally, valves must be initially inspected and tested in accordance with ISO 14246:2014(E) Gas cylinders - Cylinder valves - Manufacturing tests and examinations (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter).

(3) UN pressure receptacles that cannot be handled manually or rolled, must be equipped with devices (e.g., skids, rings, straps) ensuring that they can be safely handled by mechanical means and so arranged as not to impair the strength of, nor cause undue stresses, in the pressure receptacle.

(4) Pressure receptacles filled by volume must be equipped with a level indicator.

(e) Bundles of cylinders. UN pressure receptacles assembled in bundles must be structurally supported and held together as a unit and secured in a manner that prevents movement in relation to the structural assembly and movement that would result in the concentration of harmful local stresses. The frame design must ensure stability under normal operating conditions.

(1) The frame must securely retain all the components of the bundle and must protect them from damage during conditions normally incident to transportation. The method of cylinder restraint must prevent any vertical or horizontal movement or rotation of the cylinder that could cause undue strain on the manifold. The total assembly must be able to withstand rough handling, including being dropped or overturned.

(2) The frame must include features designed for the handling and transportation of the bundle. The lifting rings must be designed to withstand a design load of 2 times the maximum gross weight. Bundles with more than one lifting ring must be designed such that a minimum sling angle of 45 degrees to the horizontal can be achieved during lifting using the lifting rings. If four lifting rings are used, their design must be strong enough to allow the bundle to be lifted by two rings. Where two or four lifting rings are used, diametrically opposite lifting rings must be aligned with each other to allow for correct lifting using shackle pins. If the bundle is filled with forklift pockets, it must contain two forklift pockets on each side from which it is to be lifted. The forklift pockets must be positioned symmetrically consistent with the bundle center of gravity.

(3) The frame structural members must be designed for a vertical load of 2 times the maximum gross weight of the bundle. Design stress levels may not exceed 0.9 times the yield strength of the material.

(4) The frame must not contain any protrusions from the exterior frame structure that could cause a hazardous condition.

(5) The frame design must prevent collection of water or other debris that would increase the tare weight of bundles filled by weight.

(6) The floor of the bundle frame must not buckle during normal operating conditions and must allow for the drainage of water and debris from around the base of the cylinders.

(7) If the frame design includes movable doors or covers, they must be capable of being secured with latches or other means that will not become dislodged by operational impact loads. Valves that need to be operated in normal service or in an emergency must be accessible.

(8) For bundles of cylinders, pressure receptacle marking requirements only apply to the individual cylinders of a bundle and not to any assembly structure.

(f) Design and construction requirements for UN refillable welded cylinders and UN pressure drums. In addition to the general requirements of this section, UN refillable welded cylinders and UN pressure drums must conform to the following ISO standards, as applicable:

(1) ISO 4706: Gas cylinders - Refillable welded steel cylinders - Test pressure 60 bar and below (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter).

(2) ISO 18172-1: Gas cylinders - Refillable welded stainless steel cylinders - Part 1: Test pressure 6 MPa and below (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter).

(3) ISO 20703: Gas cylinders - Refillable welded aluminum-alloy cylinders - Design, construction and testing (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter).

(4) ISO 21172-1:2015(E) Gas cylinders - Welded steel pressure drums up to 3,000 litres capacity for the transport of gases - Design and construction - Part 1: Capacities up to 1,000 litres (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter). Irrespective of section 6.3.3.4 of this standard, welded steel gas pressure drums with dished ends convex to pressure may be used for the transport of corrosive substances provided all applicable additional requirements are met.

(g) Design and construction requirements for UN refillable seamless steel cylinders. In addition to the general requirements of this section, UN refillable seamless steel cylinders must conform to the following ISO standards, as applicable:

(1) ISO 9809-1:2010 Gas cylinders - Refillable seamless steel gas cylinders - Design, construction and testing - Part 1: Quenched and tempered steel cylinders with tensile strength less than 1100 MPa. (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter). Until December 31, 2018, the manufacture of a cylinder conforming to the requirements in ISO 9809-1:1999 (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter) is authorized.

(2) ISO 9809-2: Gas cylinders - Refillable seamless steel gas cylinders - Design, construction and testing - Part 2: Quenched and tempered steel cylinders with tensile strength greater than or equal to 1100 MPa. (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter). Until December 31, 2018, the manufacture of a cylinder conforming to the requirements in ISO 9809-2:2000 (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter) is authorized.

(3) ISO 9809-3: Gas cylinders - Refillable seamless steel gas cylinders - Design, construction and testing - Part 3: Normalized steel cylinders. (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter). Until December 31, 2018, the manufacture of a cylinder conforming to the requirements in ISO 9809-3:2000 (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter) is authorized.

(4) ISO 9809-4:2014(E) (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter).

(h) Design and construction requirements for UN refillable seamless aluminum alloy cylinders. In addition to the general requirements of this section, UN refillable seamless aluminum cylinders must conform to ISO 7866:2012(E) as modified by ISO 7866:2012/Cor.1:2014(E) (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter). Until December 31, 2020, the manufacture of a cylinder conforming to the requirements in ISO 7866(E) (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter) is authorized. The use of Aluminum alloy 6351-T6 or equivalent is prohibited.

(i) Design and construction requirements for UN non-refillable metal cylinders. In addition to the general requirements of this section, UN non-refillable metal cylinders must conform to ISO 11118:2015(E) Gas cylinders - Non-refillable metallic gas cylinders - Specification and test methods (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter). Until December 31, 2020, cylinders conforming to ISO 11118:1999(E) Gas cylinders - Non-refillable metallic gas cylinders - Specification and test methods (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter) are authorized.

(j) Design and construction requirements for UN refillable seamless steel tubes. In addition to the general requirements of this section, UN refillable seamless steel tubes must conform to ISO 11120:2015(E) Gas cylinders - Refillable seamless steel tubes of water capacity between 150 L and 3,000 L - Design, construction and testing (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter). Until December 31, 2022, UN refillable seamless steel tubes may be manufactured in accordance with ISO 11120: Gas cylinders - Refillable seamless steel tubes of water capacity between 150 L and 3,000 L - Design, construction and testing (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter)

(k) Design and construction requirements for UN acetylene cylinders. In addition to the general requirements of this section, UN acetylene cylinders must conform to the following ISO standards, as applicable:

(1) For the cylinder shell:

(i) ISO 9809-1:2010 Gas cylinders - Refillable seamless steel gas cylinders - Design, construction and testing - Part 1: Quenched and tempered steel cylinders with tensile strength less than 1100 MPa. Until December 31, 2018, the manufacture of a cylinder conforming to the requirements in ISO 9809-1:1999 (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter) is authorized.

(ii) ISO 9809-3: Gas cylinders - Refillable seamless steel gas cylinders - Design, construction and testing - Part 3: Normalized steel cylinders. Until December 31, 2018, the manufacture of a cylinder conforming to the requirements in ISO 9809-3:2000 (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter) is authorized.

(2) The porous mass in an acetylene cylinder must conform to ISO 3807:2013(E) (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter). Until December 31, 2020, the manufacture of a cylinder conforming to the requirements in ISO 3807-2(E) (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter) is authorized.

(l) Design and construction requirements for UN composite cylinders and tubes.

(1) In addition to the general requirements of this section, UN composite cylinders and tubes must be designed for a design life of not less than 15 years. Composite cylinders and tubes with a design life longer than 15 years must not be filled after 15 years from the date of manufacture, unless the design has successfully passed a service life test program. The service life test program must be part of the initial design type approval and must specify inspections and tests to demonstrate that cylinders manufactured accordingly remain safe to the end of their design life. The service life test program and the results must be approved by the competent authority of the country of approval that is responsible for the initial approval of the cylinder design. The service life of a composite cylinder or tube must not be extended beyond its initial approved design life. Additionally, composite cylinders and tubes must conform to the following ISO standards, as applicable:

(i) ISO 11119-1:2012(E) (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter). Until December 31, 2020, cylinders conforming to the requirements in ISO 11119-1(E), (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter) are authorized.

(ii) ISO 11119-2:2012(E) (ISO 11119-2:2012/Amd.1:2014(E)) (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter). Until December 31, 2020, cylinders conforming to the requirements in ISO 11119-2(E) (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter) are authorized.

(iii) ISO 11119-3:2013(E) (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter). Until December 31, 2020, cylinders conforming to the requirements in ISO 11119-3(E) (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter) are authorized.

(2) ISO 11119-2 and ISO 11119-3 gas cylinders of composite construction manufactured in accordance with the requirements for underwater use must bear the “UW” mark.

(m) Design and construction requirements for UN metal hydride storage systems. In addition to the general requirements of this section, metal hydride storage systems must conform to the following ISO standards, as applicable: ISO 16111: Transportable gas storage devices - Hydrogen absorbed in reversible metal hydride (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter).

(n) Design and construction requirements for UN cylinders for the transportation of adsorbed gases. In addition to the general requirements of this section, UN cylinders for the transportation of adsorbed gases must conform to the following ISO standards, as applicable: ISO 11513:2011, Gas cylinders - Refillable welded steel cylinders containing materials for sub-atmospheric gas packaging (excluding acetylene) - Design, construction, testing, use and periodic inspection, or ISO 9809-1:2010: Gas cylinders - Refillable seamless steel gas cylinders - Design, construction and testing - Part 1: Quenched and tempered steel cylinders with tensile strength less than 1100 MPa. (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter.)

(o) Material compatibility. In addition to the material requirements specified in the UN pressure receptacle design and construction ISO standards, and any restrictions specified in part 173 for the gases to be transported, the requirements of the following standards must be applied with respect to material compatibility:

(1) ISO 11114-1:2012: Gas cylinders - Compatibility of cylinder and valve materials with gas contents - Part 1: Metallic materials. (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter).

(2) ISO 11114-2:2013(E) (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter).

(p) Protection of closures. Closures and their protection must conform to the requirements in § 173.301(f) of this subchapter.

(q) Marking of UN refillable pressure receptacles. UN refillable pressure receptacles must be marked clearly and legibly. The required markings must be permanently affixed by stamping, engraving, or other equivalent method, on the shoulder, top end or neck of the pressure receptacle or on a permanently affixed component of the pressure receptacle, such as a welded collar. Except for the “UN” mark, the minimum size of the marks must be 5 mm for pressure receptacles with a diameter greater than or equal to 140 mm, and 2.5 mm for pressure receptacles with a diameter less than 140 mm. The minimum size of the “UN” mark must be 5 mm for pressure receptacles with a diameter less than 140 mm, and 10 mm for pressure receptacles with a diameter of greater than or equal to 140 mm. The depth of the markings must not create harmful stress concentrations. A refillable pressure receptacle conforming to the UN standard must be marked as follows:

(1) The UN packaging symbol.

(2) The ISO standard, for example ISO 9809-1, used for design, construction and testing. Acetylene cylinders must be marked to indicate the porous mass and the steel shell, for example: “ISO 3807-2/ISO 9809-1.”

(3) The mark of the country where the approval is granted. The letters “USA” must be marked on UN pressure receptacles approved by the United States. The manufacturer must obtain an approval number from the Associate Administrator. The manufacturer approval number must follow the country of approval mark, separated by a slash (for example, USA/MXXXX). Pressure receptacles approved by more than one national authority may contain the mark of each country of approval, separated by a comma.

(4) The identity mark or stamp of the IIA.

(5) The date of the initial inspection, the year (four digits) followed by the month (two digits) separated by a slash, for example “2006/04”.

(6) The test pressure in bar, preceded by the letters “PH” and followed by the letters “BAR”.

(7) The rated charging pressure of the metal hydride storage system in bar, preceded by the letters “RCP” and followed by the letters “BAR.”

(8) The empty or tare weight. Except for acetylene cylinders, empty weight is the mass of the pressure receptacle in kilograms, including all integral parts (e.g., collar, neck ring, foot ring, etc.), followed by the letters “KG”. The empty weight does not include the mass of the valve, valve cap or valve guard or any coating. The empty weight must be expressed to three significant figures rounded up to the last digit. For cylinders of less than 1 kg, the empty weight must be expressed to two significant figures rounded down to the last digit. For acetylene cylinders, the tare weight must be marked on the cylinders in kilograms. The tare weight is the sum of the empty weight, mass of the valve, any coating and all permanently attached parts (e.g., fittings and accessories) that are not removed during filling. The tare weight must be expressed to two significant figures rounded down to the last digit. The tare weight does not include the cylinder cap or any outlet cap or plug not permanently attached to the cylinder.

(9) The minimum wall thickness of the pressure receptacle in millimeters followed by the letters “MM”. This mark is not required for pressure receptacles with a water capacity less than or equal to 1.0 L or for composite cylinders.

(10) For pressure receptacles intended for the transport of compressed gases and UN 1001 acetylene, dissolved, the working pressure in bar, proceeded by the letters “PW”.

(11) For liquefied gases, the water capacity in liters expressed to three significant digits rounded down to the last digit, followed by the letter “L”. If the value of the minimum or nominal water capacity is an integer, the digits after the decimal point may be omitted.

(12) Identification of the cylinder thread type (e.g., 25E). Information on the marks that may be used for identifying threads for cylinders is given in ISO/TR 11364, Gas Cylinders - Compilation of national and international valve stem/gas cylinder neck threads and their identification and marking system (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter).

(13) The country of manufacture. The letters “USA” must be marked on cylinders manufactured in the United States.

(14) The serial number assigned by the manufacturer.

(15) For steel pressure receptacles, the letter “H” showing compatibility of the steel, as specified in ISO 11114-1.

(16) Identification of aluminum alloy, if applicable.

(17) Stamp for nondestructive testing, if applicable.

(18) Stamp for underwater use of composite cylinders, if applicable.

(19) For metal hydride storage systems having a limited life, the date of expiration indicated by the word “FINAL,” followed by the year (four digits), the month (two digits) and separated by a slash.

(20) For composite cylinders and tubes having a limited design life, the letters “FINAL” followed by the design life shown as the year (four digits) followed by the month (two digits) separated by a slash (i.e. “/”).

(21) For composite cylinders and tubes having a limited design life greater than 15 years and for composite cylinders and tubes having non-limited design life, the letters “SERVICE” followed by the date 15 years from the date of manufacture (initial inspection) shown as the year (four digits) followed by the month (two digits) separated by a slash (i.e. “/”).

(r) Marking sequence. The marking required by paragraph (q) of this section must be placed in three groups as shown in the example below:

(1) The top grouping contains manufacturing marks and must appear consecutively in the sequence given in paragraphs (q)(13) through (19) of this section.

(2) The middle grouping contains operational marks described in paragraphs (q)(6) through (11) of this section.

(3) The bottom grouping contains certification marks and must appear consecutively in the sequence given in paragraphs (q)(1) through (5) of this section.

(s) Other markings. Other markings are allowed in areas other than the side wall, provided they are made in low stress areas and are not of a size and depth that will create harmful stress concentrations. Such marks must not conflict with required marks.

(t) Marking of UN non-refillable pressure receptacles. Unless otherwise specified in this paragraph, each UN non-refillable pressure receptacle must be clearly and legibly marked as prescribed in paragraph (q) of this section. In addition, permanent stenciling is authorized. Except when stenciled, the marks must be on the shoulder, top end or neck of the pressure receptacle or on a permanently affixed component of the pressure receptacle (e.g., a welded collar).

(1) The marking requirements and sequence listed in paragraphs (q)(1) through (19) of this section are required, except the markings in paragraphs (q)(8), (9), (12) and (18) are not applicable. The required serial number marking in paragraph (q)(14) may be replaced by the batch number.

(2) Each receptacle must be marked with the words “DO NOT REFILL” in letters of at least 5 mm in height.

(3) A non-refillable pressure receptacle, because of its size, may substitute the marking required by this paragraph with a label. Reduction in marking size is authorized only as prescribed in ISO 7225, Gas cylinders - Precautionary labels. (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter).

(4) Each non-refillable pressure receptacle must also be legibly marked by stenciling the following statement: “Federal law forbids transportation if refilled-penalty up to $500,000 fine and 5 years in imprisonment (49 U.S.C. 5124).”

(u) Marking of bundles of cylinders.

(1) Individual cylinders in a bundle of cylinders must be marked in accordance with paragraphs (q), (r), (s) and (t) of this section as appropriate.

(2) Refillable UN bundles of cylinders must be marked clearly and legibly with certification, operational, and manufacturing marks. These marks must be permanently affixed (e.g., stamped, engraved, or etched) on a plate permanently attached to the frame of the bundle of cylinders. Except for the “UN” mark, the minimum size of the marks must be 5 mm. The minimum size of the “UN” mark must be 10 mm. A refillable UN bundle of cylinders must be marked with the following:

(i) The UN packaging symbol;

(ii) The ISO standard, for example ISO 9809-1, used for design, construction and testing. Acetylene cylinders must be marked to indicate the porous mass and the steel shell, for example: “ISO 3807-2/ISO 9809-1”;

(iii) The mark of the country where the approval is granted. The letters “USA” must be marked on UN pressure receptacles approved by the United States. The manufacturer must obtain an approval number from the Associate Administrator. The manufacturer approval number must follow the country of approval mark, separated by a slash (for example, USA/MXXXX). Pressure receptacles approved by more than one national authority may contain the mark of each country of approval, separated by a comma;

(iv) The identity mark or stamp of the IIA;

(v) The date of the initial inspection, the year in four digits followed by the two digit month separated by a slash, for example “2006/04”;

(vi) The test pressure in bar, preceded by the letters “PH” and followed by the letters “BAR”;

(vii) For pressure receptacles intended for the transport of compressed gases and UN 1001 acetylene, dissolved, the working pressure in bar, proceeded by the letters “PW”;

(viii) For liquefied gases, the water capacity in liters expressed to three significant digits rounded down to the last digit, followed by the letter “L”. If the value of the minimum or nominal water capacity is an integer, the digits after the decimal point may be omitted;

(ix) The total mass of the frame of the bundle and all permanently attached parts (cylinders, manifolds, fittings and valves). Bundles intended for the carriage of UN 1001 acetylene, dissolved must bear the tare mass as specified in clause N.4.2 of ISO 10961:2010;

(x) The country of manufacture. The letters “USA” must be marked on cylinders manufactured in the United States;

(xi) The serial number assigned by the manufacturer; and

(xii) For steel pressure receptacles, the letter “H” showing compatibility of the steel, as specified in 1SO 11114-1.

(v) Marking sequence. The marking required by paragraph (u) of this section must be placed in three groups as follows:

(1) The top grouping contains manufacturing marks and must appear consecutively in the sequence given in paragraphs (u)(2)(x) through (u)(2)(xii) of this section as applicable.

(2) The middle grouping contains operational marks described in paragraphs (u)(2)(vi) through (u)(2)(ix) of this section as applicable. When the operational mark specified in paragraph (u)(2)(vii) is required, it must immediately precede the operational mark specified in paragraph (u)(2)(vi).

(3) The bottom grouping contains certification marks and must appear consecutively in the sequence given in paragraphs (u)(2)(i) through (u)(2)(v) of this section as applicable.

[76 FR 3385, Jan. 19, 2011, as amended at 76 FR 43532, July 20, 2011; 77 FR 60943, Oct. 5, 2012; 78 FR 1096, Jan. 7, 2013; 80 FR 1166, Jan. 8, 2015; 80 FR 72929, Nov. 23, 2015; 82 FR 15895, Mar. 30, 2017; 85 FR 27900, May 11, 2020]

§ 178.74 Approval of MEGCs.

(a) Application for design type approval.

(1) Each new MEGC design type must have a design approval certificate. An owner or manufacturer must apply to an approval agency that is approved by the Associate Administrator in accordance with subpart E of part 107 of this chapter + to obtain approval of a new design. When a series of MEGCs is manufactured without change in the design, the certificate is valid for the entire series. The design approval certificate must refer to the prototype test report, the materials of construction of the manifold, the standards to which the pressure receptacles are made and an approval number. The compliance requirements or test methods applicable to MEGCs as specified in this subpart may be varied when the level of safety is determined to be equivalent to or exceed the requirements of this subchapter and is approved in writing by the Associate Administrator. A design approval may serve for the approval of smaller MEGCs made of materials of the same type and thickness, by the same fabrication techniques and with identical supports, equivalent closures and other appurtenances.

(2) Each application for design approval must be in English and contain the following information:

(i) Two complete copies of all engineering drawings, calculations, and test data necessary to ensure that the design meets the relevant specification.

(ii) The manufacturer's serial number that will be assigned to each MEGC.

(iii) A statement as to whether the design type has been examined by any approval agency previously and judged unacceptable. Affirmative statements must be documented with the name of the approval agency, reason for non-acceptance, and the nature of modifications made to the design type.

(b) Actions by the approval agency. The approval agency must review the application for design type approval, including all drawings and calculations, to ensure that the design of the MEGC meets all requirements of the relevant specification and to determine whether it is complete and conforms to the requirements of this section. An incomplete application will be returned to the applicant with the reasons why the application was returned. If the application is complete and all applicable requirements of this section are met, the approval agency must prepare a MEGC design approval certificate containing the manufacturer's name and address, results and conclusions of the examination and necessary data for identification of the design type. If the Associate Administrator approves the Design Type Approval Certificate application, the approval agency and the manufacturer must each maintain a copy of the approved drawings, calculations, and test data for at least 20 years.

(c) Approval agency's responsibilities. The approval agency is responsible for ensuring that the MEGC conforms to the design type approval. The approval agency must:

(1) Witness all tests required for the approval of the MEGC specified in this section and § 178.75.

(2) Ensure, through appropriate inspection, that each MEGC is fabricated in all respects in conformance with the approved drawings, calculations, and test data.

(3) Determine and ensure that the MEGC is suitable for its intended use and that it conforms to the requirements of this subchapter.

(4) Apply its name, identifying mark or identifying number, and the date the approval was issued, to the metal identification marking plate attached to the MEGC upon successful completion of all requirements of this subpart. Any approvals by the Associate Administrator authorizing design or construction alternatives (Alternate Arrangements) of the MEGC (see paragraph (a) of this section) must be indicated on the metal identification plate as specified in § 178.75(j).

(5) Prepare an approval certificate for each MEGC or, in the case of a series of identical MEGCs manufactured to a single design type, for each series of MEGCs. The approval certificate must include all of the following information:

(i) The information displayed on the metal identification plate required by § 178.75(j);

(ii) The results of the applicable framework test specified in ISO 1496-3 (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter);

(iii) The results of the initial inspection and test specified in paragraph (h) of this section;

(iv) The results of the impact test specified in § 178.75(i)(4);

(v) Certification documents verifying that the cylinders and tubes conform to the applicable standards; and

(vi) A statement that the approval agency certifies the MEGC in accordance with the procedures in this section and that the MEGC is suitable for its intended purpose and meets the requirements of this subchapter. When a series of MEGCs is manufactured without change in the design type, the certificate may be valid for the entire series of MEGCs representing a single design type. The approval number must consist of the distinguishing sign or mark of the country (“USA” for the United States of America) where the approval was granted and a registration number.

(6) Retain on file a copy of each approval certificate for at least 20 years.

(d) Manufacturers' responsibilities. The manufacturer is responsible for compliance with the applicable specifications for the design and construction of MEGCs. The manufacturer of a MEGC must:

(1) Comply with all the requirements of the applicable ISO standard specified in § 178.71;

(2) Obtain and use an approval agency to review the design, construction and certification of the MEGC;

(3) Provide a statement in the manufacturers' data report certifying that each MEGC manufactured complies with the relevant specification and all the applicable requirements of this subchapter; and

(4) Retain records for the MEGCs for at least 20 years. When required by the specification, the manufacturer must provide copies of the records to the approval agency, the owner or lessee of the MEGC, and to a representative of DOT, upon request.

(e) Denial of application for approval. If the Associate Administrator finds that the MEGC will not be approved for any reason, the Associate Administrator will notify the applicant in writing and provide the reason for the denial. The manufacturer may request that the Associate Administrator reconsider the decision. The application request must -

(1) Be written in English and filed within 90 days of receipt of the decision;

(2) State in detail any alleged errors of fact and law; and

(3) Enclose any additional information needed to support the request to reconsider.

(f) Appeal.

(1) A manufacturer whose reconsideration request is denied may appeal to the PHMSA Administrator. The appeal must -

(i) Be in writing and filed within 90 days of receipt of the Associate Administrator s decision on reconsideration;

(ii) State in detail any alleged errors of fact and law;

(iii) Enclose any additional information needed to support the appeal; and

(iv) State in detail the modification of the final decision sought.

(2) The Administrator will grant or deny the relief and inform the appellant in writing of the decision. The Administrator's decision is the final administrative action.

(g) Modifications to approved MEGCs.

(1) Prior to modification of any approved MEGC that may affect conformance and safe use, and that may involve a change to the design type or affect its ability to retain the hazardous material in transportation, the MEGC's owner must inform the approval agency that prepared the initial approval certificate for the MEGC or, if the initial approval agency is unavailable, another approval agency, of the nature of the modification and request certification of the modification. The owner must supply the approval agency with all revised drawings, calculations, and test data relative to the intended modification. The MEGC's owner must also provide a statement as to whether the intended modification has been examined and determined to be unacceptable by any approval agency. The written statement must include the name of the approval agency, the reason for non-acceptance, and the nature of changes made to the modification since its original rejection.

(2) The approval agency must review the request for modification. If the approval agency determines that the proposed modification does not conform to the relevant specification, the approval agency must reject the request in accordance with paragraph (d) of this section. If the approval agency determines that the proposed modification conforms fully with the relevant specification, the request is accepted. If modification to an approved MEGC alters any information on the approval certificate, the approval agency must prepare a new approval certificate for the modified MEGC and submit the certificate to the Associate Administrator for approval. After receiving approval from the Associate Administrator, the approval agency must ensure that any necessary changes are made to the metal identification plate. A copy of each newly issued approval certificate must be retained by the approval agency and the MEGC's owner for at least 20 years. The approval agency must perform the following activities:

(i) Retain a set of the approved revised drawings, calculations, and data as specified in § 178.69(b)(4) for at least 20 years;

(ii) Ensure through appropriate inspection that all modifications conform to the revised drawings, calculations, and test data; and

(iii) Determine the extent to which retesting of the modified MEGC is necessary based on the nature of the proposed modification, and ensure that all required retests are satisfactorily performed.

(h) Termination of Approval Certificate.

(1) The Associate Administrator may terminate an approval issued under this section if he or she determines that -

(i) Because of a change in circumstances, the approval no longer is needed or no longer would be granted if applied for;

(ii) Information upon which the approval was based is fraudulent or substantially erroneous;

(iii) Termination of the approval is necessary to adequately protect against risks to life and property; or

(iv) The MEGC does not meet the specification.

(2) Before an approval is terminated, the Associate Administrator will provide the person -

(i) Written notice of the facts or conduct believed to warrant the termination;

(ii) An opportunity to submit oral and written evidence; and

(3) An opportunity to demonstrate or achieve compliance with the applicable requirements.

(i) Imminent Danger. If the Associate Administrator determines that a certificate of approval must be terminated to preclude a significant and imminent adverse effect on public safety, the Associate Administrator may terminate the certificate immediately. In such circumstances, the opportunities of paragraphs (h)(2) and (3) of this section need not be provided prior to termination of the approval, but must be provided as soon as practicable thereafter.

[71 FR 33890, June 12, 2006]

§ 178.75 Specifications for MEGCs.

(a) General. Each MEGC must meet the requirements of this section. In a MEGC that meets the definition of a “container” within the terms of the International Convention for Safe Containers (CSC) must meet the requirements of the CSC as amended and 49 CFR parts 450 through 453, and must have a CSC approval plate.

(b) Alternate Arrangements. The technical requirements applicable to MEGCs may be varied when the level of safety is determined to be equivalent to or exceed the requirements of this subchapter. Such an alternate arrangement must be approved in writing by the Associate Administrator. MEGCs approved to an Alternate Arrangement must be marked as required by paragraph (j) of this section.

(c) Definitions. The following definitions apply:

Leakproofness test means a test using gas subjecting the pressure receptacles and the service equipment of the MEGC to an effective internal pressure of not less than 20% of the test pressure.

Manifold means an assembly of piping and valves connecting the filling and/or discharge openings of the pressure receptacles.

Maximum permissible gross mass or MPGM means the heaviest load authorized for transport (sum of the tare mass of the MEGC, service equipment and pressure receptacle).

Service equipment means manifold system (measuring instruments, piping and safety devices).

Shut-off valve means a valve that stops the flow of gas.

Structural equipment means the reinforcing, fastening, protective and stabilizing members external to the pressure receptacles.

(d) General design and construction requirements.

(1) The MEGC must be capable of being loaded and discharged without the removal of its structural equipment. It must possess stabilizing members external to the pressure receptacles to provide structural integrity for handling and transport. MEGCs must be designed and constructed with supports to provide a secure base during transport and with lifting and tie-down attachments that are adequate for lifting the MEGC including when loaded to its maximum permissible gross mass. The MEGC must be designed to be loaded onto a transport vehicle or vessel and equipped with skids, mountings or accessories to facilitate mechanical handling.

(2) MEGCs must be designed, manufactured and equipped to withstand, without loss of contents, all normal handling and transportation conditions. The design must take into account the effects of dynamic loading and fatigue.

(3) Each pressure receptacle of a MEGC must be of the same design type, seamless steel, and constructed and tested according to one of the following ISO standards:

(i) ISO 9809-1: Gas cylinders - Refillable seamless steel gas cylinders - Design, construction and testing - Part 1: Quenched and tempered steel cylinders with tensile strength less than 1100 MPa. (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter). Until December 31, 2018, the manufacture of a cylinder conforming to the requirements in ISO 9809-1:1999 (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter) is authorized;

(ii) ISO 9809-2: Gas cylinders - Refillable seamless steel gas cylinders - Design, construction and testing - Part 2: Quenched and tempered steel cylinders with tensile strength greater than or equal to 1100 MPa. (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter). Until December 31, 2018, the manufacture of a cylinder conforming to the requirements in ISO 9809-2:2000 (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter) is authorized;

(iii) ISO 9809-3: Gas cylinders - Refillable seamless steel gas cylinders - Design, construction and testing - Part 3: Normalized steel cylinders. (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter). Until December 31, 2018, the manufacture of a cylinder conforming to the requirements in ISO 9809-3:2000 (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter) is authorized; or

(iv) ISO 9809-4:2014(E) Gas cylinders - Refillable seamless steel gas cylinders - Design, construction and testing - Part 4: Stainless steel cylinders with an Rm value of less than 1 100 MPa (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter).

(v) ISO 11120:2015(E) Gas cylinders - Refillable seamless steel tubes of water capacity between 150 L and 3000 L - Design, construction and testing (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter). Until December 31, 2022, pressure receptacles of a MEGC may be constructed and tested in accordance with ISO 11120:1999(E) Gas cylinders - Refillable seamless steel tubes of water capacity between 150 L and 3000 L - Design, construction and testing (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter).

(4) Pressure receptacles of MEGCs, fittings, and pipework must be constructed of a material that is compatible with the hazardous materials intended to be transported, as specified in this subchapter.

(5) Contact between dissimilar metals that could result in damage by galvanic action must be prevented by appropriate means.

(6) The materials of the MEGC, including any devices, gaskets, and accessories, must have no adverse effect on the gases intended for transport in the MEGC.

(7) MEGCs must be designed to withstand, without loss of contents, at least the internal pressure due to the contents, and the static, dynamic and thermal loads during normal conditions of handling and transport. The design must take into account the effects of fatigue, caused by repeated application of these loads through the expected life of the MEGC.

(8) MEGCs and their fastenings must, under the maximum permissible load, be capable of withstanding the following separately applied static forces (for calculation purposes, acceleration due to gravity (g) = 9.81 m/s2):

(i) In the direction of travel: 2g (twice the MPGM multiplied by the acceleration due to gravity);

(ii) Horizontally at right angles to the direction of travel: 1g (the MPGM multiplied by the acceleration due to gravity. When the direction of travel is not clearly determined, the forces must be equal to twice the MPGM);

(iii) Vertically upwards: 1g (the MPGM multiplied by the acceleration due to gravity); and

(iv) Vertically downwards: 2g (twice the MPGM (total loading including the effect of gravity) multiplied by the acceleration due to gravity.

(9) Under each of the forces specified in paragraph (d)(8) of this section, the stress at the most severely stressed point of the pressure receptacles must not exceed the values given in the applicable design specifications (e.g., ISO 11120).

(10) Under each of the forces specified in paragraph (d)(8) of this section, the safety factor for the framework and fastenings must be as follows:

(i) For steels having a clearly defined yield point, a safety factor of 1.5 in relation to the guaranteed yield strength; or

(ii) For steels with no clearly defined yield point, a safety factor of 1.5 in relation to the guaranteed 0.2 percent proof strength and, for austenitic steels, the 1 percent proof strength.

(11) MEGCs must be capable of being electrically grounded to prevent electrostatic discharge when intended for flammable gases.

(12) The pressure receptacles of a MEGC must be secured in a manner to prevent movement that could result in damage to the structure and concentration of harmful localized stresses.

(e) Service equipment.

(1) Service equipment must be arranged so that it is protected from mechanical damage by external forces during handling and transportation. When the connections between the frame and the pressure receptacles allow relative movement between the subassemblies, the equipment must be fastened to allow movement to prevent damage to any working part. The manifolds, discharge fittings (pipe sockets, shut-off devices), and shut-off valves must be protected from damage by external forces. Manifold piping leading to shut-off valves must be sufficiently flexible to protect the valves and the piping from shearing, or releasing the pressure receptacle contents. The filling and discharge devices, including flanges or threaded plugs, and any protective caps must be capable of being secured against unintended opening.

(2) Each pressure receptacle intended for the transport of Division 2.3 gases must be equipped with an individual shut-off valve. The manifold for Division 2.3 liquefied gases must be designed so that each pressure receptacle can be filled separately and be kept isolated by a valve capable of being closed during transit. For Division 2.1 gases, the pressure receptacles must be isolated by an individual shut-off valve into assemblies of not more than 3,000 L.

(3) For MEGC filling and discharge openings:

(i) Two valves in series must be placed in an accessible position on each discharge and filling pipe. One of the valves may be a backflow prevention valve.

(ii) The filling and discharge devices may be equipped to a manifold.

(iii) For sections of piping which can be closed at both ends and where a liquid product can be trapped, a pressure-relief valve must be provided to prevent excessive pressure build-up.

(iv) The main isolation valves on a MEGC must be clearly marked to indicate their directions of closure. All shutoff valves must close by a clockwise motion of the handwheel.

(v) Each shut-off valve or other means of closure must be designed and constructed to withstand a pressure equal to or greater than 1.5 times the test pressure of the MEGC.

(vi) All shut-off valves with screwed spindles must close by a clockwise motion of the handwheel. For other shut-off valves, the open and closed positions and the direction of closure must be clearly shown.

(vii) All shut-off valves must be designed and positioned to prevent unintentional opening.

(viii) Ductile metals must be used in the construction of valves or accessories.

(4) The piping must be designed, constructed and installed to avoid damage due to expansion and contraction, mechanical shock and vibration. Joints in tubing must be brazed or have an equally strong metal union. The melting point of brazing materials must be no lower than 525 °C (977 °F). The rated pressure of the service equipment and of the manifold must be not less than two-thirds of the test pressure of the pressure receptacles.

(f) Pressure relief devices. Each pressure receptacle must be equipped with one or more pressure relief devices as specified in § 173.301(f) of this subchapter. When pressure relief devices are installed, each pressure receptacle or group of pressure receptacles of a MEGC that can be isolated must be equipped with one or more pressure relief devices. Pressure relief devices must be of a type that will resist dynamic forces including liquid surge and must be designed to prevent the entry of foreign matter, the leakage of gas and the development of any dangerous excess pressure.

(1) The size of the pressure relief devices: CGA S-1.1, excluding paragraph 9.1.1, (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter) must be used to determine the relief capacity of individual pressure receptacles.

(2) Connections to pressure-relief devices: Connections to pressure relief devices must be of sufficient size to enable the required discharge to pass unrestricted to the pressure relief device. A shut-off valve installed between the pressure receptacle and the pressure relief device is prohibited, except where duplicate devices are provided for maintenance or other reasons, and the shut-off valves serving the devices actually in use are locked open, or the shut-off valves are interlocked so that at least one of the duplicate devices is always operable and capable of meeting the requirements of paragraph (f)(1) of this section. No obstruction is permitted in an opening leading to or leaving from a vent or pressure-relief device that might restrict or cut-off the flow from the pressure receptacle to that device. The opening through all piping and fittings must have at least the same flow area as the inlet of the pressure relief device to which it is connected. The nominal size of the discharge piping must be at least as large as that of the pressure relief device.

(3) Location of pressure-relief devices: For liquefied gases, each pressure relief device must, under maximum filling conditions, be in communication with the vapor space of the pressure receptacles. The devices, when installed, must be arranged to ensure the escaping vapor is discharged upwards and unrestrictedly to prevent impingement of escaping gas or liquid upon the MEGC, its pressure receptacles or personnel. For flammable, pyrophoric and oxidizing gases, the escaping gas must be directed away from the pressure receptacle in such a manner that it cannot impinge upon the other pressure receptacles. Heat resistant protective devices that deflect the flow of gas are permissible provided the required pressure relief device capacity is not reduced. Arrangements must be made to prevent access to the pressure relief devices by unauthorized persons and to protect the devices from damage caused by rollover.

(g) Gauging devices. When a MEGC is intended to be filled by mass, it must be equipped with one or more gauging devices. Glass level-gauges and gauges made of other fragile material are prohibited.

(h) MEGC supports, frameworks, lifting and tie-down attachments.

(1) MEGCs must be designed and constructed with a support structure to provide a secure base during transport. MEGCs must be protected against damage to the pressure receptacles and service equipment resulting from lateral and longitudinal impact and overturning. The forces specified in paragraph (d)(8) of this section, and the safety factor specified in paragraph (d)(10) of this section must be considered in this aspect of the design. Skids, frameworks, cradles or other similar structures are acceptable. If the pressure receptacles and service equipment are so constructed as to withstand impact and overturning, additional protective support structure is not required (see paragraph (h)(4) of this section).

(2) The combined stresses caused by pressure receptacle mountings (e.g. cradles, frameworks, etc.) and MEGC lifting and tie-down attachments must not cause excessive stress in any pressure receptacle. Permanent lifting and tie-down attachments must be equipped to all MEGCs. Any welding of mountings or attachments onto the pressure receptacles is prohibited.

(3) The effects of environmental corrosion must be taken into account in the design of supports and frameworks.

(4) When MEGCs are not protected during transport as specified in paragraph (h)(1) of this section, the pressure receptacles and service equipment must be protected against damage resulting from lateral or longitudinal impact or overturning. External fittings must be protected against release of the pressure receptacles' contents upon impact or overturning of the MEGC on its fittings. Particular attention must be paid to the protection of the manifold. Examples of protection include:

(i) Protection against lateral impact, which may consist of longitudinal bars;

(ii) Protection against overturning, which may consist of reinforcement rings or bars fixed across the frame;

(iii) Protection against rear impact, which may consist of a bumper or frame;

(iv) Protection of the pressure receptacles and service equipment against damage from impact or overturning by use of an ISO frame according to the relevant provisions of ISO 1496-3. (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter).

(i) Initial inspection and test. The pressure receptacles and items of equipment of each MEGC must be inspected and tested before being put into service for the first time (initial inspection and test). This initial inspection and test of an MEGC must include the following:

(1) A check of the design characteristics.

(2) An external examination of the MEGC and its fittings, taking into account the hazardous materials to be transported.

(3) A pressure test performed at the test pressures specified in § 173.304b(b)(1) and (2) of this subchapter. The pressure test of the manifold may be performed as a hydraulic test or by using another liquid or gas. A leakproofness test and a test of the satisfactory operation of all service equipment must also be performed before the MEGC is placed into service. When the pressure receptacles and their fittings have been pressure-tested separately, they must be subjected to a leakproof test after assembly.

(4) An MEGC that meets the definition of “container” in the CSC (see 49 CFR 450.3(a)(2)) must be subjected to an impact test using a prototype representing each design type. The prototype MEGC must be shown to be capable of absorbing the forces resulting from an impact not less than 4 times (4 g) the MPGM of the fully loaded MEGC, at a duration typical of the mechanical shocks experienced in rail transport. A listing of acceptable methods for performing the impact test is provided in the UN Recommendations (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter).

(j) Marking.

(1) Each MEGC must be equipped with a corrosion resistant metal plate permanently attached to the MEGC in a conspicuous place readily accessible for inspection. The pressure receptacles must be marked according to this section. Affixing the metal plate to a pressure receptacle is prohibited. At a minimum, the following information must be marked on the plate by stamping or by any other equivalent method:

Country of manufacture

UN

Approval Country

Approval Number

Alternate Arrangements (see § 178.75(b))

MEGC Manufacturer's name or mark

MEGC's serial number

Approval agency (Authorized body for the design approval)

Year of manufacture

Test pressure: ___ bar gauge

Design temperature range ___ °C to ___ °C

Number of pressure receptacles ___

Total water capacity ___ liters

Initial pressure test date and identification of the Approval Agency

Date and type of most recent periodic tests

Year ___ Month___ Type ___

(e.g. 2004-05, AE/UE, where “AE” represents acoustic emission and “UE” represents ultrasonic examination)

Stamp of the approval agency who performed or witnessed the most recent test

(2) The following information must be marked on a metal plate firmly secured to the MEGC:

Name of the operator

Maximum permissible load mass ___ kg

Working pressure at 15 °C: ___ bar gauge

Maximum permissible gross mass (MPGM) ___ kg

Unladen (tare) mass ___ kg

[71 FR 33892, June 12, 2006, as amended at 73 FR 4719, Jan. 28, 2008; 77 FR 60943, Oct. 5, 2012; 80 FR 1168, Jan. 8, 2015; 82 FR 15896, Mar. 30, 2017; 85 FR 27901, May 11, 2020; 85 FR 85432, Dec. 27, 2020]

Appendix A to Subpart C of Part 178 - Illustrations: Cylinder Tensile Sample

The following figures illustrate the recommended locations for test specimens taken from welded cylinders:

[67 FR 51654, Aug. 8, 2002]

Subparts D-G [Reserved]
Subpart H - Specifications for Portable Tanks
Source:

29 FR 18972, Dec. 29, 1964, unless otherwise noted. Redesignated at 32 FR 5606, Apr. 5, 1967.

§§ 178.251-178.253-5 [Reserved]
§ 178.255 Specification 60; steel portable tanks.
§ 178.255-1 General requirements.

(a) Tanks must be of fusion welded construction, cylindrical in shape with seamless heads concave to the pressure. Tank shells may be of seamless construction.

(b) Tanks must be designed, constructed, certified, and stamped in accordance with Section VIII of the ASME Code (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter).

(c) Tanks including all permanent attachments must be postweld heat treated as a unit.

(d) Requirements concerning types of valves, retesting, and qualification of portable tanks contained in §§ 173.32 and 173.315 of this chapter must be observed.

[29 FR 18972, Dec. 29, 1964. Redesignated at 32 FR 5606, Apr. 5, 1967, and amended by Amdt. 178-7, 34 FR 18250, Nov. 14, 1969; 68 FR 75750, Dec. 31, 2003]

§ 178.255-2 Material.

(a) Material used in the tank must be steel of good weldable quality and conform with the requirements in Sections V, VIII, and IX of the ASME Code (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter).

(b) The minimum thickness of metal, exclusive of lining material, for shell and heads of tanks shall be as follows:

Tank capacity Minimum thickness (inch)
Not more than 1,200 gallons 1/4
Over 1,200 to 1,800 gallons 5/16
Over 1,800 gallons 3/8

[29 FR 18972, Dec. 29, 1964. Redesignated at 32 FR 5606, Apr. 5, 1967, and amended by Amdt. 178-7, 34 FR 18250, Nov. 14, 1969; 68 FR 75750, Dec. 31, 2003]

§ 178.255-3 Expansion domes.

(a) Expansion domes, if applied, must have a minimum capacity of one percent of the combined capacity of the tank and dome.

(b) [Reserved]

§ 178.255-4 Closures for manholes and domes.

(a) The manhole cover shall be designed to provide a secure closure of the manhole. All covers, not hinged to the tanks, shall be attached to the outside of the dome by at least1/8 inch chain or its equivalent. Closures shall be made tight against leakage of vapor and liquid by use of gaskets of suitable material.

(b) [Reserved]

§ 178.255-5 Bottom discharge outlets.

(a) Bottom discharge outlets prohibited, except on tanks used for shipments of sludge acid and alkaline corrosive liquids.

(b) If installed, bottom outlets or bottom washout chambers shall be of metal not subject to rapid deterioration by the lading, and each shall be provided with a valve or plug at its upper end and liquid-tight closure at it lower end. Each valve or plug shall be designed to insure against unseating due to stresses or shocks incident to transportation. Bottom outlets shall be adequately protected against handling damage and outlet equipment must not extend to within less than one inch of the bottom bearing surface of the skids or tank mounting.

[29 FR 18972, Dec. 29, 1964. Redesignated at 32 FR 5606, Apr. 5, 1967, as amended by Amdt. 178-104, 59 FR 49135, Sept. 26, 1994]

§ 178.255-6 Loading and unloading accessories.

(a) When installed, gauging, loading and air inlet devices, including their valves, shall be provided with adequate means for their secure closure; and means shall also be provided for the closing of pipe connections of valves.

(b) Interior heater coils, if installed, must be of extra heavy pipe and so constructed that breaking off of exterior connections will not cause leakage of tanks.

§ 178.255-7 Protection of valves and accessories.

(a) All valves, fittings, accessories, safety devices, gauging devices, and the like shall be adequately protected against mechanical damage by a housing closed with a cover plate.

(b) Protective housing shall comply with the requirements under which the tanks are fabricated with respect to design and construction, and shall be designed with a minimum factor of safety of four to withstand loadings in any direction equal to two times the weight of the tank and attachments when filled with water.

§ 178.255-8 Safety devices.

(b) [Reserved]

[Amdt. 178-83, 50 FR 11066, Mar. 19, 1985]

§ 178.255-9 Compartments.

(a) When the interior of the tank is divided into compartments, each compartment shall be designed, constructed and tested as a separate tank. Thickness of shell and compartment heads shall be determined on the basis of total tank capacity.

(b) [Reserved]

§ 178.255-10 Lining.

(a) If a lining is required, the material used for lining the tank shall be homogeneous, nonporous, imperforate when applied, not less elastic than the metal of the tank proper. It shall be of substantially uniform thickness, not less than1/32 inch thick if metallic, and not less than1/16 inch thick if nonmetallic, and shall be directly bonded or attached by other equally satisfactory means. Rubber lining shall be not less than3/16 inch thick. Joints and seams in the lining shall be made by fusing the material together or by other equally satisfactory means. The interior of the tank shall be free from scale, oxidation, moisture and all foreign matter during the lining operation.

(b) [Reserved]

§ 178.255-11 Tank mountings.

(a) Tanks shall be designed and fabricated with mountings to provide a secure base in transit. “Skids” or similar devices shall be deemed to comply with this requirement.

(b) All tank mountings such as skids, fastenings, brackets, cradles, lifting lugs, etc., intended to carry loadings shall be permanently secured to tanks in accordance with the requirements under which the tanks are fabricated, and shall be designed with a factor of safety of four, and built to withstand loadings in any direction equal to two times the weight of the tanks and attachments when filled to the maximum permissible loaded weight.

(c) Lifting lugs or side hold-down lugs shall be provided on the tank mountings in a manner suitable for attaching lifting gear and hold-down devices. Lifting lugs and hold-down lugs welded directly to the tank shall be of the pad-eye type. Doubling plates welded to the tank and located at the points of support shall be deemed to comply with this requirement.

(d) All tank mountings shall be so designed as to prevent the concentration of excessive loads on the tank shell.

§ 178.255-12 Pressure test.

(a) Each completed portable tank prior to application of lining shall be tested before being put into transportation service by completely filling the tank with water or other liquid having a similar viscosity, the temperature of which shall not exceed 100 °F during the test, and applying a pressure of 60 psig. The tank shall be capable of holding the prescribed pressure for at least 10 minutes without leakage, evidence of impending failure, or failure. All closures shall be in place while the test is made and the pressure shall be gauged at the top of the tank. Safety devices and/or vents shall be plugged during this test.

(b) [Reserved]

[29 FR 18972, Dec. 29, 1964. Redesignated at 32 FR 5606, Apr. 5, 1967, as amended by Amdt. 178-104, 59 FR 49135, Sept. 26, 1994]

§ 178.255-13 Repair of tanks.

(a) Tanks failing to meet the test may be repaired and retested, provided that repairs are made in complete compliance with the requirements of this specification.

(b) [Reserved]

§ 178.255-14 Marking.

(a) In addition to markings required by Section VIII of the ASME Code (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter), every tank shall bear permanent marks at least 1/8-inch high stamped into the metal near the center of one of the tank heads or stamped into a plate permanently attached to the tank by means of brazing or welding or other suitable means as follows:

Manufacturer's name _______ Serial No.

DOT specification

Nominal capacity _______ (gallons)

Tare weight _______ (pounds)

Date of manufacture

(b) [Reserved]

[29 FR 18972, Dec. 29, 1964. Redesignated at 32 FR 5606, Apr. 5, 1967, and amended by Amdt. 178-67, 46 FR 49906, Oct. 8, 1981; 68 FR 75750, Dec. 31, 2003]

§ 178.255-15 Report.

(a) A copy of the manufacturer's data report required by Section VIII of the ASME Code (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter) under which the tank is fabricated must be furnished to the owner for each new tank.

Place Date

Portable tank

Manufactured for _______ Company

Location

Manufactured by _______ Company

Location

Consigned to _________ Company

Location

Size ___ feet outside diameter by ___ long.

Marks on tank as prescribed by § 178.255-14 of this specification are as follows:

Manufacturer's name

Serial number

Owner's serial number

DOT specification

ASME Code Symbol (par U-201)

Date of manufacture

Nominal capacity _______ gallons.

It is hereby certified that this tank is in complete compliance with the requirements of DOT specification No. 60.

(Signed)

Manufacturer or owner

(b) [Reserved]

[29 FR 18972, Dec. 29, 1964. Redesignated at 32 FR 5606, Apr. 5, 1967, and amended by Amdt. 178-83, 50 FR 11066, Mar. 19, 1985; 68 FR 75750, Dec. 31, 2003]

§ 178.273 Approval of Specification UN portable tanks.

(a) Application for approval.

(1) An owner or manufacturer of a portable tank shall apply for approval to a designated approval agency authorized to approve the portable tank in accordance with the procedures in subpart E, part 107 of this subchapter.

(2) Each application for approval must contain the following information:

(i) Two complete copies of all engineering drawings, calculations, and test data necessary to ensure that the design meets the relevant specification.

(ii) The manufacturer's serial number that will be assigned to each portable tank.

(iii) A statement as to whether the design type has been examined by any approval agency previously and judged unacceptable. Affirmative statements must be documented with the name of the approval agency, reason for nonacceptance, and the nature of modifications made to the design type.

(b) Action by approval agency. The approval agency must perform the following activities:

(1) Review the application for approval to determine whether it is complete and conforms with the requirements of paragraph (a) of this section. If an application is incomplete, it will be returned to the applicant with an explanation as to why the application is incomplete.

(2) Review all drawings and calculations to ensure that the design is in compliance with all requirements of the relevant specification. If the application is approved, one set of the approved drawings, calculations, and test data shall be returned to the applicant. The second (inspector's copy) set of approved drawings, calculations, and test data shall be retained by the approval agency. Maintain drawings and approval records for as long as the portable tank remains in service. The drawings and records must be provided to the Department of Transportation (DOT) upon request.

(3) Witness all tests required for the approval of the portable tank specified in this section and part 180, subpart G of this subchapter.

(4) Ensure, through appropriate inspection that each portable tank is fabricated in all respects in conformance with the approved drawings, calculations, and test data.

(5) Determine and ensure that the portable tank is suitable for its intended use and that it conforms to the requirements of this subchapter.

(6) For UN portable tanks intended for non-refrigerated and refrigerated liquefied gases and Division 6.1 liquids which meet the inhalation toxicity criteria (Zone A or B) as defined in § 173.132 of this subchapter, or that are designated as toxic by inhalation materials in the § 172.101 Table of this subchapter, the approval agency must ensure that:

(i) The portable tank has been designed, constructed, certified, and stamped in accordance with the requirements in Division 1 of Section VIII of the ASME Code (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter). Other design codes may be used if approved by the Associate Administrator (see § 178.274(b)(1));

(ii) All applicable provisions of the design and construction have been met to the satisfaction of the designated approval agency in accordance with the rules established in the ASME Code and that the portable tank meets the requirements of the ASME Code and all the applicable requirements specified in this subchapter;

(iii) The inspector has carried out all the inspections specified by the rules established in the ASME Code; and

(iv) The portable tank is marked with a U stamp code symbol under the authority of the authorized independent inspector.

(7) Upon successful completion of all requirements of this subpart, the approval agency must:

(i) Apply its name, identifying mark or identifying number, and the date upon which the approval was issued, to the metal identification marking plate attached to the portable tank. Any approvals for UN portable tanks authorizing design or construction alternatives (Alternate Arrangements) approved by the Associate Administrator (see § 178.274(a)(2)) must be indicated on the plate as specified in § 178.274(i).

(ii) Issue an approval certificate for each portable tank or, in the case of a series of identical portable tanks manufactured to a single design type, for each series of portable tanks. The approval certificate must include all the information required to be displayed on the metal identification plate required by § 178.274(i). The approval certificate must certify that the approval agency designated to approve the portable tank has approved the portable tank in accordance with the procedures in subpart E of part 107 of this subchapter and that the portable tank is suitable for its intended purpose and meets the requirements of this subchapter. When a series of portable tanks is manufactured without change in the design type, the certificate may be valid for the entire series of portable tanks representing a single design type. For UN portable tanks, the certificate must refer to the prototype test report, the hazardous material or group of hazardous materials allowed to be transported, the materials of construction of the shell and lining (when applicable) and an approval number. The approval number must consist of the distinguishing sign or mark of the country (“USA” for the United States of America) where the approval was granted and a registration number.

(iii) Retain a copy of each approval certificate.

(8) For UN portable tanks, the approval certificate must also include the following:

(i) The results of the applicable framework and rail impact test specified in part 180, subpart G, of this subchapter; and

(ii) The results of the initial inspection and test in § 178.274(j).

(9) The approval agency shall be independent from the manufacturer. The approval agency and the authorized inspector may be the same entity.

(c) Manufacturers' responsibilities. The manufacturer is responsible for compliance with the applicable specifications for the design and construction of portable tanks. In addition to responsibility for compliance, manufacturers are responsible for ensuring that the contracted approval agency and authorized inspector, if applicable, are qualified, reputable and competent. The manufacturer of a portable tank shall -

(1) Comply with all the applicable requirements of the ASME Code and of this subpart including, but not limited to, ensuring that the quality control, design calculations and required tests are performed and that all aspects of the portable tank meet the applicable requirements.

(2) Obtain and use a designated approval agency, if applicable, and obtain and use a DOT-designated approval agency to approve the design, construction and certification of the portable tank.

(3) Provide a statement in the manufacturers' data report certifying that each portable tank that is manufactured complies with the relevant specification and all the applicable requirements of this subchapter.

(4) Maintain records of the qualification of portable tanks for at least 5 years and provide copies to the approval agency, the owner or lessee of the tank. Upon request, provide these records to a representative of DOT.

(d) Denial of application for approval. If an approval agency finds that a portable tank cannot be approved for any reason, it shall notify the applicant in writing and shall provide the applicant with the reasons for which the approval is denied. A copy of the notification letter shall be provided to the Associate Administrator. An applicant aggrieved by a decision of an approval agency may appeal the decision in writing, within 90 days of receipt, to the Associate Administrator.

(e) Modifications to approved portable tanks.

(1) Prior to modification of any UN portable tank which may affect conformance and the safe use of the portable tank, which may involve a change to the design type or which may affect its ability to retain hazardous material in transportation, the person desiring to make such modification shall inform the approval agency that issued the initial approval of the portable tank (or if unavailable, another approval agency) of the nature of the modification and request approval of the modification. The person desiring to modify the tank must supply the approval agency with three sets of all revised drawings, calculations, and test data relative to the intended modification.

(2) A statement as to whether the intended modification has been examined and determined to be unacceptable by any approval agency. The written statement must include the name of the approving agency, the reason for nonacceptance, and the nature of changes made to the modification since its original rejection.

(3) The approval agency shall review the request for modification, and if it is determined that the proposed modification is in full compliance with the relevant DOT specification, including a UN portable tank, the request shall be approved and the approval agency shall perform the following activities:

(i) Return one set of the approved revised drawings, calculations, and test data to the applicant. The second and third sets of the approved revised drawings, calculations, and data shall be retained by the approval agency as required in § 107.404(a)(3) of this subchapter.

(ii) Ensure through appropriate inspection that all modifications conform to the revised drawings, calculations, and test data.

(iii) Determine the extent to which retesting of the modified tank is necessary based on the nature of the proposed modification, and ensure that all required retests are satisfactorily performed.

(iv) If modification to an approved tank alters any information on the approval certificate, issue a new approval certificate for the modified tank and ensure that any necessary changes are made to the metal identification plate. A copy of each newly issued approval certificate shall be retained by the approval agency and by the owner of each portable tank.

(4) If the approval agency determines that the proposed modification is not in compliance with the relevant DOT specification, the approval agency shall deny the request in accordance with paragraph (d) of this section.

(f) Termination of Approval Certificate.

(1) The Associate Administrator may terminate an approval issued under this section if he determines that -

(i) Information upon which the approval was based is fraudulent or substantially erroneous; or

(ii) Termination of the approval is necessary to adequately protect against risks to life and property; or

(iii) The approval was not issued by the approval agency in good faith; or

(iv) The portable tank does not meet the specification.

(2) Before an approval is terminated, the Associate Administrator gives the interested party(ies):

(i) Written notice of the facts or conduct believed to warrant the termination;

(ii) Opportunity to submit oral and written evidence; and

(iii) Opportunity to demonstrate or achieve compliance with the applicable requirements.

(3) If the Associate Administrator determines that a certificate of approval must be terminated to preclude a significant and imminent adverse affect on public safety, he may terminate the certificate immediately. In such circumstances, the opportunities of paragraphs (f)(2) (ii) and (iii) of this section need not be provided prior to termination of the approval, but shall be provided as soon as practicable thereafter.

[66 FR 33439, June 21, 2001, as amended at 67 FR 61016, Sept. 27, 2002; 68 FR 75748, 75751, Dec. 31, 2003; 72 FR 55695, Oct. 1, 2007]

§ 178.274 Specifications for UN portable tanks.

(a) General.

(1) Each UN portable tank must meet the requirements of this section. In addition to the requirements of this section, requirements specific to UN portable tanks used for liquid and solid hazardous materials, non-refrigerated liquefied gases and refrigerated liquefied gases are provided in §§ 178.275, 178.276 and 178.277, respectively. Requirements for approval, maintenance, inspection, testing and use are provided in § 178.273 and part 180, subpart G, of this subchapter. Any portable tank which meets the definition of a “container” within the terms of the International Convention for Safe Containers (CSC) must meet the requirements of the CSC as amended and 49 CFR parts 450 through 453 and must have a CSC safety approval plate.

(2) In recognition of scientific and technological advances, the technical requirements applicable to UN portable tanks may be varied if approved by the Associate Administrator and the portable tank is shown to provide a level of safety equal to or exceeding the requirements of this subchapter. Portable tanks approved to alternative technical requirements must be marked “Alternative Arrangement” as specified in paragraph (i) of this section.

(3) Definitions. The following definitions apply for the purposes of design and construction of UN portable tanks under this subpart:

Alternate Arrangement portable tank means a UN portable tank that has been approved to alternative technical requirements or testing methods other than those specified for UN portable tanks in part 178 or part 180 of this subchapter.

Approval agency means the designated approval agency authorized to approve the portable tank in accordance with the procedures in subpart E of part 107 of this subchapter.

Design pressure is defined according to the hazardous materials intended to be transported in the portable tank. See §§ 178.275, 178.276 and 178.277, as applicable.

Design type means a portable tank or series of portable tanks made of materials of the same material specifications and thicknesses, manufactured by a single manufacturer, using the same fabrication techniques (for example, welding procedures) and made with equivalent structural equipment, closures, and service equipment.

Fine grain steel means steel that has a ferritic grain size of 6 or finer when determined in accordance with ASTM E 112-96 (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter).

Fusible element means a non-reclosing pressure relief device that is thermally activated and that provides protection against excessive pressure buildup in the portable tank developed by exposure to heat, such as from a fire (see § 178.275(g)).

Jacket means the outer insulation cover or cladding which may be part of the insulation system.

Leakage test means a test using gas to subject the shell and its service equipment to an internal pressure.

Maximum allowable working pressure (MAWP) is defined according to the hazardous materials intended to be transported in the portable tank. See §§ 178.275, 178.276 and 178.277, as applicable.

Maximum permissible gross mass (MPGM) means the sum of the tare mass of the portable tank and the heaviest hazardous material authorized for transportation.

Mild steel means a steel with a guaranteed minimum tensile strength of 360 N/mm2 to 440 N/mm2 and a guaranteed minimum elongation at fracture as specified in paragraph (c)(10) of this section.

Offshore portable tank means a portable tank specially designed for repeated use in the transportation of hazardous materials to, from and between offshore facilities. An offshore portable tank is designed and constructed in accordance with the Guidelines for the Approval of Containers Handled in Open Seas specified in the IMDG Code (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter).

Reference steel means a steel with a tensile strength of 370 N/mm2 and an elongation at fracture of 27%.

Service equipment means measuring instruments and filling, discharge, venting, safety, heating, cooling and insulating devices.

Shell means the part of the portable tank which retains the hazardous materials intended for transportation, including openings and closures, but does not include service equipment or external structural equipment.

Structural equipment means the reinforcing, fastening, protective and stabilizing members external to the shell.

Test pressure means the maximum gauge pressure at the top of the shell during the hydraulic pressure test equal to not less than 1.5 times the design pressure for liquids and 1.3 for liquefied compressed gases and refrigerated liquefied gases. In some instances a pneumatic test is authorized as an alternative to the hydraulic test. The minimum test pressures for portable tanks intended for specific liquid and solid hazardous materials are specified in the applicable portable tank T codes (such as T1-T23) assigned to these hazardous materials in the § 172.101 Table of this subchapter.

(b) General design and construction requirements.

(1) The design temperature range for the shell must be −40 °C to 50 °C (−40 °F to 122 °F) for hazardous materials transported under normal conditions of transportation, except for portable tanks used for refrigerated liquefied gases where the minimum design temperature must not be higher than the lowest (coldest) temperature (for example, service temperature) of the contents during filling, discharge or transportation. For hazardous materials handled under elevated temperature conditions, the design temperature must not be less than the maximum temperature of the hazardous material during filling, discharge or transportation. More severe design temperatures must be considered for portable tanks subjected to severe climatic conditions (for example, portable tanks transported in arctic regions). Shells must be designed and constructed in accordance with the requirements in Section VIII of the ASME Code (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter), except as limited or modified in this subchapter. For portable tanks used for liquid or solid hazardous materials, a design code other than the ASME Code may be used if approved by the Associate Administrator. Portable tanks must have an ASME certification and U stamp when used for Hazard Zone A or B toxic by inhalation liquids, or when used for non-refrigerated or refrigerated liquefied compressed gases. Shells must be made of metallic materials suitable for forming. Non-metallic materials may be used for the attachments and supports between the shell and jacket, provided their material properties at the minimum and maximum design temperatures are proven to be sufficient. For welded shells, only a material whose weldability has been fully demonstrated may be used. Welds must be of high quality and conform to a level of integrity at least equivalent to the welding requirements specified in Section VIII of the ASME Code for the welding of pressure vessels. When the manufacturing process or the materials make it necessary, the shells must be suitably heat-treated to guarantee adequate toughness in the weld and in the heat-affected zones. In choosing the material, the design temperature range must be taken into account with respect to risk of brittle fracture, stress corrosion cracking, resistance to impact, and suitability for the hazardous materials intended for transportation in the portable tank. When fine grain steel is used, the guaranteed value of the yield strength must be not more than 460 N/mm2 and the guaranteed value of the upper limit of the tensile strength must be not more than 725 N/mm2 according to the material specification. Aluminum may not be used as a construction material for the shells of portable tanks intended for the transport of non-refrigerated liquefied gases. For portable tanks intended for the transport of liquid or solid hazardous materials, aluminum may only be used as a construction material for portable tank shells if approved by the Associate Administrator. Portable tank materials must be suitable for the external environment where they will be transported, taking into account the determined design temperature range. Portable tanks shall be designed to withstand, without loss of contents, at least the internal pressure due to the contents and the static, dynamic and thermal loads during normal conditions of handling and transportation. The design must take into account the effects of fatigue, caused by repeated application of these loads through the expected life of the portable tank.

(2) Portable tank shells, fittings, and pipework shall be constructed from materials that are:

(i) Compatible with the hazardous materials intended to be transported; or

(ii) Properly passivated or neutralized by chemical reaction, if applicable; or

(iii) For portable tanks used for liquid and solid materials, lined with corrosion-resistant material directly bonded to the shell or attached by equivalent means.

(3) Gaskets and seals shall be made of materials that are compatible with the hazardous materials intended to be transported.

(4) When shells are lined, the lining must be compatible with the hazardous materials intended to be transported, homogeneous, non-porous, free from perforations, sufficiently elastic and compatible with the thermal expansion characteristics of the shell. The lining of every shell, shell fittings and piping must be continuous and must extend around the face of any flange. Where external fittings are welded to the tank, the lining must be continuous through the fitting and around the face of external flanges. Joints and seams in the lining must be made by fusing the material together or by other equally effective means.

(5) Contact between dissimilar metals which could result in damage by galvanic action must be prevented by appropriate measures.

(6) The construction materials of the portable tank, including any devices, gaskets, linings and accessories, must not adversely affect or react with the hazardous materials intended to be transported in the portable tank.

(7) Portable tanks must be designed and constructed with supports that provide a secure base during transportation and with suitable lifting and tie-down attachments.

(c) Design criteria.

(1) Portable tanks and their fastenings must, under the maximum permissible loads and maximum permissible working pressures, be capable of absorbing the following separately applied static forces (for calculation purposes, acceleration due to gravity (g) = 9.81m/s2):

(i) In the direction of travel: 2g (twice the MPGM multiplied by the acceleration due to gravity);

(ii) Horizontally at right angles to the direction of travel: 1g (the MPGM multiplied by the acceleration due to gravity);

(iii) Vertically upwards: 1g (the MPGM multiplied by the acceleration due to gravity); and

(iv) Vertically downwards: 2g (twice the MPGM multiplied by the acceleration due to gravity).

(2) Under each of the forces specified in paragraph (c)(1) of this section, the safety factor must be as follows:

(i) For metals having a clearly defined yield point, a design margin of 1.5 in relation to the guaranteed yield strength; or

(ii) For metals with no clearly defined yield point, a design margin of 1.5 in relation to the guaranteed 0.2% proof strength and, for austenitic steels, the 1% proof strength.

(3) The values of yield strength or proof strength must be the values according to recognized material standards. When austenitic steels are used, the specified minimum values of yield strength or proof strength according to the material standards may be increased by up to 15% for portable tanks used for liquid and solid hazardous materials, other than toxic by inhalation liquids meeting the criteria of Hazard Zone A or Hazard Zone B (see § 173.133 of this subchapter), when these greater values are attested in the material inspection certificate.

(4) Portable tanks must be capable of being electrically grounded to prevent dangerous electrostatic discharge when they are used for Class 2 flammable gases or Class 3 flammable liquids, including elevated temperature materials transported at or above their flash point.

(5) For shells of portable tanks used for liquefied compressed gases, the shell must consist of a circular cross section. Shells must be of a design capable of being stress-analyzed mathematically or experimentally by resistance strain gauges as specified in UG-101 of Section VIII of the ASME Code, or other methods approved by the Associate Administrator.

(6) Shells must be designed and constructed to withstand a hydraulic test pressure of not less than 1.5 times the design pressure for portable tanks used for liquids and 1.3 times the design pressure for portable tanks used for liquefied compressed gases. Specific requirements are provided for each hazardous material in the applicable T Code or portable tank special provision specified in the § 172.101 Table of this subchapter. The minimum shell thickness requirements must also be taken into account.

(7) For metals exhibiting a clearly defined yield point or characterized by a guaranteed proof strength (0.2% proof strength, generally, or 1% proof strength for austenitic steels), the primary membrane stress σ (sigma) in the shell must not exceed 0.75 Re or 0.50 Rm, whichever is lower, at the test pressure, where:

Re = yield strength in N/mm2, or 0.2% proof strength or, for austenitic steels, 1% proof strength;

Rm = minimum tensile strength in N/mm2.

(8) The values of Re and Rm to be used must be the specified minimum values according to recognized material standards. When austenitic steels are used, the specified minimum values for Re and Rm according to the material standards may be increased by up to 15% when greater values are attested in the material inspection certificate.

(9) Steels which have a Re/Rm ratio of more than 0.85 are not allowed for the construction of welded shells. The values of Re and Rm to be used in determining this ratio must be the values specified in the material inspection certificate.

(10) Steels used in the construction of shells must have an elongation at fracture, in percentage, of not less than 10,000/Rm with an absolute minimum of 16% for fine grain steels and 20% for other steels.

(11) For the purpose of determining actual values for materials for sheet metal, the axis of the tensile test specimen must be at right angles (transversely) to the direction of rolling. The permanent elongation at fracture must be measured on test specimens of rectangular cross sections in accordance with ISO 6892 (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter), using a 50 mm gauge length.

(d) Minimum shell thickness.

(1) The minimum shell thickness must be the greatest thickness of the following:

(i) the minimum thickness determined in accordance with the requirements of paragraphs (d)(2) through (d)(7) of this section;

(ii) the minimum thickness determined in accordance with Section VIII of the ASME Code or other approved pressure vessel code; or

(iii) the minimum thickness specified in the applicable T code or portable tank special provision indicated for each hazardous material in the § 172.101 Table of this subchapter.

(2) Shells (cylindrical portions, heads and manhole covers) not more than 1.80 m in diameter may not be less than 5 mm thick in the reference steel or of equivalent thickness in the metal to be used. Shells more than 1.80 m in diameter may not be less than 6 mm (0.2 inches) thick in the reference steel or of equivalent thickness in the metal to be used. For portable tanks used only for the transportation of powdered or granular solid hazardous materials of Packing Group II or III, the minimum thickness requirement may be reduced to 5 mm in the reference steel or of equivalent thickness in the metal to be used regardless of the shell diameter. For vacuum-insulated tanks, the aggregate thickness of the jacket and the shell must correspond to the minimum thickness prescribed in this paragraph, with the thickness of the shell itself not less than the minimum thickness prescribed in paragraph (d)(3) of this section.

(3) When additional protection against shell damage is provided in the case of portable tanks used for liquid and solid hazardous materials requiring test pressures less than 2.65 bar (265.0 kPa), subject to certain limitations specified in the UN Recommendations (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter), the Associate Administrator may approve a reduced minimum shell thickness.

(4) The cylindrical portions, heads and manhole covers of all shells must not be less than 3 mm (0.1 inch) thick regardless of the material of construction, except for portable tanks used for liquefied compressed gases where the cylindrical portions, ends (heads) and manhole covers of all shells must not be less than 4 mm (0.2 inch) thick regardless of the material of construction.

(5) When steel is used, that has characteristics other than that of reference steel, the equivalent thickness of the shell and heads must be determined according to the following formula:

Where:

e1 = required equivalent thickness (in mm) of the metal to be used;

e0 = minimum thickness (in mm) of the reference steel specified in the applicable T code or portable tank special provision indicated for each material in the § 172.101 Table of this subchapter;

d1 = 1.8m, unless the formula is used to determine the equivalent minimum thickness for a portable tank shell that is required to have a minimum thickness of 8mm or 10mm according to the applicable T code indicated in the § 172.101 Table of this subchapter. When reference steel thicknesses of 8mm or 10mm are specified, d1 is equal to the actual diameter of the shell but not less than 1.8m;

Rm1 = guaranteed minimum tensile strength (in N/mm2) of the metal to be used;

A1 = guaranteed minimum elongation at fracture (in %) of the metal to be used according to recognized material standards.

(6) The wall and all parts of the shell may not have a thickness less than that prescribed in paragraphs (d)(2), (d)(3) and (d)(4) of this section. This thickness must be exclusive of any corrosion allowance.

(7) There must be no sudden change of plate thickness at the attachment of the heads to the cylindrical portion of the shell.

(e) Service equipment.

(1) Service equipment must be arranged so that it is protected against the risk of mechanical damage by external forces during handling and transportation. When the connections between the frame and the shell allow relative movement between the sub-assemblies, the equipment must be fastened to allow such movement without risk of damage to any working part. The external discharge fittings (pipe sockets, shut-off devices) and the internal stop-valve and its seating must be protected against mechanical damage by external forces (for example, by using shear sections). Each internal self-closing stop-valve must be protected by a shear section or sacrificial device located outboard of the valve. The shear section or sacrificial device must break at no more than 70% of the load that would cause failure of the internal self-closing stop valve. The filling and discharge devices (including flanges or threaded plugs) and any protective caps must be capable of being secured against unintended opening.

(2) Each filling or discharge opening of a portable tank must be clearly marked to indicate its function.

(3) Each stop-valve or other means of closure must be designed and constructed to a rated pressure not less than the MAWP of the shell taking into account the temperatures expected during transport. All stop-valves with screwed spindles must close by a clockwise motion of the handwheel. For other stop-valves, the position (open and closed) and direction of closure must be clearly indicated. All stop-valves must be designed to prevent unintentional opening.

(4) Piping must be designed, constructed and installed to avoid the risk of damage due to thermal expansion and contraction, mechanical shock and vibration. All piping must be of a suitable metallic material. Welded pipe joints must be used wherever possible.

(5) Joints in copper tubing must be brazed or have an equally strong metal union. The melting point of brazing materials must be no lower than 525 °C (977 °F). The joints must not decrease the strength of the tubing, such as may happen when cutting threads. Brazed joints are not authorized for portable tanks intended for refrigerated liquefied gases.

(6) The burst pressure of all piping and pipe fittings must be greater than the highest of four times the MAWP of the shell or four times the pressure to which it may be subjected in service by the action of a pump or other device (except pressure relief devices).

(7) Ductile metals must be used in the construction of valves and accessories.

(f) Pressure relief devices -

(1) Marking of pressure relief devices. Every pressure relief device must be clearly and permanently marked with the following:

(i) the pressure (in bar or kPa) or temperature for fusible elements (in °C) at which it is set to discharge;

(ii) the allowable tolerance at the discharge pressure for reclosing devices;

(iii) the reference temperature corresponding to the rated pressure for frangible discs;

(iv) the allowable temperature tolerance for fusible elements;

(v) The rated flow capacity of the spring loaded pressure relief devices, frangible disc or fusible elements in standard cubic meters of air per second (m3/s). For spring loaded pressure relief devices, the rated flow capacity must be determined according to ISO 4126-1 (including Technical Corrigendum 1) and ISO 4126-7 (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter); and

(vi) The cross sectional flow areas of the spring loaded pressure relief devices, frangible discs, and fusible elements in mm2; and

(vii) When practicable, the device must show the manufacturer's name and product number.

(2) Connections to pressure relief devices. Connections to pressure relief devices must be of sufficient size to enable the required discharge to pass unrestricted to the safety device. No stop-valve may be installed between the shell and the pressure relief devices except where duplicate devices are provided for maintenance or other reasons and the stop-valves serving the devices actually in use are locked open or the stop-valves are interlocked so that at least one of the devices is always in use. There must be no obstruction in an opening leading to a vent or pressure relief device which might restrict or cut-off the flow from the shell to that device. Vents or pipes from the pressure relief device outlets, when used, must deliver the relieved vapor or liquid to the atmosphere in conditions of minimum back-pressure on the relieving devices.

(3) Location of pressure relief devices.

(i) Each pressure relief device inlet must be situated on top of the shell in a position as near the longitudinal and transverse center of the shell as reasonably practicable. All pressure relief device inlets must, under maximum filling conditions, be situated in the vapor space of the shell and the devices must be so arranged as to ensure that any escaping vapor is not restricted in any manner. For flammable hazardous materials, the escaping vapor must be directed away from the shell in such a manner that it cannot impinge upon the shell. For refrigerated liquefied gases, the escaping vapor must be directed away from the tank and in such a manner that it cannot impinge upon the tank. Protective devices which deflect the flow of vapor are permissible provided the required relief-device capacity is not reduced.

(ii) Provisions must be implemented to prevent unauthorized persons from access to the pressure relief devices and to protect the devices from damage caused by the portable tank overturning.

(g) Gauging devices. Unless a portable tank is intended to be filled by weight, it must be equipped with one or more gauging devices. Glass level-gauges and gauges made of other fragile material, which are in direct communication with the contents of the tank are prohibited. A connection for a vacuum gauge must be provided in the jacket of a vacuum-insulated portable tank.

(h) Portable tank supports, frameworks, lifting and tie-down attachments.

(1) Portable tanks must be designed and constructed with a support structure to provide a secure base during transport. The forces and safety factors specified in paragraphs (c)(1) and (c)(2) of this section, respectively, must be taken into account in this aspect of the design. Skids, frameworks, cradles or other similar structures are acceptable.

(2) The combined stresses caused by portable tank mountings (for example, cradles, framework, etc.) and portable tank lifting and tie-down attachments must not cause stress that would damage the shell in a manner that would compromise its lading retention capability. Permanent lifting and tie-down attachments must be fitted to all portable tanks. Preferably they should be fitted to the portable tank supports but may be secured to reinforcing plates located on the shell at the points of support. Each portable tank must be designed so that the center of gravity of the filled tank is approximately centered within the points of attachment for lifting devices.

(3) In the design of supports and frameworks, the effects of environmental corrosion must be taken into account.

(4) Forklift pockets must be capable of being closed off. The means of closing forklift pockets must be a permanent part of the framework or permanently attached to the framework. Single compartment portable tanks with a length less than 3.65 m (12 ft.) need not have forklift pockets that are capable of being closed off provided that:

(i) The shell, including all the fittings, are well protected from being hit by the forklift blades; and

(ii) The distance between forklift pockets (measured from the center of each pocket) is at least half of the maximum length of the portable tank.

(5) During transport, portable tanks must be adequately protected against damage to the shell, and service equipment resulting from lateral and longitudinal impact and overturning, or the shell and service equipment must be constructed to withstand the forces resulting from impact or overturning. External fittings must be protected so as to preclude the release of the shell contents upon impact or overturning of the portable tank on its fittings. Examples of protection include:

(i) Protection against lateral impact which may consist of longitudinal bars protecting the shell on both sides at the level of the median line;

(ii) Protection of the portable tank against overturning which may consist of reinforcement rings or bars fixed across the frame;

(iii) Protection against rear impact which may consist of a bumper or frame;

(iv) Protection of the shell against damage from impact or overturning by use of an ISO frame in accordance with ISO 1496-3 (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter); and

(v) Protection of the portable tank from impact or damage that may result from overturning by an insulation jacket.

(i) Marking.

(1) Every portable tank must be fitted with a corrosion resistant metal plate permanently attached to the portable tank in a conspicuous place and readily accessible for inspection. When the plate cannot be permanently attached to the shell, the shell must be marked with at least the information required by Section VIII of the ASME Code. At a minimum, the following information must be marked on the plate by stamping or by any other equivalent method:

Country of manufacture

U N

Approval Country

Approval Number

Alternative Arrangements (see § 178.274(a)(2)) “AA”

Manufacturer's name or mark

Manufacturer's serial number

Approval Agency (Authorized body for the design approval)

Owner's registration number

Year of manufacture

Pressure vessel code to which the shell is designed

Test pressure____bar gauge.

MAWP____bar gauge.

External design pressure (not required for portable tanks used for refrigerated liquefied gases)____bar gauge.

Design temperature range____ °C to____ °C. (For portable tanks used for refrigerated liquefied gases, the minimum design temperature must be marked.)

Water capacity at 20 °C/____liters.

Water capacity of each compartment at 20 °C____liters.

Initial pressure test date and witness identification.

MAWP for heating/cooling system____bar gauge.

Shell material(s) and material standard reference(s).

Equivalent thickness in reference steel____mm.

Lining material (when applicable).

Date and type of most recent periodic test(s).

Month____Year____ Test pressure____bar gauge.

Stamp of approval agency that performed or witnessed the most recent test.

For portable tanks used for refrigerated liquefied gases:

Either “thermally insulated” or “vacuum insulated”____.

Effectiveness of the insulation system (heat influx)____Watts (W).

Reference holding time____days or hours and initial pressure____bar/kPa gauge and degree of filling____in kg for each refrigerated liquefied gas permitted for transportation.

(2) The following information must be marked either on the portable tank itself or on a metal plate firmly secured to the portable tank:

Name of the operator.

Name of hazardous materials being transported and maximum mean bulk temperature (except for refrigerated liquefied gases, the name and temperature are only required when the maximum mean bulk temperature is higher than 50 °C).

Maximum permissible gross mass (MPGM)____kg.

Unladen (tare) mass____kg.

Note to paragraph (i)(2):

For the identification of the hazardous materials being transported refer to part 172 of this subchapter.

(3) If a portable tank is designed and approved for open seas operations, such as offshore oil exploration, in accordance with the IMDG Code, the words “OFFSHORE PORTABLE TANK” must be marked on the identification plate.

(j) Initial inspection and test. The initial inspection and test of a portable tank must include the following:

(1) A check of the design characteristics.

(2) An internal and external examination of the portable tank and its fittings, taking into account the hazardous materials to be transported. For UN portable tanks used for refrigerated liquefied gases, a pressure test using an inert gas may be conducted instead of a hydrostatic test. An internal inspection is not required for a portable tank used for the dedicated transportation of refrigerated liquefied gases that are not filled with an inspection opening.

(3) A pressure test as specified in paragraph (i) of this section.

(4) A leakage test.

(5) A test of the satisfactory operation of all service equipment including pressure relief devices must also be performed. When the shell and its fittings have been pressure-tested separately, they must be subjected to a leakage test after reassembly. All welds, subject to full stress level in the shell, must be inspected during the initial test by radiographic, ultrasonic, or another suitable non-destructive test method. This does not apply to the jacket.

(6) Effective January 1, 2008, each new UN portable tank design type meeting the definition of “container” in the Convention for Safe Containers (CSC) (see 49 CFR 450.3(a)(2)) must be subjected to the dynamic longitudinal impact test prescribed in Part IV, Section 40 of the UN Manual of Tests and Criteria (see IBR, § 171.7 of this subchapter). A UN portable tank design type impact-tested prior to January 1, 2008, in accordance with the requirements of this section in effect on October 1, 2005, need not be retested. UN portable tanks used for the dedicated transportation of “Helium, refrigerated liquid,” UN1963, and “Hydrogen, refrigerated liquid,” UN1966, that are marked “NOT FOR RAIL TRANSPORT” in letters of a minimum height of 10 cm (4 inches) on at least two sides of the portable tank are excepted from the dynamic longitudinal impact test.

(7) The following tests must be completed on a portable tank or a series of portable tanks designed and constructed to a single design type that is also a CSC container without leakage or deformation that would render the portable tank unsafe for transportation and use:

(i) Longitudinal inertia. The portable tank loaded to its maximum gross weight must be positioned with its longitudinal axis vertical. It shall be held in this position for five minutes by support at the lower end of the base structure providing vertical and lateral restraint and by support at the upper end of the base structure providing lateral restraint only.

(ii) Lateral inertia. The portable tank loaded to its maximum gross weight must be positioned for five minutes with its transverse axis vertical. It shall be held in this position for five minutes by support at the lower side of the base structure providing vertical and lateral restraint and by support at the upper side of the base structure providing lateral restraint only.

[66 FR 33440, June 21, 2001, as amended at 67 FR 15744, Apr. 3, 2002; 68 FR 45041, July 31, 2003; 68 FR 57633, Oct. 6, 2003; 68 FR 75751, Dec. 31, 2003; 69 FR 76185, Dec. 20, 2004; 70 FR 34399, June 14, 2005; 71 FR 78634, Dec. 29, 2006; 72 FR 55696, Oct. 1, 2007; 73 FR 4719, Jan. 28, 2008; 78 FR 1096, Jan. 7, 2013]

§ 178.275 Specification for UN Portable Tanks intended for the transportation of liquid and solid hazardous materials.

(a) In addition to the requirements of § 178.274, this section sets forth definitions and requirements that apply to UN portable tanks intended for the transportation of liquid and solid hazardous materials.

(b) Definitions and requirements -

(1) Design pressure means the pressure to be used in calculations required by the recognized pressure vessel code. The design pressure must not be less than the highest of the following pressures:

(i) The maximum effective gauge pressure allowed in the shell during filling or discharge; or

(ii) The sum of -

(A) The absolute vapor pressure (in bar) of the hazardous material at 65 °C, minus 1 bar (149 °F, minus 100 kPa);

(B) The partial pressure (in bar) of air or other gases in the ullage space, resulting from their compression during filling without pressure relief by a maximum ullage temperature of 65 °C (149 °F) and a liquid expansion due to an increase in mean bulk temperature of 35 °C (95 °F); and

(C) A head pressure determined on the basis of the forces specified in § 178.274(c) of this subchapter, but not less than 0.35 bar (35 kPa).

(2) Maximum allowable working pressure (MAWP) means a pressure that must not be less than the highest of the following pressures measured at the top of the shell while in operating position:

(i) The maximum effective gauge pressure allowed in the shell during filling or discharge; or

(ii) The maximum effective gauge pressure to which the shell is designed which must be not less than the design pressure.

(c) Service equipment.

(1) In addition to the requirements specified in § 178.274, for service equipment, all openings in the shell, intended for filling or discharging the portable tank must be fitted with a manually operated stop-valve located as close to the shell as reasonably practicable. Other openings, except for openings leading to venting or pressure relief devices, must be equipped with either a stop-valve or another suitable means of closure located as close to the shell as reasonably practicable.

(2) All portable tanks must be fitted with a manhole or other inspection openings of a suitable size to allow for internal inspection and adequate access for maintenance and repair of the interior. Compartmented portable tanks must have a manhole or other inspection openings for each compartment.

(3) For insulated portable tanks, top fittings must be surrounded by a spill collection reservoir with suitable drains.

(4) Piping must be designed, constructed and installed to avoid the risk of damage due to thermal expansion and contraction, mechanical shock and vibration. All piping must be of a suitable metallic material. Welded pipe joints must be used wherever possible.

(d) Bottom openings.

(1) Certain hazardous materials may not be transported in portable tanks with bottom openings. When the applicable T code or portable tank special provision, as referenced for materials in the § 172.101 Table of this subchapter, specifies that bottom openings are prohibited, there must be no openings below the liquid level of the shell when it is filled to its maximum permissible filling limit. When an existing opening is closed, it must be accomplished by internally and externally welding one plate to the shell.

(2) Bottom discharge outlets for portable tanks carrying certain solid, crystallizable or highly viscous hazardous materials must be equipped with at least two serially fitted and mutually independent shut-off devices. Use of only two shut-off devices is only authorized when this paragraph is referenced in the applicable T Code indicated for each hazardous material in the § 172.101 Table of this subchapter. The design of the equipment must be to the satisfaction of the approval agency and must include:

(i) An external stop-valve fitted as close to the shell as reasonably practicable; and

(ii) A liquid tight closure at the end of the discharge pipe, which may be a bolted blank flange or a screw cap.

(3) Except as provided in paragraph (d)(2) of this section, every bottom discharge outlet must be equipped with three serially fitted and mutually independent shut-off devices. The design of the equipment must include:

(i) A self-closing internal stop-valve, which is a stop-valve within the shell or within a welded flange or its companion flange, such that:

(A) The control devices for the operation of the valve are designed to prevent any unintended opening through impact or other inadvertent act;

(B) The valve is operable from above or below;

(C) If possible, the setting of the valve (open or closed) must be capable of being verified from the ground;

(D) Except for portable tanks having a capacity less than 1,000 liters (264.2 gallons), it must be possible to close the valve from an accessible position on the portable tank that is remote from the valve itself within 30 seconds of actuation; and

(E) The valve must continue to be effective in the event of damage to the external device for controlling the operation of the valve;

(ii) An external stop-valve fitted as close to the shell as reasonably practicable;

(iii) A liquid tight closure at the end of the discharge pipe, which may be a bolted blank flange or a screw cap; and

(iv) For UN portable tanks, with bottom outlets, used for the transportation of liquid hazardous materials that are Class 3, PG I or II, or PG III with a flash point of less than 100 °F (38 °C); Division 5.1, PG I or II; or Division 6.1, PG I or II, the remote means of closure must be capable of thermal activation. The thermal means of activation must activate at a temperature of not more than 250 °F (121 °C).

(e) Pressure relief devices. All portable tanks must be fitted with at least one pressure relief device. All relief devices must be designed, constructed and marked in accordance with the requirements of this subchapter.

(f) Vacuum-relief devices.

(1) A shell which is to be equipped with a vacuum-relief device must be designed to withstand, without permanent deformation, an external pressure of not less than 0.21 bar (21.0 kPa). The vacuum-relief device must be set to relieve at a vacuum setting not greater than −0.21 bar (−21.0 kPa) unless the shell is designed for a higher external over pressure, in which case the vacuum-relief pressure of the device to be fitted must not be greater than the tank design vacuum pressure. A shell that is not fitted with a vacuum-relief device must be designed to withstand, without permanent deformation, an external pressure of not less than 0.4 bar (40.0 kPa).

(2) Vacuum-relief devices used on portable tanks intended for the transportation of hazardous materials meeting the criteria of Class 3, including elevated temperature hazardous materials transported at or above their flash point, must prevent the immediate passage of flame into the shell or the portable tank must have a shell capable of withstanding, without leakage, an internal explosion resulting from the passage of flame into the shell.

(g) Pressure relief devices.

(1) Each portable tank with a capacity not less than 1,900 liters (501.9 gallons) and every independent compartment of a portable tank with a similar capacity, must be provided with one or more pressure relief devices of the reclosing type. Such portable tanks may, in addition, have a frangible disc or fusible element in parallel with the reclosing devices, except when the applicable T code assigned to a hazardous material requires that the frangible disc precede the pressure relief device, according to paragraph (g)(3) of this section, or when no bottom openings are allowed. The pressure relief devices must have sufficient capacity to prevent rupture of the shell due to over pressurization or vacuum resulting from filling, discharging, heating of the contents or fire.

(2) Pressure relief devices must be designed to prevent the entry of foreign matter, the leakage of liquid and the development of any dangerous excess pressure.

(3) When required for certain hazardous materials by the applicable T code or portable tank special provision specified for a hazardous material in the § 172.101 Table of this subchapter, portable tanks must have a pressure relief device consistent with the requirements of this subchapter. Except for a portable tank in dedicated service that is fitted with an approved relief device constructed of materials compatible with the hazardous material, the relief device system must include a frangible disc preceding (such as, between the lading and the reclosing pressure relief device) a reclosing pressure relief device. A pressure gauge or suitable tell-tale indicator for the detection of disc rupture, pin-holing or leakage must be provided in the space between the frangible disc and the pressure relief device to allow the portable tank operator to check to determine if the disc is leak free. The frangible disc must rupture at a nominal pressure 10% above the start-to-discharge pressure of the reclosable pressure relief device.

(4) Every portable tank with a capacity less than 1,900 liters (501.9 gallons) must be fitted with a pressure relief device which, except as provided in paragraph (g)(3) of this section, may be a frangible disc when this disc is set to rupture at a nominal pressure equal to the test pressure at any temperature within the design temperature range.

(5) When the shell is fitted for pressure discharge, a suitable pressure relief device must provide the inlet line to the portable tank and set to operate at a pressure not higher than the MAWP of the shell, and a stop-valve must be fitted as close to the shell as practicable to minimize the potential for damage.

(6) Setting of pressure relief devices.

(i) Pressure relief devices must operate only in conditions of excessive rise in temperature. The shell must not be subject to undue fluctuations of pressure during normal conditions of transportation.

(ii) The required pressure relief device must be set to start to discharge at a nominal pressure of five-sixths of the test pressure for shells having a test pressure of not more than 4.5 bar (450 kPa) and 110% of two-thirds of the test pressure for shells having a test pressure of more than 4.5 bar (450 kPa). A self-closing relief device must close at a pressure not more than 10% below the pressure at which the discharge starts. The device must remain closed at all lower pressures. This requirement does not prevent the use of vacuum-relief or combination pressure relief and vacuum-relief devices.

(h) Fusible elements. Fusible elements must operate at a temperature between 110 °C (230 °F) and 149 °C (300.2 °F), provided that the pressure in the shell at the fusing temperature will not exceed the test pressure. They must be placed at the top of the shell with their inlets in the vapor space and in no case may they be shielded from external heat. Fusible elements must not be utilized on portable tanks with a test pressure which exceeds 2.65 bar (265.0 kPa); however, fusible elements are authorized on portable tanks for the transportation of certain organometallic materials in accordance with § 172.102, special provision TP36 of this subchapter. Fusible elements used on portable tanks intended for the transport of elevated temperature hazardous materials must be designed to operate at a temperature higher than the maximum temperature that will be experienced during transport and must be designed to the satisfaction of the approval agency.

(i) Capacity of pressure relief devices.

(1) The reclosing pressure relief device required by paragraph (g)(1) of this section must have a minimum cross sectional flow area equivalent to an orifice of 31.75 mm (1.3 inches) diameter. Vacuum-relief devices, when used, must have a cross sectional flow area not less than 284 mm2 (11.2 inches2).

(2) The combined delivery capacity of the pressure relief system (taking into account the reduction of the flow when the portable tank is fitted with frangible-discs preceding spring-loaded pressure-relief devices or when the spring-loaded pressure-relief devices are provided with a device to prevent the passage of the flame), in condition of complete fire engulfment of the portable tank must be sufficient to limit the pressure in the shell to 20% above the start to discharge pressure limiting device (pressure relief device). The total required capacity of the relief devices may be determined using the formula in paragraph (i)(2)(i)(A) of this section or the table in paragraph (i)(2)(iii) of this section.

(i)

(A) To determine the total required capacity of the relief devices, which must be regarded as being the sum of the individual capacities of all the contributing devices, the following formula must be used:

Where:

Q = minimum required rate of discharge in cubic meters of air per second (m3/s) at conditions: 1 bar and 0 °C (273 °K);

F = for uninsulated shells: 1; for insulated shells: U(649−t)/13.6 but in no case is less than 0.25

Where:

U = thermal conductance of the insulation, in kW m−2K−1, at 38 °C (100 °F); and t = actual temperature of the hazardous material during filling (in °C) or when this temperature is unknown, let t = 15 °C (59 °F). The value of F given in this paragraph (i)(2)(i)(A) for insulated shells may only be used if the insulation is in conformance with paragraph (i)(2)(iv) of this section;

A = total external surface area of shell in square meters;

Z = the gas compressibility factor in the accumulating condition (when this factor is unknown, let Z equal 1.0);

T = absolute temperature in Kelvin (°C + 273) above the pressure relief devices in the accumulating condition;

L = the latent heat of vaporization of the liquid, in kJ/kg, in the accumulating condition;

M = molecular weight of the hazardous material.

(B) The constant C, as shown in the formula in paragraph (i)(2)(i)(A) of this section, is derived from one of the following formulas as a function of the ratio k of specific heats:

Where:

cp is the specific heat at constant pressure; and

cv is the specific heat at constant volume.

(C) When k >1:

(D) When k = 1 or k is unknown, a value of 0.607 may be used for the constant C. C may also be taken from the following table:

C Constant Value Table

k C
1.00 0.607
1.02 0.611
1.04 0.615
1.06 0.620
1.08 0.624
1.10 0.628
1.12 0.633
1.14 0.637
1.16 0.641
1.18 0.645
1.20 0.649
1.22 0.652
1.24 0.656
1.26 0.660
1.28 0.664
1.30 0.667
1.32 0.671
1.34 0.674
1.36 0.678
1.38 0.681
1.40 0.685
1.42 0.688
1.44 0.691
1.46 0.695
1.48 0.698
1.50 0.701
1.52 0.704
1.54 0.707
1.56 0.710
1.58 0.713
1.60 0.716
1.62 0.719
1.64 0.722
1.66 0.725
1.68 0.728
1.70 0.731
2.00 0.770
2.20 0.793

(ii) As an alternative to the formula in paragraph (i)(2)(i)(A) of this section, relief devices for shells used for transporting liquids may be sized in accordance with the table in paragraph (i)(2)(iii) of this section. The table in paragraph (i)(2)(iii) of this section assumes an insulation value of F = 1 and must be adjusted accordingly when the shell is insulated. Other values used in determining the table in paragraph (i)(2)(iii) of this section are: L = 334.94 kJ/kg; M = 86.7; T = 394 °K; Z = 1; and C = 0.607.

(iii) Minimum emergency vent capacity, Q, in cubic meters of air per second at 1 bar and 0 °C (273 °K) shown in the following table:

Minimum Emergency Vent Capacity

[Q Values]

A
Exposed area (square meters)
Q
(Cubic meters of air per second)
A
Exposed area (square meters)
Q
(Cubic meters of air per second)
2 0.230 37.5 2.539
3 0.320 40 2.677
4 0.405 42.5 2.814
5 0.487 45 2.949
6 0.565 47.5 3.082
7 0.641 50 3.215
8 0.715 52.5 3.346
9 0.788 55 3.476
10 0.859 57.5 3.605
12 0.998 60 3.733
14 1.132 62.5 3.860
16 1.263 65 3.987
18 1.391 67.5 4.112
20 1.517 70 4.236
22.5 1.670 75 4.483
25 1.821 80 4.726
27.5 1.969 85 4.967
30 2.115 90 5.206
32.5 2.258 95 5.442
35 2.400 100 5.676

(iv) Insulation systems, used for the purpose of reducing venting capacity, must be specifically approved by the approval agency. In all cases, insulation systems approved for this purpose must -

(A) Remain effective at all temperatures up to 649 °C (1200 °F); and

(B) Be jacketed with a material having a melting point of 700 °C (1292 °F) or greater.

(j) Approval, inspection and testing. Approval procedures for UN portable tanks are specified in § 178.273. Inspection and testing requirements are specified in § 180.605 of this subchapter.

[66 FR 33445, June 21, 2001, as amended at 68 FR 32414, May 30, 2003; 69 FR 76185, Dec. 20, 2004; 73 FR 57006, Oct. 1, 2008; 76 FR 3388, Jan. 19, 2011]

§ 178.276 Requirements for the design, construction, inspection and testing of portable tanks intended for the transportation of non-refrigerated liquefied compressed gases.

(a) In addition to the requirements of § 178.274 applicable to UN portable tanks, the following requirements apply to UN portable tanks used for non-refrigerated liquefied compressed gases. In addition to the definitions in § 178.274, the following definitions apply:

(1) Design pressure means the pressure to be used in calculations required by the ASME Code, Section VIII (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter). The design pressure must be not less than the highest of the following pressures:

(i) The maximum effective gauge pressure allowed in the shell during filling or discharge; or

(ii) The sum of:

(A) The maximum effective gauge pressure to which the shell is designed as defined in this paragraph under “MAWP”; and

(B) A head pressure determined on the basis of the dynamic forces specified in paragraph (h) of this section, but not less than 0.35 bar (35 kPa).

(2) Design reference temperature means the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the contents is determined for the purpose of calculating the MAWP. The value for each portable tank type is as follows:

(i) Shell with a diameter of 1.5 meters (4.9 ft.) or less: 65 °C (149 °F); or

(ii) Shell with a diameter of more than 1.5 meters (4.9 ft.):

(A) Without insulation or sun shield: 60 °C (140 °F);

(B) With sun shield: 55 °C (131 °F); and

(C) With insulation: 50 °C (122 °F).

(3) Filling density means the average mass of liquefied compressed gas per liter of shell capacity (kg/l).

(4) Maximum allowable working pressure (MAWP) means a pressure that must be not less than the highest of the following pressures measured at the top of the shell while in operating position, but in no case less than 7 bar (700 kPa):

(i) The maximum effective gauge pressure allowed in the shell during filling or discharge; or

(ii) The maximum effective gauge pressure to which the shell is designed, which must be:

(A) Not less than the pressure specified for each liquefied compressed gas listed in the UN Portable Tank Table for Liquefied Compressed Gases in § 173.313; and

(B) Not less than the sum of:

(1) The absolute vapor pressure (in bar) of the liquefied compressed gas at the design reference temperature minus 1 bar; and

(2) The partial pressure (in bar) of air or other gases in the ullage space which is determined by the design reference temperature and the liquid phase expansion due to the increase of the mean bulk temperature of tr−tf (tf = filling temperature, usually 15 °C, tr = 50 °C maximum mean bulk temperature).

(b) General design and construction requirements.

(1) Shells must be of seamless or welded steel construction, or combination of both, and have a water capacity greater than 450 liters (118.9 gallons). Shells must be designed, constructed, certified and stamped in accordance with the ASME Code, Section VIII.

(2) Portable tanks must be postweld heat-treated and radiographed as prescribed in Section VIII of the ASME Code, except that each portable tank constructed in accordance with part UHT of the ASME Code must be postweld heat-treated. Where postweld heat treatment is required, the portable tank must be treated as a unit after completion of all the welds in and/or to the shell and heads. The method must be as prescribed in the ASME Code. Welded attachments to pads may be made after postweld heat treatment is made. A portable tank used for anhydrous ammonia must be postweld heat-treated. The postweld heat treatment must be as prescribed in the ASME Code, but in no event at less than 1050 °F tank metal temperature. Additionally, portable tanks constructed in accordance with part UHT of the ASME Code must conform to the following requirements:

(i) Welding procedure and welder performance tests must be made annually in accordance with Section IX of the ASME Code. In addition to the essential variables named therein, the following must be considered to be essential variables: number of passes, thickness of plate, heat input per pass, and manufacturer's identification of rod and flux. The number of passes, thickness of plate and heat input per pass may not vary more than 25 percent from the qualified procedure. Records of the qualification must be retained for at least 5 years by the portable tank manufacturer or his designated agent and, upon request, made available to a representative of the Department of Transportation or the owner of the tank.

(ii) Impact tests must be made on a lot basis. A lot is defined as 100 tons or less of the same heat and having a thickness variation no greater than plus or minus 25 percent. The minimum impact required for full-sized specimens shall be 20 foot-pounds (or 10 foot-pounds for half-sized specimens) at 0 °F (−17.8 °F) Charpy V-Notch in both the longitudinal and transverse direction. If the lot test does not pass this requirement, individual plates may be accepted if they individually meet this impact requirement.

(3) When the shells intended for the transportation of non-refrigerated liquefied compressed gases are equipped with thermal insulation, a device must be provided to prevent any dangerous pressure from developing in the insulating layer in the event of a leak, when the protective covering is closed it must be gas tight. The thermal insulation must not inhibit access to the fittings and discharge devices. In addition, the thermal insulation systems must satisfy the following requirements:

(i) consist of a shield covering not less than the upper third, but not more than the upper half of the surface of the shell, and separated from the shell by an air space of approximately 40 mm (1.7 inches) across; or

(ii) consist of a complete cladding of insulating materials. The insulation must be of adequate thickness and constructed to prevent the ingress of moisture and damage to the insulation. The insulation and cladding must have a thermal conductance of not more than 0.67 (W·m−2·K−1) under normal conditions of transportation.

(c) Service equipment.

(1) Each opening with a diameter of more than 1.5 mm (0.1 inch) in the shell of a portable tank, except openings for pressure-relief devices, inspection openings and closed bleed holes, must be fitted with at least three mutually independent shut-off devices in series: the first being an internal stop-valve, excess flow valve, integral excess flow valve, or excess flow feature (see § 178.337-1(g)), the second being an external stop-valve and the third being a blank flange, thread cap, plug or equivalent tight liquid closure device.

(2) When a portable tank is fitted with an excess flow valve, the excess flow valve must be so fitted that its seating is inside the shell or inside a welded flange or, when fitted externally, its mountings must be designed so that in the event of impact it maintains its effectiveness. The excess flow valves must be selected and fitted so as to close automatically when the rated flow, specified by the manufacturer, is reached. Connections and accessories leading to or from such a valve must have a capacity for a flow more than the excess flow valve's rated flow.

(3) For filling and discharge openings that are located below the liquid level, the first shut-off device must be an internal stop-valve and the second must be a stop-valve placed in an accessible position on each discharge and filling pipe.

(4) For filling and discharge openings located below the liquid level of portable tanks intended for the transportation of flammable and/or toxic liquefied compressed gases, the internal stop-valve must be a self-closing safety device that fully closes automatically during filling or discharge in the event of fire engulfment. The device shall fully close within 30 seconds of actuation and the thermal means of closure must actuate at a temperature of not more than 121 °C (250 °F). Except for portable tanks having a capacity less than 1,000 liters (264.2 gallons), this device must be operable by remote control.

(5) In addition to filling, discharge and gas pressure equalizing orifices, shells may have openings in which gauges, thermometers and manometers can be fitted. Connections for such instruments must be made by suitable welded nozzles or pockets and may not be connected by screwed connections through the shell.

(6) All portable tanks must be fitted with manholes or other inspection openings of suitable size to allow for internal inspection and adequate access for maintenance and repair of the interior.

(7) Inlets and discharge outlets on chlorine portable tanks. The inlet and discharge outlets on portable tanks used to transport chlorine must meet the requirements of § 178.337-1(c)(2) and must be fitted with an internal excess flow valve. In addition to the internal excess flow valve, the inlet and discharge outlets must be equipped with an external stop valve (angle valve). Excess flow valves must conform to the standards of The Chlorine Institute, Inc. (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter) as follows:

(i) A valve conforming to Drawing 101-7, dated July 1993, must be installed under each liquid angle valve.

(ii) A valve conforming to Drawing 106-6, dated July 1993, must be installed under each gas angle valve. For portable tanks used to transport non-refrigerated liquefied gases.

(8) External fittings must be grouped together as close as reasonably practicable. The following openings may be installed at locations other than on the top or end of the tank:

(i) The openings for liquid level gauging devices, pressure gauges, or for safety devices, may be installed separately at the other location or in the side of the shell;

(ii) One plugged opening of 2-inch National Pipe Thread or less provided for maintenance purposes may be located elsewhere;

(iii) An opening of 3-inch National Pipe Size or less may be provided at another location, when necessary, to facilitate installation of condensing coils.

(9) Filling and discharge connections are not required to be grouped and may be installed below the normal liquid level of the tank if:

(i) The portable tank is permanently mounted in a full framework for containerized transport;

(ii) For each portable tank design, a prototype portable tank, meets the requirements of parts 450 through 453 of this title for compliance with the requirements of Annex II of the International Convention for Safe Containers; and

(iii) Each filling and discharge outlet meets the requirements of paragraph (c)(4)<